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Full text of "Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society"



JOURNAL 



Of the 



Straits Branch 



of the 



Royal Asiatic Society 



For the Year 

1922. 



No. 85. Proceedings pp. i-xxxviii; Journal pp. 1-284, published 
April 28th, 1922. 



No. 86. Journal pp. 335-400, published November 1st 19'! 



988. 



SINGAPOKE : 
PRINTED AT THE METHODIST PUBLISHING HOUSE 
1922. 



llBRWV^ CONTRIBUTORS. 



Adams. T. S. A vocabulary of Pangan 97 

Andreini, E. V. A note ou the Tagals of Sarawak _ . . 216 

Baboxeau, N. B. A Murut vocabulary, wHh an introdue- 

tion by G. C. Woolley 343 

Buckxill, Sir Johx, m.a. Remarks upon certain Currency 
notes, Coins and Tokens emanating from Malaya 
during and after the War . . . . . . 124 

Burkill, I. H. Notes on Dipterocarps. No. 7. On the 

fruit and germination of Isoptera borneensis . . 281 

Notes on Dipterocarps. No. 8. On some large-fruited 
species and in particular upon the effects of the 
pressure of- the embryo against the interior of the 
fruit-wall . . . . 285 

The irregularity of a Spider's feeding . . . . . . 270 

Burkill, I. H. and F. W. Foxworthy. Notes on Diptero- 
carps. No. 6. On the genus Pachy no carpus . . 271 

Collexette, C. L. Notes on the enemies of butterflies . . 268 

Protective devices by Lycaenid butterflies against the 

attacks of lizards and birds . . . . . . . . 230 

Douglas, F. W. Points of the Compass in Brunei-Malay . . 216 

Through an unknown corner of Pahang with H. Clifford 

in 1897 135 

Fox worthy, F. W. ' See Burkill, I. FI. and F. W. Foxworthy. 

Galloway, David J. } m.d., f.r.c.p., a contribution to the Psv- 

chology of "Latah" .\ 14-0 

Hamilton', A, W. Burong olek-olek (jester bird) is the 

Brown Gannet . . . . . . . . . . 260 

Penang Malay .. .. .. .. .. .. 67 

Points of the Compass in Kedah . . .. .. .. 385 

Some rhyming sayings in Malay . . . . . . . . 393 

The old Kedah-Patani Trade-route 389 

Hoops, A. I,. "Berlrlrat," a Tnngganu custom .. .. 215 

Meteorite in Malacca Straits .. .. .. .. 215 

Laidlaw, F. F., m.a. (Cantab.) Some notes on Oriental 

Dragon flies ; the genns Macromia .. .. .. 218 

MacBkyan, C. T. Additions to a vocabularv of Brunei- 
Malay ' . . . . 376 



^ 6 W c ^ V~ 



Merrill, Elmer D. New or noteworthy Bornean plants, 

part I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 

New or noteworthy Bornean plants. Part II . . . . 312 

Moquette, J. P. The Grave-stone of Sultan Mansur Shah 

of Malacca (1458-1477 A.D.) 1 

Moulton, J. C. A new method of writing trinomials . . 208 

A Rail new to the Malay Peninsula . . . . . . 213 

A Tiger at Sea 214 

Hindu image from Sarawak . . . . . . . . 210 

The Malayan Badger 212 

The reported occurrence of RusselPs viper in Sumatra 

and # the Malay Peninsula . . . . . . . . 206 

See also Robinson, H. C. and J. C. Moulton. 

Overbeck, H. The Malay Pantun . . . . . . . . 4 

I^dley, H. N. New and rare Malayan plants, series xii . . 292 

Robinson, H. C. and J. C. Moulton. The bearded pig 

(Sus barbatus) in the Malay Peninsula . . . . 202 

van Ronkel, S., Dr. Ph. A Tamil-Malay Manuscript . . 29 

Willbourn, E. S. A general account of the Geology of the 
Malay Peninsula and the surrounding countries, in- 
cluding Burma, the Shan States, Yunnan, Indo- 
China, Siam, Sumatra, Java, Borneo and other 

Islands of the "Dutch East Indies . . . . . . 237 

Winstedt, R. 0., d. litt. (oxon.) A Malay Pantheisth 

charm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 

Hikayat Indra Bangsawan . . . . . . . . 58 

Hikayat Indraputra . . . . . . . . . . 46 

Hikayat Parang Puting ... . . . . . . . . 62 

Hikayat Putra Jaya Pati . . . . . . . . . . 54 

Hikayat Si-Miskin or Marakarma . . . . . . 41 

The Early History of Singapore, Johore and Malacca . . 257 

Two legends of Malacca . . . . . . . . . . 40 

Woolley, G. C, ste Baboneau, N. B. 

Zainul Abidin bin Ahmad. The Akuan or Spirit friends 378 

The Gravestone of Sultan Mansur Shah of Malacca . . 386 

The tiger-breed Families . . . . . . . . . . 36 



Firit part for the Year Price to non-members 

1922. $3.50 



STRAITS BRANCH 
ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY. 



No. 85 

•• 1 


JOURNAL 


MARCH 1922. , , , 



Sold at the Society's Rooms, Raffles Museum, Singapore, 

and by 

WHELDON & WESLEY, Ltd. 

28, Essex Street, strand, 

London. W. C 



PRINTED AT THE METHODIST PUBLISHING HOUSE, SINGAPORE. 



Contents. 



Council for 1922 

Proceedings of the Annual General Meeting 

Annual Report, 1921 

Receipts and Payments Account, 1921 

list of Mjembers for 1922 

Rules . . . . . . 

Exchange List and Donations, 1921 : . 



Page 
in 

iv 

vii 

xiii 

xiv 

YY1Y 

xxxiii 



The Grave-Stone of Sultan Mansur Shah of Malacca (1458- 
1477 A. D.), by J. P. Moquette (with 3 plates) . . . . 1 

The Malay Pantun, by H. Overbeck . . . . . . 4 

A Tamil Malay Manuscript, by Dr. Ph. 8. Van Ronkel . . 29 
The Tiger-breed* families, by Zainul Abidm bvn Ahmad < . 36 
Two Legends of Malacca,, by R. 0. Winstedt . . . . 40 

Hikayat Si-Miskin or Marakarma, by R. 0. Winstedt .. 41 

Hikayat Indraputra, by R. 0. Winstedt . . . . . . 46 

Hikayat Putra Jaya Patd, by R. 0. Winstedt . . . . 54 

IT ikayat Indra Bangsawan, by R. 0. Winstedt /. 58 

Hikayat Panang Pnting, by R. 0. Winstedt . . . . 62 

Pen&ng Malay, by A. W. Hamilton . . . . 67 

A Vocabulary of Pangan, by T. 8. Adams . . 97 

Remarks upon Certain Currency Notes, Coins and Tokens 
Emianating from Malaya During and After the war, by 
Sir John Bucknill (with 5 plates) . . . . ■ . . 124 

Through an unknown Corner of Pahang with H. Clifford in 
1897, by F. W. Douglas (with sketch map). . . . . 135 

A Contribution to the Psychology of "Latah," by David J. 
Galloway . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 

New or noteworthy Bornean Plants (Part I), by Elmer D. 
Merrill . . . . . . . . . . .'. 151 

r Fhe Bearded Pig (8us bwrbatus) in the Malay Peninsula, by 
H. C. Robinson and J. C. Moulton . . . . . . 202 

The reported occurrence of Russell's Viper in Sumatra and the 
Malay Peninsula, by J. C. Moulton . . . . . . 206 

A Xew Method of writing Trinomiialsi, by J. C. Moulton . . 208 
Hindu Image from Sarawak, by J. C. Moulton (with one 
plate) . . . . ..*... . . . . 210 

Notes : — 

The Malayan Badger, by J. C. Moulton . . . . 2*L2 

A Rail New to the Malay Peninsula,, by J. C. 
Moulton . . . . . . .-. . . 213 

A Tiger at Sea, by J. 0. Moulton . . . . . . 214 

Meteorite in Malacca Straits, by A. L. Hoops . . 215 

"Berkluat" — A Trengganu Custom, by A. L. Hoops . . 215 
Points of the Cbmpass in Brunei Malay, by F. W. 
Douglas . . . . . . . . . . 216 

A Note on the Tagals of Sarawak, by E. V. Andreini . . 216 
Somo Xotes on Oriental Dragonflies: the Genus Macromia, 
by F. F. Laidlaw , ','. . . . . . . 218 

Protective Devices by Lyeaenid ,Butterflies against the Attacks 
of Lizards and Birds, by C. L. Collenette . . . . 230 

Reosrut Books on Malay . . . . . . . . .232 



[No. 85] 



JOURNAL 

of the 

Straits Branch 

of the 

Royal Asiatic Society 



March 1922. 




SINGAPORE : 
Printed at the Methodist Publishing House, 

1922. 



THE 
STRAITS BRANCH 

OF THE 

ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY. 



Patron. 



H. E. Sir Laurence Guillemard, k.c.b., Governor of the 
Straits Settlements and High Commissioner for the Malay States. 

Council for 1922. 

The Hon. Mr. W. G. Maxwell, 

C - M ' G - President 

The Hon. Sir J. W. Murison and 

Mr. H. Eobinson. - Vice-Presidents for the S.S. 

Mr. H. C. Robinson and Mr. J. Vice-Presidents for the F. 
B. Scrivenor. - - - . M.S. 

Mr. J. L. Humphreys and Mr. A. Vice-Presidents for the Un- 
W. Hamilton. - federated States. 

Mr. C. Bazell. - - - - Hon. Treasurer. 

Major J. C. Moulton, o.b.e. - Hon. Secretary. 

Mr. J. Johnston. - Hon. Librarian. 

Mr. I. H. Burkill, Mr. A. G. Brat- 
ton, Mr. C. L. Collenette and Council. 
Mr. B. Nunn. - 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

Annual General Meeting. 



The Annual General Meeting was held at the Society's rooms 
5 p.m. on Friday, 10th February 1922. 

Present: Dr. R. 0. Winstedt (Vice-President for Singa- 
pore) in the chair and 26 other members. 

1. The Minutes of the Annual General Meeting of 11th 
February 1921 were confirmed. 

2. The Minutes of the General Meeting held 1st July 1921 
were read and confirmed. 

3. The Annual Report and Statement of Payments and Re- 
ceipts were adopted on the motion of Mr. H. C. Robinson, seconded 
by Mr. C. L. Collenette. 

4. The Chairman proposed for confirmation, and Mr. Bur- 
kill seconded, that Rule 1 be rescinded and the following sub- 
stituted : — 

" The name of the Society shall be ' The Malayan 
Branch, Royal Asiatic Society \" 

This was confirmed unanimously; the change in 
name to take effect from 1st January 1923. 

5. The Chaliirman proposed for confirmation, and Major Moul- 
ton seconded, that Rule 8 be amended as to the first four lines by 
the substitution of the following words : — 

" The Officers of the Society shall be :— 

"A President, 

" Vice-Presidents not exceeding six, ordinarily 
two each from (i) the Straits Settlements, (ii) the 
F. M. S"., and (iii) the Unfederated or other Pro- 
tected States, although this allocation shall in no way 
be binding on the electors." 

The Resolution was confirmed with one dissentient. 



PROCEEDINGS. v 

G. II. H. the Sultan of Johore k.c.jM.g., k.b.e. was elected an 
Honorary Member. 

7. The election of Officers and Members of the Council for 
the current year resulted as follows : — 

President - The Hon. Mr. W. G. Maxwell, 

C.M.G. 

V ice'P residents for tlie S.S. - The Hon. Sir J. W. Murison and 

Mr. H. Eobinson. 

Vice-Presidents for the F M.S. Mr. H. C. Eobinson and Mr. J. 

B. Serivenor. 

Vice-Presidents for the U. M.S. Mr. J. L. Humphreys and Mr. 

A. W. Hamilton. 

Hon. Treasurer - - - Mr. C. Bazell. 

Hon. Secretary - Major J. C. Moulton, o.b.e. 

Hon. Librarian - - - Mr. J. Johnston. 

Council - - Mr. I. H. Burkill, Mr. A. G. Brat- 

ton, Mr. C. L. Collenette and 
Mr. B. Eimn. 

8. Azotes of thanks to Mr. See Tiomg Wall for auditing the 
Society's accounts, to Dr. Lim Boon Keng, o.b.e. for his services 
on the Council, and to the retiring Council, were passed. 

9. The Chairman then gave an interesting lecture on the 
Antiquities of Malaya, after which Mr. Eobinson proposed, and Mr. 
Amery seconded, a hearty vote of thanks to the lecturer, at the 
same time expressing a hope that the paper would be printed in 
the Society's Journal. 

Annual Dinner. 

By kind permission of the Committee of the Singapore Club 
a dinner was held at that Club on Friday 10th February 1922 at 
8.15 p.m. 

H. E. the Governor, as Patron of the Society, accompanied by 
Mr. E. B. Osborne, Private Secretary, and Mr. Foulger A.D.C. 
was present as the guest of the evening. Sir. J. W. Murison, the 
retiring President, took the chair. Covers were laid for 35. Be- 
sides those mentioned, the following Members were present: — 
Messrs. C. L. Collenette, H. C. Eobinson, W. J. Culleu, Seah Liang 
Seah, Seah Eng Tong, J. O'May, A. F. Eichards, I. H. Burkill, 

A. Cavendish, W. Lowther Kemp, Drs. A. L. Hoops, F. W. Fox- 
worthv and E. 0. Winstedt, Messrs. H. Eobinson, E. T. Williams, 

B. Xumi, C. E. Wurtzburg, J. I. Miller, D. Santry, C. Bazell, 
W. P. Plnmjmer, J. E. Lynch, A. J. Amery, F. G. Bourne, L. J. 
Hayes, H. D. Mundell, A. G. Bratton, J. C. Moulton and three 
guests. 



V i PROCEEDINGS. 

After the usual loyal toast the Chairman proposed the health 
of H. E. the Governor, who responded in a happy speach empha- 
sizing the importance of the occasion dne to the change in the 
Society's name inaugurated that very day. H. E. referred in 
eulogistic terms to the valuable work done for the Society by the 
two Vice-Presidents Dr. Winstedt and Mr. Eobinson. In conclu- 
sion lie gave a two-fold toast: " to the Straits Branch, Eoyal Asiatic 
Society, Vale; to the Malayan Branch, Koyal Asiatic Society, Ave" 
and to the latter he added "Floreat, floreoU." 

Dr. Winstedt and Mr. Eobinson replied on behalf of the 
Society. 

The Company then adjourned to the billiard and card rooms 
where the remainder of the evening passed pleasantly. 



Annual Report 

of the 

Straits Branch, Royal Asiatic Society, 
for 1921. 



Membership. The membership of the Society at the close of the 
year stands at 463, as compared with a total of 
329 at the end of 19.20. There are 14 Honorary Members, 4 Cor- 
responding Members and 445 Ordinary Members. 

During the year 153 new members were elected by the Council. 
This is more than double the highest number of new members ever 
added in any one year (viz. 73 in 1910), and nearly treble the 
number who joined during 19i2'0. The Council regard this sign of 
wider interest in the Society as highly satisfactory and reflecting 
great credit on several energetic members who have been so success- 
ful in interesting many in the work of the Society. In addition to 
many new Members from the Straits Settlements and the F. M. S., 
several resident in British North Borneo, Sarawak and the Un- 
federated States (particularly Kedah) joined the Society. 

The names of the new members elected during the year are : — 

Honorary Members. 

Prof. Dr. Benward Brandstetter Prof. Dr. Snouck-Hurgronje 
The Sultan of Perak, k.c.m.g. Dr. Ph. Van Bonkel 

Ordinary Members. 

Dr. E. Allen, b.sc. Mr. A. G. Bratton 

Mr. W. H. E. Allen Mr. T. W. Browne 

Capt. E. V. Andreini Mr. H. M. Butterfield 

Mr. K. W. H. Austen Mr. F. M. Campbell 

Enku Abdul Aziz Mr. A. Cavendish 

Mr. H. Ball Mr. F. N. Chasen 

Mr. S. H. Ball Mr. E. Cheers 

Mr. J. E. Barnes Mr. H. T. Clark 

Mr. G. E. Baughan Mr. G. E. Clayton 

Mr. H. Beard Mrs. J. J. Connell 

Mr. W. N". C. Belgrave Mr. A. C. Coonev 

Mr. W. C. B. Bell Mr. N. Coulson ' 

Major E. V. Benjamin, m.c. Mr. J. C. Cowap 

Major K. Black ' Miss Craddell 

Eev. E. Blasdell Mr. Gordon Cranna 

Mr. E. Boyd Mr. H. B. Crocker 



ANNUAL EEPOET. 



Mr. CD. Adams 

Mr. L. A. Allen 

Mr. W. G. Cullen 

Mr. A. \\\ Davidson 

Mr. S. E. Dennys 

Mr. G. B. Dcshmukh 

Mr. P. L. Dickson 

Mr. F. W. Douglas 

Mr. A. M. Dryburgh 

Capt. B. J. Eaton, o.b.e. 

Mr. S. J. Edwards 

Dr. E. A. Elder 

Mr. H. A. Forrer 

Mr. E. G. Foulger 

Hon. Mr. F. \Y. Fraser 

Mr. L. B. Gibson 

Mr. W. Graham 

Mr. C. S. Griffiths 

Mr. W A. C. Haines 

Mr. G. L. Ham 

Mr. W. P. Handover 

Mr. J. A. H. Hardie 

Dr. H. H. Hart, b.a. 

Mr. B. X. Harvey 

Capt. K M. Hashim 

Mr. G. Hawkins 

Mr. L. J. Haves 

Mr. M. 17. Henderson 

Mr. G. Hewetson 

Mr. M. E. Holgate 

Mr. W. Holleman 

Dr. A. L. Hoops 

Dr. P. S. Hunter 

Mr. G . C. Irving 

Dato Ismail bin Bachok. D.P.MJ. 

Mr. F. B. Ivens 

Mr. F. E. Ivery 

Dr. F. V. Jacques 

Inche On bin Jaffar 

Ahmad Jalaludin 

Mr. L. A. Jermyn 

Mr. M. M. Joy ' 

Tengku Kassim bin Sultan 

A I )( In I I lam id Halinshah 

Mr. J. Kellie 

Mr. G. M. Kidd 

Mr. C S. Kinder 

Mr. T. K itching 

Mr. E. R. Koek 

Rev. .J. Eomanis Lee 

Mr. L. G. Lee 



Mr. N. L. Lindon 

Capt. C. L. Lowe 

Mr. J. E. Lynch 

Mr. I. C. Macmillaii 

Mr. E. E. Madge 

Mr. A. H. Malet 

Mr. H. L. Manchester 

Mr. N.' F. H. Mather 

Mr. C. i\ T . Maxwell 

Mr. D. McLeod 

Mr. J. I. Miller 

Commander J. F. Mills, R.N"., 

i.s.o. 
Mr. E. M. Moffat 
Said Mohamed bin Said Ali 

Idid 
Mr. S. Morgan 
Dr. J. E. Kay Mouat 
Mr. C. E. Xagalingam 
Mr. S. J. Nathan 
Major J. B. Xeilson, M.c. 
Mr. Ong Thye Ghee 
Mr. H. A. L. Orchard 
Mr. E. B. Osborne, m.c. 
Mr. E. Parnell 
Major H. S. Paterson 
Rev. W. Peach 
Mr. J. Pedlow 
Mr. H. M. Pendlebury 
Mr. W. P. Plummer 
Mr. P. 1SF. Ponnambalam 
Mr. C. W. H. Price 
Major Stamford Eaffles, o.b.e. 
Mri H. C. Eeis 
Mr. Marcus Eex 
Major F. W. Eichards, d.s.o., m.c. 
Mr. E. A. Eoss 
Mr. J. A. Y. Euston 
Major E. 0. Eutter 
Inche Mohamed Salleh bin Ali r 

S.M.J. 

Major W. E. Sangainetti, o.b.e., 

m.c. 
Mr. Y. Sauchelli 
Dr. E. Schider 
Mr. Duncombe Sear 
Mohamed Sheriff bin Osman 
Mr. P. Simpson 
Mr. H. S. Sircom 
Mr. W. F. de Y. Skrine 
Mr. W. Smart 



ANNUAL REPORT. ix 

Capt. S. E. Smith, o.b.e. Mr. H. P. Trewin 

Dr. G. T. Foster Smith Lit. Col. J. H. Tyte 

Mr. F. W. South Mr. W. D. Visser 

Mr. W. E. Speers Mr. F. W. Wade 

Mr. G. Beresford Stooke . Mr. B. S. Walton 

Mr. de la M. Stowell Major G. E H. Webb, o.b.e. 

Mr. W. H. Stubington Mr. E. S. Willbourne 

Mr. H. Sutcliffe Mr. E. T. Williams 

Mr. E. E. Taylor Mr. E, M. Williams 

Mr. A. K. a Beckett Terrell Dr. W. B. Wilson, m.o. 

Mr. L. A. Thomas Mr. C. E. Wurtzburg, m.c. 

The Eev. Dr. W. Shellabear was elected an Honorary Member 
of the Society. He joined the Society in 1894, served for several 
years on the Council and was President from 1914-15. 

The death of the Eev. E. G. Lawes, an Honorary Member 
since 1883 was reported during- the year. 

Among Ordinary Members the Society lost 15 by resignation 
during the year, of whom 6 were removed under Eule 6. 

Council. Mr. C. Boden Kloss, Vice-President for the F. M. S. 
went on leave in June; the Hon. Mr. W. G. Maxwell, 
c.m.g. was co-opted in his place. The Hon. Dr. Lim Boon Keng, 
o.b.e. and Mr. J. E. Xathan left the country during the latter half 
of the year; Messrs. B. Nunn and A. G. Bratton were co-opted to 
fill their places on the Council. 

General Meetings. The Annual General Meeting was held on 
the 11th February followed by a dinner at 
the Singapore Club attended by 30 Members and their friends. It 
is hoped to make this a regular feature of the Annual meeting. 

The General Meeting held on the 1st July, was noteworthy 
for two reasons : 

In the first place it marked a first attempt to revive the hold- 
ing of meetings for the purpose of reading and discussing papers. 
These meetings were held frequently in the early days of the 
Society: thus 9 general meetings were held and 22 papers read 
during the first year of the Society (1'878), followed by 6 meetings 
and 8 papers in 1879. But in 18 SI only one general meeting was 
held: the difficulty of forming a quorum proved too great. No 
mention is made in the Annual Eeports of the Society of any 
similar meetings having been held since, with the exception of one 
in June 1890. At this " revival " meeting in July, 1921, Mr. C. 
ST. Maxwell contributed a paper on Malayan Fishes, and Mr. Colle- 
nette one on the enemies of butterflies. Although the majority of 
the Members reside away from Singapore, it is hoped to arrange 
more meetings of this nature from time to time, as the experiment 
was evidently appreciated. 



x ANNUAL EEPORT. 

Change of Name. At the July meeting the important question 
of changing the Society's name was definitely 
put to the vote. In April a circular was sent to all members men- 
tioning the proposal to change the name of the Society from the 
" Straits Branch " to the " Malayan Branch of the Eoyal Asiatic 
Society. 7 ' Arguments for and against were briefly discussed; 
members were invited to reply by postcard stating whether they 
were in favour of the change or not. The result of this informal 
ballot was 159 members in favour and IT against the proposed 
change. 

At the July meeting the following proposal was carried un- 
animously: — 

" That Eule 1 be rescinded and the following substituted : — 

" The name of the Society shall be ' The Malayan Branch of 
the Eoyal Asiatic Society'.'-' 

, The Eesolution is subject to confirmation at the Annual Gene- 
ral Meeting to be held in February, 1922. 

Franking Privileges. The privilege of free postage for the 

Society's publications and correspon- 
dence addressed to places in the Straits Settlements has now been 
extended to the F. M. S., the four Unfederated States, and Brunei, 
whose Governments have kindly agreed to accept the Hon. Secre- 
tary's frank. This concession will result in a considerable reduc- 
tion of our postage expenses. . 

Journals. Three Journals were issued for the year. No. 83 
appeared in April, a general number of 173 pages., A 
Special number with only a limited number of copies was published 
in September. This is devoted to a very important Flora of 
Borneo by Dr. E. D. Merrill, Director of the Bureau of Science, 
Manila. It fills 63 T pages, took 3 years to print and cost the 
Society $2,870. The Council decided to issue this Journal only 
to such members who cared to ask for it, as it was thought that 
the contents being somewhat of a technical nature would not in- 
terest all members of the Society. 

No. <S4 was printed by the end of the year, but owing to an 
unfortunate delay over the illustrations, could not be issued until 
January, 1922. It is devoted to an article by Mr. C. N. Maxwell 
on Malayan Fishes, covering 102 pages, and illustrated by 72 plates. 
The total cost of this number is borne by the Department of Sup- 
plies for whom a special edition in an attractive cover has been 
printed off for sale. 

Thirteen contributed papers to the Journal against twelve in 
1920. The variety of subjects covered was well-maintained. 
Malayan folk-lore heads the list with eight papers from Dr. Win- 
etedt. There were five Zoological papers, including three on mam- 



ANNUAL EEPORT. xi 

mals, one on fishes, and one on insects, one important botanical 
paper by Dr. Merrill already mentioned, one Malay vocabulary, 
one on Malay Histor} r , and other papers on such diverse subjects as 
Contraband, Chinese Marriages, Malay Studies, the late Odoardo 
Beccari. Altogether 21 papers were published against 25 in 1920. 

It was pointed out in the last Report that the burden of 
authorship falls on too few. In the list of Members published in 
April an asterisk was placed against the name of all those who had 
ever contributed papers to the Society's Journal. 41 Members are 
thus distinguished. 

It is hoped that with the big influx of new Members — over 200 
in the last two years — the little band of authors will be considerably 
extended. The Journal now in preparation for issue early in 1922 
contains papers from Members who have not hitherto supported the 
Society in this way. But more are required. Particular attention 
may be drawn to the need of short articles or notes, which formed 
such an attractive feature of the earlier Journals. The Society's 
field of work is wide, covering as it does the whole of the Malay 
Peninsula and neighbouring Malayan countries. Their history is 
as yet untold, their ethnological, zoological and botanical secrets 
still unravelled. 

Finances. The Hon. Treasurer's statement of accounts for the 
year 1921 shows credit balances carried forward to 
the total of $1,632.96 against $1,609.27 at the end of 1920. A 
large reserve had necessarily been built up during the last three 
years to meet the heavy cost of printing Dr. Merrill's important 
paper. To pay for this the Fixed Deposit of $2,000 was with- 
drawn, leaving our two investments (Victory Loan $2,500 and 
S. S. War Loan $2,200) untouched. 

Thanks to the large addition of new Members the subscriptions 
for the year showed a considerable increase over those for the pre- 
vious year: $1,490* against $1,130 for 1920. Ten Members com- 
pounded for life membership. The total number of Life Mem- 
bers is now 45, to which must <be added 18 Honorary and 
Corresponding Members who pay no Subscriptions (although many 
of them have done so in the past before their election to the higher 
fonm of membership). The Council decided to set aside $2,500 
(invested in Victory Loan) as a " Life Members' Reserve." Re- 
ceipts from sales of Journals and Maps, amounted to $949 against 
$765 in 1920. 

The cost of printing remains abnormally high and no relief 
in this direction appears likely as yet, With larger membership 
however the Council hopes to maintain an annual output of 300 
pages without recommending an increase in subscriptions. 

* The Hon. Treasurer's statement shows $1,690 received during the 
year. This includes $110 for arrears of subscriptions (1919 and 1920),. 
and $90 for subscriptions paid in advance (1922-24). 



xii ANNUAL BEPORT. 

Library. 76 Institutions and Societies are now on the Society's 
Exchange List. From these and other sources 248 
publications were received during the year. 

The Council's policy of eliminating certain publications was 
continued. Further geological, museum and botanical journals 
were issued on indefinite loan respectively to the Government 
Geologist (Batu Gajah), the Director Baffles Museum (Singapore) 
and the Director of Gardens (Singapore). A considerable amount 
of shelf-room was saved thereby and facilitated the Hon. Libra- 
rian's work of re-arrangement. 



J. C. MOULTON, 

Hon. Secretary. 



















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List of Members for 1922. 

(3s on 1st January, 1922.) 

Life Members, f Contributors to the Society's Journal. 



Year of Election. Honorary Members. 

1890.1918. f Blagden, C. 0., School of Oriental Studies, Finsbury 
Circus-, London. (Hon. Secretary 1896). 
1921. Brandstetter, Peof. De. P., Luzem, Switzerland. 

1894.1906. Collyee, W. R, i.s.o., Hacford Hall, Reepham, 
Norfolk, England. (Council 1904: Vice-Presi- 
dent 1897-1900, 1902, 1904-1905). 

1903 J 917. f Galloway, De. D. J., British Dispensary, Singa- 
pore. (Vice-President 1906-1907: President 1908- 
1913). 

1895.1920. f Hanitsch, De. R, 99 Woodstock Road, Oxford, 

England. (Council 1897, 1907-1909: Hon. 

Treasurer 1898-1906, 1910-1911, 1914-1919: 

Hon. Secretary 1912-1913). 
A Founder f Hose, Rt. Pev. Bishop G. F. ? Wyke Vicarage, Nor- 
1878. mamdy near Guildford, England. (Vice-President 

1890-1892: President 1878-1880, 1894-1907). 
1921. Perak, H. H. The Sultan of, k.c.m.g., The Astana 

Negara, Bukit Clhamdan, Kuala Ivangsar, Perak. 

1878. f Perham, Yen. Archdeacon J., Chard, Somerset, 

1890.1912. f Ridley, H. N., c.m.g., m.a v f.r.s., 7 Cumberland" 

Road, Kew Gardens, Surrey, England. (Council 

1894-1895: Hon. Secretary 1890-1893, 1897- 

1911). 
1916. Sarawak, H. H. The Rajah of, Kuching, Sarawak. 

1885. Satow, Sie Ernest M.,, Beaumont, Ottery St., 

Mary, Devon, England. 

1894.1921. f Shellabear, Rev. W. G.,, d.d., c/o Board of Foreign 

Missions, 150', Fifth Avenue, New York City, IT. 

S. A. (Council 1896-1901, 1904: Vice-President 

191.3: President, 1914-1918). 
1921. Snottck-Hurgronje, Prof. Dr., Leiden, Holland. 

1921. Van Konkel, De. Professor of Malay, Zoeterwoud- 

sche Singel 44, Leiden, Holland. 

Corresponding Members. 
L920. f Annandale, X., d.sc, f.a.s.b., Indian Museum, 

Calcutta. 
1920. j-Laidlaw, F. F., m.a., f.z.s., Hyefield, Uffculme, 

Devonshire, England. 



LIST Of MEMBERS. xv 

1920. f Merrill, E. D., ph.d. Director, Bureau of Science. 

Manila. 

1920. f Moquette, J. P., Keboiisireh 36, AYeltevreden, Java. 

Ordinary Members. 

1903. Abbott, W. L., 400, South 15th' Street, Philadelphia, 

1918. Abdul-Ma jid bin Haji Zainuddin, Education 

Office, Taiping, Perak. 

1916. Abraham, IT. C, Survey Dept,, Kuala Lumpur. 

1909. Adam, Frank, The Straits Trading Co., Singapore. 

1907. Adams, Sir Arthur, k.b.e., Rockleigh, Swanage, 

Dorset. 

1921. Adams, C. D., Miri, Sarawak. 

1910. Adams, H. A., Kuching, Sarawak. 

1917. Adams, J. W., m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p., b.a., m.b., b.c, 

Medical and Health Office, Penang. 

1920. Adams, P. M., Lawas, Sarawak. 

1917. Adams, R. H., Topham, Jones and Railton, Ltd., 

Singapore. 
1909. Adams, T. S.. Batu Gajah, Perak. 

1919. * Adelborg, F., Jenderata Estate, Telok Anson, 

Perak. 

1913. Allen, Rev. George Dexter, M. A., Windermere, 

St. Thomas Walk, Singapore. 

1914. Allen, H. G. W., Boustead and Co., Singapore. 

1921. Allen, L. A., Acting Resident, Brunei. 

1917. Allen, P. T., b.a., Chinese Protectorate, Singapore. 

1921. 'Allen, Dr. R., b.sc, Sarawak Oilfields, Miri, 

Sarawak. 
1921. Allen, W. H. R., The Straits Trading Co., 

Singapore. 

1914. Amery, Rev. A. J., b.d., Outram Road School, 

Singapore. (Council 1921). 
1921. Andreini, Capt. E. V., Kapit, Sarawak. 

1908. Arthur, J. S. W., m.a., Assistant Adviser, Kedah. 
1921. Austen, Iv. W. H., c/o Police Office, Penang. 
1908. *Ayre, C. F. C, High School, Malacca. 

1921. Aziz, IT'nku Abdul, Johore Bahru, Johore. 

1915. Baddeley, F. M., b.a., LTnder Secretary, Singapore. 
1921. Badheka, Mohaul 0., 21 Malacca Street, 

Singapore. 
1919. * Bailey, A. E., Mountmilkn, Knowles Hill, Newton 

Abbott, England. 

1915. Bain, Norman K., b.a., Ipoh, Perak. 
1912. f Baker, A. C, m.c, b.a., Penang. 
1921. * Ball, II., Inspector of Schools, Malacca. 

1916. Banks, H. H., Sianitary Board, Seremban. 



xvi LIST OF AlEMBEKS. 

1899. * Banks, J. E., c/o The American Bridge Co., 

Cambridge, Pa., II. S. A. 
1920. Barbour, Dr. T., Museum of Comparative Zoology, 

Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A. 

1920. Bardham, Rai Sahib^ s.n., Medical School, Singa- 

pore. 

192L Barnes, J. R., Kucliing, Sarawak. 

1910. Bartley, W., m.b.e., b.a., c/o Secretariat, Singa- 

pore. 

1921. Batjghan, G. E., S.S. Police, Singapore. 

1914. Bazell, C, Vade and Co., Singapore. (Hon. Librar- 

ian 1916-20: Hon. Treasurer 1921— ). 
19o!). Bean, A. W., c/o Messrs Robinson and Co., Singa- 

pore. 
1921. Beard, H., The Asiatic Petroleum Co., Miri, 

Sarawak. 
•1921. Belgrave, W. X. C, Agric. Dept., Kuala Lumpur. 

1913. Bell, V. G., Kuala Lumpur. 

1921. Bell, W. C. B., Bell and Co., Singapore. 

1921. Benjamin, Major E. V., M.a, Asiatic Petroleum 

Co., Miri, Sarawak. 
1910. * Berkeley, H., E. M. S. Civil Service, Grik, Upper 

Perak. 
1912. Bicknell, J. W., U. S. Rubber Plantations, Inc., 

1790 Broadway, Xew York, U. S. A. 
1885. Bicknell, W. A. 3 Alexandra Terrace, Exmouth, 

Devon. 
1908. Bishop, Major C. F., R. A. 

1921. Black, Major K., Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singa- 

pore. 
188-4. f Bland, R. K, c.m.g., c/o Messrs H. S. King and 

Co., 9 Pall Mall, London, S. W. England, (Coun- 
cil, 1898-1900: Vice-President, 1907-1909). 
1921. Blasdell, Rev. R,, Angio-Chinese School, Ipoh, 

Perak. 
1910. Boult, F. F., Limbang, Sarawak. 

1919. * Bourne, E. G., D. P. P/s Office, Singapore. 

1921. Boyd, R., Labour Office, Penang. 

1918. Boyd, W. R,, Bentong, Pahang. 

1915. Boyd-Walker, J. W., Barker and Co., Singapore. 

191:5. f Bradell, R. St. J., Bradell Bros., Singapore. 

1918. Bradney, G. P., Audit Office, Kuala Lumpur. 

1921. Bratton, A. G., Messrs Guthrie and Co., Singapore. 

(Council 1921—). 
1897. Brockman, Sir Edward L., k.c.m.g., 88 Cannon 

Street, London, E. C. 4. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. xyii 

1909. f Bbooks, C. J., Lebong Tandai, Post Ketaun, 

Benkoelen, Sumatra. 

1909. Brown, Mr. Justice A. V., Johore Baihru, Johore. 

1915. Brown, C. C, b.a., c/o Crown Agents, London. 
1921. Browne, T. W., Kuala Pilah Estate, Negri Sem- 

bilan. 
191.3. * Bryan, J. M., c/o Messrs The Borneo Co., Ltd., 

Fenchureh Street, London, E. C. 
1887. Bryant, A. T., Messrs Bryant and Eyde, 37 Marsh 

Lane, London, E. C, (Council 1907, 1910: 

Vice-President, 1912, 1914-1916). 

1912. f Burkill, I. H., Botanic Gardens, Singapore, 

(Council, 1913, 1921—: Hon. Secretary, 1914- 
1917). 
1921. Butterfield, H. M., AIot Star, Kedah. 

1913. f Caldecott, Andrew, b.a., Secretariat, Kuala 

Lumpur. 
1921. Campbell, F. M., Wardiebiirn Estate, Kuala 

Lumpur. 

1916. f Campbell, Professor J. Argyll, m.d., d.sc, c/o 

Messrs W. and F. Haldane, 4 North Charlotte 
St., Edinburgh, Scotland. (Council 1917, 1919). 

1918. Carpmael, H., Municipality, Singapore. 

1921. * Cavendish, A., Taiping, Perak. 

1910. Chancellor, Hon. Capt. A. E., Inspector-General 

of Police, Singapore. 
1906. Chapman, W. T., b.a., c/o Crown Agents, London. 

1921. Ci-iasen, F. N'., m.b.o.u,, Raffles Museum, Singapore. 

1921. CHeers, E., S. S. Police, Trenggariu. 

1913. * Choo Kia Peng, The Hon. Mr., Kuala Lumpur. 

1913. Chulan, Eaja, ibni Ex- Sultan Abdullah, Kuala 

Kangsar, Perak. 
1921. Clark, H. T., Inspector of Schools, Singapore. 

1921. Clark, Dp, W. E. Le Gros, P. M. 0., Kuching, 

Sarawak. 
1921. Clayton, G. E., Cadets' Bungalow, Penang. 

1911. Clayton, T. W., b.a., Adviser, Perlis. 

1914. * Clement, W. E. T., Mukah, Sarawak. 

1917. Clifford, G. F. W., Ayer Kuning South, Negri 

Sembilan. 

1920. * Collenette, C. L., c/o Barker and Co., Singapore. 
1897. * Conlay, W .L., Kuala Lumpur. 

1921. Connell, Mrs. J. J., c/o Connell Bros., Singapore. 
1899. Cook, Bev. J. A. B., Gilstead, Singapore. 
1910. Cook, W. Wallace, c/o The Straits Tradimg Co., 

Singapore. 
1921. Cooney, A. C, Govt, English School, Alor Star, 

Kedah. 



iii LIST OF MEMBERS. 

1920. Cottkrill, Walter S.. Miri. Sarawak. 
1021. Coelsox, X., Kedali. 

1921. CowaP, J. 0.. Govt. Analysts' Office, Penang. 
1921. Crandell, Miss. Anglo-Chinese Girls' School, 

Penang. 
1921. Granna, Gordon, Y. M. C. A., Singapore. 

1917. Crichton, P., District Officer, Kuala Kangsar. 

1921. Crocker, H. B., Kuching, Sarawak. 

1917. Cross, Rev. W., m.a., Oavanagh Road, Singapore. 

1910. Orouctier, F. B., m.b., cm., c/o Crown Agents, 

London. 

1917. f Cubttt, G. E. S., Conservator of forests, S. S. and 

F. M. S., Kuala Lumpur. 
1921. Cullen, W. G., c/o Barker and Co., Singapore. 

1910. * Daly, M. D., Kuala Lntmpur. 

1918, * David, P. A. F.. b.a., Singapore. 

1921. Davison, A. W., c/o Huttenibach Bros., Singapore. 

1921. Dexxys, S. E.. Alar Star, Tvedah. 

1907. Dext, F., m.sc. pit.d., F.i.c, Government Analyst, 

Singapore. 
1921. Deshmukh, G. B., Botanic Gardens, Singapore. 

1903. * Deshox, H. F., f.r.o.s., Southfield, Combe Down, 

Bath, England. 
1921. Dickinson, A. H., S. S. Police, Singapore. 

1897. Dickson, E. A., District Officer, Ivlang, Selangor. 

1921. ^Dickson, P. L,, St. Andrews' School, Singapore. 

1920. Dodds, H. B., m.d., General Hospital, Singapore. 

1921. f. Douglas, F. AY.. Commissioner of Lands. Kuala 

Lumpur. 

1905. Douglas, R. S., e.r.g.s., Baraim, Sarawak. 

L921. Dryjburgh, A. M., Jelebn, Negri Sembilan. 

1910. Dunman, W., Grove Estate, Grove Road, Singapore. 

1915. :;: f DussEK, 0. T.. c/o Crown Agents. London. 

1921. Eaton, B. J., o.b.e., Agrie. Dept., Kuala Lumprir. 

1921. Edwards, S. J., a. it., l.b.a., c/o Messrs Booty and 

Co., Singapore. 

1885. Egerton, Sir Walter, k.c.m.g., Fir Toll, May- 

field. England. 

1921. Elder, Dr. E. A., 4 Battery Roiad, Singapore. 

19LS. Elliot, F. M., o.b.e., Gosfield Vicarage, Halsteacl, 

Essex, England. 

1913. ErmeN, C, Kuching, Sarawak. 

L918. I EVANS, I. II. M, Tihe Museum, Taiping, Perak. 

Ii910. EiVANS, W., Dovercourt, 7 Upper Benlah Road, 

Upper Norwood, London, S. E. 19. 

1919. Fahs, C. II.. Secretary, Missionary Research 

Library, 25 Madison Avenue, New York City, 
IT. S. A. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. xix 

1910. Falshaav, P. S., M.R.C.V.S., Government Veterinary 

Department, Singapore. 
1909. Farrer, R. J., Municipal Offices. Singapore. 

1911. * Ferguson-Da vie, Rt. Rev. "Dr. C. J., Bishop of 

Singapore. (Conn oil. 1912-1913). 

1909. Perkier, J. C., c/o The Borneo Co., Soerabaya, 

Java. 

1917. Ftxlaysox, G. A., m.a., m.b., General Hospital, 

Singapore. 

1919. * Fixxie. W., The United Engineers, Ltd., Singapore. 
"910. Firmstone, H: W., Sentosa, Ripple, Hover. (Coun- 
cil 1918-9: Vice-President, 1920). 

1897. * Flower. Major S. S., o.e.e.. Zoological Gardens, 

Ghizeh. Egypt. 
1921. Forrer. H. A., F. M. S.. Civil Service, Kuala 

Lumpur. 
1921. Foflgfr. R. G.. S. S. Police. Singapore.' 

1918. Fox worthy. He. F. V r .. Kuala Lumpur. 

1921. * Fearer. Hox. Mr. F. W., Government Secretary, 

Jesselton, British North Borneo. 
190S. Freeman. D., c/o Messrs Freeman and Madge, 

Kuala Lumpur. 

1910. * Frost. Meadows, b.a., Batu Gajah, Perak. 

1912. Gallagher, W. J., m.a., I t . S. Rubber Plantations, 

Inc.. Medan, Sumatra. 

1917. Garxier. Rev. Keppel, Penang. 

1920. Geale. Dr. W. J.. Ulu Kelantan. 

1921. Gibsox, L. B.. Cadet. Penang. 

1903. Gibsox, W. S., b.a., Legal Adviser, Kuala Lumpur. 

1902. * f Gimlette. Dr. J. D., c/o Crown Agents, London. 

1916. Glexxte, Dr. J. A. R., Municipal Offices, Singapore. 

1918. Glotxe, G. B., Samanang, Java. 

1918. Goldie, R. M., L T nited Engineers, Ltd., Ipoh, Perak. 
1916. Goodmax, A. M., b.a., Chinese Secretariat, Kuala. 

Lumpur. 

1920. Gobdox-Hall, Capt. W. A., Kuala Lipis, Pahang. 
1909. Gouldixg. R. R., Survey Dept,, Kuala Lumpur. 

1919. Gow, G. Aubrey, Lebong Tandai, Benkoelen, 

Sumatra. 
1918. Graham, Major A. MlcD., c/o Crown Agents. 

1921. Graham, TV, Sarawak Oilfields, Miri, Sarawak. 
1921. Grifeeths, C. S., Kuching, Sarawak. 

1911. Griffiths. J., Survey Office, Singapore. 

1918. Griffix. X. A. M., c/o Crown Agents, London. 

1919. Grist. D. H., Dep of Agriculture, Kuala Lumpur. 
1916. Gupta, Shiva Prasad, Xandanshu Street, Benares 

City, United Provinces, India. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 

1921. Haines, AY. A. C., A. C. of Police, Alor Star. Kedah. 

1907. Hall. Hon. Mr. G. A., Resident Councillor,. 

Penang. ( Vi ce-Presi dent 1921). 

1914. Hall, J. D., b.a.. Colonial Secretariat, Singapore. 

3918. Hallaway, J. P., Gas Engineer, Singapore. 

1911. *Hallifax, F. J.. Singapore. 

1921. Ham, G. L., S. S. Civil Service. Singapore. 

101.). f Hamilton, A. AY., Alor Star. Kedah. 

1918. Hampshire, Hon. Me. A. K. E., Kuala Lumpur. 
1921. Handover, W. P., Sungei Xipah Estate, Port 

Dickson. 
1921. Harpie, J. A. H.. Kuching, Sarawak. 

1909. Harrington, A. G.. Municipal Offices, Singapore. 

19-21. Hart, Dr. H. H.. b.a., 3363, Washington Street, SAn 

Francisco, California. 
19.21. Harvey, E. X., S. S. Police, Singapore. 

1921. Hashim, Capt. X. M-. Penansr. 

1921. Hawkins, G., D. 0., Balik Pulau. Penang. 

1919. Hay, M. C. b.a., Asst. Adviser, Batu Pahat, Johore.. 
1921. Hayes, L. J., c/o Messrs Fraser and Co., Singapore.. 
1904. *Haynes, A. S., Kuala Lumnur. ( Couneil/l920). 
1921. Henderson, M. E., F. M. S. Museums, Kuala 

Lumpur. 
1909. Hennings, W.Vr., c/o Mansfield and Co., Singapore, 

1917. Hereforp, G. A., m.a., Johore Bahru. 

1878. Hill, E. C, The Manor House, Normandy neaf 

Guildford, England. 
1921. Holgate, M. E., Malav College, Malacca. 

1921. Holleman, W., Sawah Loento, Sumatra. 

1920. Holman-Hunt, C. B., e.a., c/o Crown Agents, 

London. 
1891. t Hoynck, van Papendrecht, P. C, c/o Heldring 

and Pierson, T'he Hague, Holliand. 
1909. Hubeack, T. E., Knala lipis, Pahang. 

1909. Hughes, J. W. W., c/o Crown Agents, London. 

1907. Humphreys, J. L., Trenggami. 

1921. Hoops, De. A. L., P. C. M. O., Singapore. 

1917. *Hose, Dr. Charles, e.e.g.s., Eedleaf, Riddledown 

Eoad, Pnrlev, Surrey. 
L897. Hose,' The Hon. Mr. E. S., The Residency, Screm- 

ban. 
1921. Hunter, Dr. P. S., c/o Crown Agents, London. 

1921. Irving, G. C. Ag. Resident, Jesselton, B. X. B. 

1921. Ismail bin Baciiok, Dato, d.p.m.j., Johore Bahru 

Johore. 
1021. Evens, F. B. ; Banniion and Bailer, Kuala Lumpur. 

1921. [VERY, F. K, Kedah. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. xxi 

1921. Jacques, Dr. F. V., Medical Officer, Seremban. 

1921. Jaefar, Ixche Oxx bix, Johore Bahru, Johore- 

1021. Jalaludix, Ahmed, Malay College, Kuala Kangsar. 

1918. James, D., Goebilt, Sarawak. 

1916. James, Hox. Mr. F. S., c.m.g., Singapore. 

1910. Jamiesox, Dr. T. Hill, 4 Bishop Street, Penang. 
1007. ■ Jaxiox, E. M., 5 Gracechurch St., London. E. C. 3. 
1918. Jaxsex, P., T. Pzn., Lebong Tandai, Post Ketaun, 

Benkoelen, Sumtara. 
j 918. Jeayoxs, F. C, Sione Estate, Batu Caves, Selangor. 

1921. Jermyx, L. A., Malay College, Kuala Kiangsar. 

1911. Jelf, A. S., Civil Service, Singapore.' 
19.10. Johxsox, B. G. H., Telok Anson, Perak. 

1911. Johxsox, H. S. B., c/o The Borneo Co., Ltd., 28 

Fen church Street, London. E. C. 

1920. Johxstox, J., Librarian, Raffles Library, Singa- 

pore. (Hon. Librarian 1921 — ).. 

1918. Joxes, Fleet Paymaster E. P., 20 Waterbell Street, 

Eye, Sussex, England. 
1910. Joxes, H. W., Kuala Kubu, Selangor. 

1913. Joxes. S. TV., District Officer, Kuala Lipis, Pabang. 

191 9. * Jordax, A. B., Chinese Protectorate, Seremban. 

1921. Joy, M. M., The Asiatic Petroleum Co., Miri, 

Sarawak. 
1916. Kamaralzamax, Raja, bix Raja Maxsur, Tapah, 

Perak. 
1921. Kassim, Tuxkx, bix Sultax Abdul Hamid 

Halimshah, Supdt. of Monopolies and Customs^ 

Alor Star, Kedah. 
1916. Kellagher, G. B., 50 Greenvale Road, Eltham, 

London, S. E. 9. 
1909. Kemp, Hox. Mr. W. Lowther, c/o Messrs F. W. 

Barker and Co., Singapore. 
1913. Kempe, J. E., c/o Crown Agents, London. 

1920. Kerr, Dr. A. F. G., Govt. Botanist, Bangkok, 

Siani. 

1921. Kixder, C. S., S.'S. Police, Singapore. 

1920. Kixg, E. M., Juru Estates, Ltd., Province Wellesley. 
1916. Kixsey', W. E., Forest House, Seremban. 

1921. Kitchixg, T., District Surveyor, Kuala Kangsar. 
1900. Kloss, C. Bodex, The Museum, Kuala Lumpur, 

(Council, 1901-1908: Vice-President, 1920-21). 
1915. Kxight, Yalextixe, Raffles Museum, Singapore. 

(Hon. Treasurer 1920). 
1920. Koek, E. R., 29 Malacca Street, Singapore. 

1920. Kortright, F. H., Bau, Sarawak. 



xx ii LIST OF MEMBERS. 

1914. Lambourne, J., Castleton Estate, Telok Anson, 

Perak. 

1920. Law, Capt. H. E. S., c/o The Asiatic Petroleum 

Co.. Ltd., Singapore. 
19 OH f Lawrence, A. E., Knelling, Sarawak. 

19-21. Lee. J. Romanes-. St. John's Hall, Hongkong. 

1921. Lee, L. G., Labu Estate. British North Borneo. 

1913. Leicester, Dr. W. S., Kuantan. Pahaus:. 

1917. Lemrerger. Y. V., e/o The United Engineers, Ltd., 

Singapore. 
1894. * Lemon, Hox. Mr. A. H., c/o Crown Agents, London. 

(Vice-President, 1916-18). 

1920. Lexdrtck. J., Xorregate 34, Aarhns, Denmark. 
1890. Lewis, J. E. A., b.a.. Harada Mura, Kobe, Japan. 

1915. Lewtox-Braix, L., Director of Agriculture, Kuala 

Lumpur. 

1897. Lim Boox Kexg. Dr. o.r.e., m.d., c/o The Dispen- 

sary, Singapore. ('Council. 1921). 

1915. Lim Cheng Law, Millview, Penan £. 

1921. Lixdox, N. L., S. S. Police. Singapore. 

1918, Loh Kong Tmm, Septan g- Tan ah Merah Estate, Se- 

paag, Selangor. 

1914. Lorxte, J., Land Office. Sin2"anore. 

1909. Low, H. A., c/o Messrs Adamson, Giltillan and Co., 

Singapore. 
1921. Lowe, Capt. C. P.. Kuching, Sarawak. 

1918. Lucy, G. H. E., m.r.c s., c/o Crown Agents, London. 

1921. Lynch, J. R, c/o E. M. S. Railways, Singapore. 

1907. Lyons, Rev. E. S.. c/o Methodist Publishing House, 

Manila, P. I. 

1918. MACALISTER, G. H., M.A., EX!!., M.D., D.P.H., 

m.r.c.s., Medical School, Singapore. 
1920. MacBryan, G. T. M., Silbu, Sarawak. 

1910. * f MacEadyen, Eric, c/o Sports Club, London. 

1920. MacKie, Yn.iAx, Kuala Lumpur. 
1 910. MacLean, L., Singapore. 

1921. MacMillan, I. C, A. S. P., Penang. 
1921. Madge, E. E., Juasseh Estate, Kuala Pilah. 
1918. Madge, Raymond, Kuala Lumpur. 

1920. Maiimud, Raja, bin Raja Ali, Agricultural Dept., 

Kuala Lumpur. 

19D I. Mahomed, Hox. Dato, bin Mahbob, Johore Bahru, 

Johore. 

1903. Makepeace, W., c/o Singapore Free Press, Singa- 

pore. (Council, 1914, 1916, 1920: Hon. Librarian, 
1909-1912: Vice-President, 1917: Hon. Secretary, 
1918-1919). 



LIST OF MEMBERS. xx iji 

1908. Main, T. W., Cheng Estate, Malacca. 
1921. Malet, A. H., Rengam, Johore. 

1921. Manchester, H. L., Municipality, Singapore. 

1916. Manx, W. E., Chinese English School, Samarang, 

Java. 

1907. * Marriner, J. T., Kuan tan, Pahanig. 

1902. f Marriott, The Hon. Mr H., b.a„ General Adviser, 

Johore. (Council, 1907-1908, 1910-1913, 1915- 
1918; Vice-President, 1919). 

1909. Marsh, F. E., Municipal Offices, Singapore. 

1920. Marsh, W., Municipality, Singapore. 

1909. Marshall, Harold, B.,' 8 Medina Villas, Hove, 

Sussex. 

1918. Martin, T. A., Nbrth Lansdale, B. C, Canada. 

1921. Martjzon and Co., Ltd., Tokvo, Japan. 
1921. Mather,, X. F. H., The Fort,' Kliaing. 
1921. f Maxwell, C. X., District Officer, Klang. 

1908. f Maxwell, Hox. Mr. W. C, c.m.g., Kuala Lumpur. 

(Council, 1905, 1915: Vice-President, 1911-1912, 
1916, 1918, 1920: President, 1919). 

1909. May, C. G., c/o Crown Agents, London. 

1909. McArthtjr, M. S. H., Alor Star, Kedah. 

1920. McCabl, Dr. J. B., m.c., m.b., ch.b., Kapoewas 

Estate, Pontianak, West Borneo. 
1897. McCauslaxd, C. F., Kuala Lumpur. 

1920. McTver, Miss Agxes, Kuala Lumpur. 

1921. McLeod, D., King Edward's School, Taip'ng, Per --.k. 

1914. f Mead, J. P., Forest Dept, Kuching, Sarawak. 

1920. Millar, J. W. P., Port Dickson. 

1921. Miller, J. L, Colonial Secretary's Office, Singapore. 

1910. Miller, T. C. B., Fairlie, Xassim Road, Singapore. 
1921. Mills, Commander, J. F., r.x., i.s.o., Port Swet- 

tenihiam. 
1920. Monk,, H. F., B.A., Mersing, Johore. 

1920. Morkill, A. G., c/o Crown Agents, London. 

1921. Moffat, R. M., Asiatic Petroleum, Miri, Sarawak. 
1921. Mohammed, Syed, bix Syed Ali Idid, Chief Magis- 
trate, Alor Star, Kedah. 

1921. Morgan, S., Miacfadyen, Wilde and Co., Singapore. 

1909. * f Moultox, Major J. C, o.b.e., m.a., b.sc, Director, 

Raffles Museum and Library, Singapore, (Council 
. 1916-1919: Hon. Secretary 1920,—). 
1921. MouAT, Dr. J. R. Kay, King Edward VTI Medical 

College, Singapore . 
1920. Mowbray, G. A., de Cn.ede, Asst. District Officer, 

Kuala Kangsar. 

1915. * Mundell, H. D., c/o Messrs Sisson and Delay, 

Singapore. 



XXIV 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



1920. MuRiSOisr, Hox. Sib J. W., Singapore. (President, 

1920-21). 
1913. Murray, Eev. W., m.a., Gilstead Botad, Singapore. 

1921. Xagalixgam, C. K., Anglo-Chinese School, Port 

Swettenham. 
1917. Xagle, Eev. J. S., m.a., Singapore. 

1900. f Xatiiax, J. E., b.a., c/o Crown Agents, London. 

1921. Nathan, S. J., Sarawak Oilfields, Miri, Sarawak. 

1921. Xeilsox, Major J. B., m.c, Education Dept.. Alor 

Star, Kedah. 
1920. Xeubroxxer, A. AY., 1 Killiney Eoad, Singapore. 

1920. Xeubroxxer, C. A., Singapore. 

1910. Xiven, W. Gk, )ll, Derby Orescent, Kelvinside, 

Glasgow, Great Britain. 
1900. Xormax, Henry, Alor Star, Kedah. 

1920. Xorris, F. de la Mabe, b.sc, f'.e.s., Kuala Lumpur. 

1906. Xuxx, B., b.a., Ag. District Judlge, Singapore. 

1920. Xutt, W., o.b.e., c/o Straits Trading Co., Singapore. 

1911. O'May, J., c/o Messrs Barker and Co., Singapore. 

1916. Oxg BooX Tat, Messrs Ong Sam Leong and Co., 

Stamford Eoad, Singapore. 

1921. Oxg Thye Ghee, 39-2, Dickson Eoad, Singapore. 
1921. Orchabd, H. A. L., St. Andrews' School, Singapore. 
1921. Osborxe, E. B., m.c, Private Secretary, Govern- 
ment House, Singapore. 

1920. O'Sullivax, T. A., Education Dept., Kuala Lipis, 

Pahang. 

1920. Othmax, Megat, Secretary to Majlis ITgama Islam, 

Kota Baliru, Kelantan. 
1913. f Overbeck, H.,*c/o Behn, Meyer and Co., Samarang, 

Java. 

1919. Park, Mtjxgo, Vimy Estate, Kuang, Selangor. 

1921. Parxell, E., Kuching, Sarawak. 

1908. * f Parr, The Hox. Major 0. YY. C, o.b.e., Kesidency, 

Tai'ping, Perak. 
1921. Pedlow, J., Asst, Protector of Chinese, Penang. 

1921. * PAtersox, Major H. S., Civil Service, Trengganu. 

1921. Peach, Eev. Anglo-Chinese School, Penang. 

1917. Peaks, E., c/o F. W., Barker and Co., Singapore. 

Kota Bahru, Kekntan. 
1921.. Pexdlebury, H. M., The Museum, Kuala Lumpur. 

1911. f Pepys, W. E.. Secretariat. Kuala Lumpur. 

L920. Perkins, C. J., Survey Dept., Kuala Lumpur. 

'917. Perkins, D. Y., Messrs Drew and Xapier, Siuga- 

pore. 

1920. I'kskett, A. D., "Simla," Halland, Sussex, England. 
1920. Peters, E. V., Kuala Kemaman, Trengganu. 



LIST OF MEMBEKS. xxv 

1921. * Plummer, W. P., Messrs Derrick and Co., Singa- 

pore. 

1921. Poxxambala:\i, P. X., Messrs Coode, Mathews, 

Fitzmiaurice and Wilson, Johore Bahru, Johore. 

1910. Pratt, Capt. E., Kuala Lumpur. 

1921. Price, C. W. H., S. S. Police, Singapore. 

1906. Pykett, Rev. G. F., M. E. Mission, Penang. 

1921. Baffles, Major Stamford, o.b.e., Deputy Commis- 

sioner of Trade, Kuala Lumpur. 

1915. Raggi, J. G., Phkb Phla Jai Road, Bangkok, Siam. 

1917. Rattray, Dr. M., Europe Hotel, Singapore. 

1916. Raymax, L., c/o Fed. Secretariat, Kuala Kubu. 
1910. * Reid, Dr. Alfred, c/o Principal Med. Officer, Kuala 

Lumpur. 

1910. Reid, Alex, c/o Messrs McAlister and Co., Singa- 

pore. 
.1921. Reis, H. C, Asiatic Petroleum Co., Miri, Sarawak. 

1921. Rex, Marcus, Kuala Lumpur. 

1915. Richards, A. F., Colonial Secretary's Office, S'pore. 
19'21. Richards, Major F. W., d.s.o., m.c., Sarawak 

Oilfields, Miri, Sarawak. 

1911. Richards, R. M., The Caledonia, Estate, Province 

Wellesley. 

1918. Ritchie, C, The Sag^a Rubber Estates, Siliau, 

F. M. S. 

1912. Robertsox, J., c/o Messrs Lyall and Evatt, Singa- 

pore. 
1911. Robixsox, H., c/o Messrs Swan and Maclaren, 

Singapore. (Council 1916-1920). 
1901. f Robixsox, H. C, The Museum, Kuala Lumpur. 

(Vice-President, 1909, 1913: Council 1920). 

1916. Rogers, A., h.ai.i.c.e., Jasin, Malacca. 
1921. Ross, E. A., Labour Office, Penaiig. 

1896. Rostados, E., Lunas, South Kedah. (Council, 1901). 

1921. Rustox, J. A. Y., McNeill and Co., Samarang, Java. 

1921. Rutter, Major E. O., Wattisfield Croft, Suffolk, 

England. 

1921. Salleh, Ixche Mohamed, bix Ali, s.m.j., Post- 

master-General, Johore Bahru. 

1921. Saxguixetti, Major W. R., o.b.e., m.a., State 

Engineer, Alor Star, Kedah. 

1919. Saxtry, Dexis, Swan and Maclaren, Singapore. 

1920. Sathasivam, M., Public Works, Dept., Johore 

Bahru. 

1921. Sauchelli, V., Kent Estate, Batu Caves, Selangor. 
1896. Sauxders, The Hox. Mr. C. J., b.a., Official 

Assignee, Singapore. (Vice-President 1910-1911, 
1914-1915: President, 1916-1918), 



cv i LIST OF MEMBERS. 

1920. Scharff, Dr. J. AY., Health Office, Singapore. 

1921. Scjiidee. De. B., Asiatic Petroleum Co.. Miri, 

Sarawak. 
L920. * Scott. De. G. Waugh, Sungei Siput. Perak. 

1910. Scott, E., b.a., Malacca. 

100b'. t Scrivexoe, J. B., Govt. Geologist. Batu Gajah. 

Perak. 
L888. Shah Leaxg Shah, c/o Chop Chin Hin, Singapore. 

1921. Sear, Duxcombe, Barker and Co., Kuala Lumpur. 

1915. * See Tioxg AY ah, c/o Hongkong and Shanghai Bank 

Singapore. 
1918. Sexxett, C. AY. A., b.a.. Kuak Lumpur. 

1921. Sheriff, Mohamed, btx Osmax, Under Secretary. 

Alor Star, Kedah. 
1921. Sjmpsox, P., Presgrave and Mathews, Pen&ng. 

1909. Sims. AV. A., c/o Commercial Union Assurance Co.. 

Singapore. 

19P2. Smith, Harrison, AY., Papeete, Tahiti. 

1921. Sircom, H. S., c/o Crown Agents. 

1921. Skeixe, W. P. de V., Kuching, Sarawak. 

1921. Smart, W,, Sarawak Oilfields, Mini 5 Sarawak. 

1921. Smith, De. G. T. Foster. Asiatic Petroleum Co.. 

Miri, Sarawak. 

1921. Smith. Capt. S. P.. o.b.e.. P. AY. IX, Kuala Lum- 

pur. 

1920. Son Yiew Jin, L., Devonshire Eoad, Singapore. 
1911). Song Oxg Siaxg, Hox. Mr., m.a.. l.l.m.., c/o 

Messrs Aitken and Ong Siang, Singapore. 

1921. South. F. AV.. Dept, of Agriculture, Kuala Lum- 

pur. 
1918. Stanton, Dr. A. T., Kuala Lumpur. 

1910. Steedmax. P. S., Bahman Hydraulic Tin. Intan, 

Perak. 

1920. Stevens, P. G.. Bodvk and Davidson, Singapore. 

1910. Still. A. TV., c/o Straits Times, Singapore. (Coun- 

cil, 1914-1915). 
19 1 ;. * f Stirling, W. G.. Singapore. 

1921. Stooke, G. Beresford, Kuching. Sarawak. 

1921. Stowell. de la M., Mala}- College. Kualia Kangsar. 

1911. Stuart, E. A. G., Alor Star, Kedah. 

1921. Stubington, W. H., Survey Dept, Kuala Lipis r 

Pahang. 
19 1(i. f Sturrock, A. J., Kuala Kuhu. 

19 1?. Sumner, II. L.. c/o Crown Agents. London. 

1921. Sutcliffe, II.. B. G. A. Beseareh Laboratory, 

Pataling, Sekngor. 

1912. Swayne, J. C, Bintulu, .Sarawak. 

1918. SykeBj G. E., m.a., Chinese Protectorate, Singapore. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. xxvii 

1908. Tan Cheng Lock, 59, Heeren Street, Malacca. 
1913. Taylor, Lt. Clarence, J., Telok Maaiggis Estate, 

Sepang, Selangor. 
1921. Taylor, E. E., Estates Dept., Singapore Harbour 

Board, Singapore. 
191?. Tennent, M. B., Ghiengmai, Siam. 

1921. Terrell, A. K. a Beckett, Presgrave and Mathews, 

Penang. 
1921. Thomas, L. A., A. S. of Police, Singapore. 

1920. Thomson, H. W., b.a., British Adviser, Kelantan. 

1921. Trewin, H. P., Govt. Printing Office, Singapore. 
1921. Tyte, Lt. Col. J. H., Inspector of Prisons*, Singa- 
pore. 

1918. L t da 7 Eaja Kuala Pilah, Negri Sembilan. 

1918. Valpy, G. C, b.a., Income Tax Office, Singapore. 
1887. f Van Beuningen, van Helsdingen, Dr. P., 135 

Bukit Timah Boad, Singapore. (Hon. Librarian, 
1911-1915, 1920). 

1921. Yisser, W. D., Xetherland Consular Service, Singa- 

pore. 

1921. Wade, F. W., Architect, P. W. D., Alor Star, Kedah. 

1921. Walton, B. S., Govt. Monopolies, Penang. 

1909. Ward, A. B., Kuching, Sarawak. 

1920. Warner, W. H. Lee, Singapore. 

1917. Watson, J., Education Office, Penang. 

1916. Watson, J. G., Forest Dept., Johore Bahru, Johore. 

1916. Watson, Dr-. Malcolm, Klang, Selangor. 

1921. Webb, Major G. E. H., o.b.e., E. E. Telegraph 

Co., Singapore. 
1920. Weisberg, H., District Officer, Jelebu, N. S. 

1920. Weller, A. J., b.d., Chief Inspector of Schools, S. S., 

and F. M. S., Kuala Lumpur. 

1910. Whitehead, C. B., Police Office, Bui tcrworth, Pro- 

vince Wellesley. 

1920. f Wilkinson, E. J., c.m.g., c/o Messrs Giraud and 

Co., Smyrna, Asia Minor. 

1921. Willbourne, E. S., Asst. Geologist, Batu Gajah. 

Perak. 

1921. Williams, E. T., Colonial Secretary's Office, Singa- 

pore. 

1921. Williams, E. M., Paterson Simons & Co., Singapore. 

1910. Williams, S. G., Municipal Offices, Singapore. 

1919. Wilson, F. K., Segamat, Johore. 

1921. Wilson, Dr. W. B., m.c, 1 Battery Eoad, Singapore. 

1910. * Winkelmann, H., Malacca Street, Singapore. 

190-1. f Winstedt, E. O., m.a., d.litt., Singapore. 

(Vice-President, 1914-1915, 1920-21). 

1918. Wolde, B., Sonrme Eubber Co., Ltd., South Kedah. 



viii LIST OF MEMBERS. 

1910. Wolfeksta-n Hox. Mr. L. E. P., m.a., Resident 

Councillor, Malacca. 
11)02. Wolff, E. C H., b.a.. Director of Education. 

Singapore. 
1908. * Wood, E. G., c/o Henry S. King and Co., London. 

L913. Wood, W. L., The Ced<ars, Balsham, Cambridge, 

England. 
t920. Woolley, Gr. C, Saudakan, British North Borneo. 

1911. Woesley-Tayloe, F. E., Ya.de and Co., Singapore. 

1915. * Worthixgtox, A. F., Taiping Perak. 

1921. Wurtzburg, 0. E., 5*2 Grange Road, Singapore. 

1914. Wyley, A. J., Lebong Tandai, Benkoelen, Sumatra. 

1917. * Yates, Ma joe AY. G., West Kent Regiment, Cox 

and Co., 16 Charing Cross, London. 
1920. Yewdall, Capt. J. C, Sitiawau, Lower Perak. 

1916. Young, E. Stuart, Kapoewas Estate, Pbntianak, 

West Borneo. 
1904. * Young, H. S., Rosemount, Tain, Rosshire, Scotland. 



Members are particularly requested to inform the Hon. Secre- 
tary of any changes in their description or address. 



RULES 

of 

The Straits Branch 

of the 

Royal Asiatic Society. 



I. Name and Objects. 

1. The name of the Society shall be ' The Malayan Branch 
of the Royal Asiatic Society/ 1 

2. The objects of the Society shall be: — 

(a) The increase and diffusion of knowledge concerning 
British Malaya and the neighbouring countries. 

(b) the publication of a Journal and of works and maps. 

(c) the formation of a library of books and maps. 

II. Membership. 

3. Members shall be of three kinds — Ordinary, Corresponding 
and Honorary. 

4-. Candidates for ordinary membership shall be proposed 
and seconded by members and elected by a majority of the Council. 

5. Ordinary members shall pay an annual subscription of $5 
payable in advance on the first of January in each year. Mem- 
bers shall be allowed to compound for life membership by a 
payment of $50. Societies and institutions are also eligible for 
ordinary membership. 

6. On or about the 30th of June in each year the Honorary 
Treasurer shall prepare and submit to the Council a list of those 
members whose subscriptions for the current year remain unpaid. 
Such members shall be deemed to be suspended from membership 
until their subscriptions have been paid, and in default of payment 
within two years shall be deemed to have resigned their member- 
ship. 

Xo member shall receive a copy of the Journal or other publi- 
cations of the Society until his subscription for the current year 
has been paid. 

7. Distinguished persons, and persons who have rendered 
notable service to the Society may on the recommendation of the 
Council be elected Honorary members by a majority at a General 
meeting. Corresponding Members may, on the recommendation 



1. With effect from 1st January 1923. 



xxx RULES. 

of two members of the Council, be elected by a majority of the 
Council, in recognition of services rendered to any scientific in- 
stitution in British Malaya. They shall pay no subscription: they 
shall enjoy the privileges of members except a vote at meetings, 
eligibility for office and free receipt of the Society's publications. 

III. Officers. 

8. The officers of the Society shall be: — 
A President. 

Alce-Presidents not exceeding six, ordinarily two each from 

(i) The Straits Settlements 

(ii) The F. M. S. and 

(iii) The Unfederated or other Protected States, although 
this allocation shall in no way be binding on the electors. 
An Honorary Treasurer. An Honorary Librarian. 

An Honorary Secretary. Four Councillors. 

These officers shall be elected for one year at the Annual 
General Meeting, and shall hold office until their successors are 
appointed. 

9. Vacancies in the above offices occurring during any year 
shall be filled by a vote of majority of the remaining officers. 

IV. Council 

10. The Council of the Society shall be composed of the 
officers for the current year, and its duties and powers shall be: — 

(a) to administer the affairs, property and trusts of the 
Society. 

(b) to elect Ordinary and Corresponding members and to re- 
commend candidates for election as Honorary Members of the 
Society- 

(c) to obtain and select material for publication in the 
Journal and to supervise the printing and distribution of the 
Journal. 

(d) to authorise the publication of works and maps at the 
expense of the Society otherwise than in the Journal. 

(e) to select and purchase books and maps for the Library. 

(f) to accept or decline donations on behalf of the Society. 

(g) to present to the Annual General Meeting at the expira- 
tion of their term of office a report of the proceedings and condition 

of the Society. 

(h) to make and enforce bye-laws and' regulations for the 
proper conduct of the affairs of the Society. Every such bye-law 
or regulation shall be published in the Journal. 

11. The Council shall meet for the transaction of business 
once a month and oftener if necessary. Three officers shall form 
a quorum of the Council. 



RULES. xxxi 

V. General Meetings. 

12. One week's notice of all meetings shall be given and of 
the subjects to be discussed or dealt with. 

13. At all meetings the Chairman shall in the case of an 
equality of votes be entitled to a casting vote in addition to his 
own. 

14. The Annual General Meeting shall be held in February in 
each year. Eleven members shall form a quorum. 

15. (i) At the Annual General Meeting the Council shall 
present a Report for the preceding year and the Treasurer shall 
render an account of the financial condition of the Society. Copies 
of such Report and account shall be circulated to members with 
the notice calling the meeting. 

(ii) Officers for the current year shall also be chosen. 

16. The Council may summon a General Meeting at any 
time, and shall so summon one upon receipt by the Secretary of a 
written requisition signed by live ordinary members desiring to 
submit any specified resolution to such meeting. Seven members 
shall form a quorum at any such meeting. 

17. Visitors may be admitted to any meeting at the discretion 
of the Chairman but shall not be allowed to address the meeting 
except by invitation of the Chairman. 

VI. Publications. 

18. The Journal shall be published at least twice in each 
year, and oftener if material is available. It shall contain material 
approved by the Council. In the first number in each year shall 
be published the Report of the Council, the account of the financial 
position of the Society, a list of members, the Rules, and a list 
of the publications received by the Society during the preceding- 
year. 

19. Every member shall be entitled to one copy of the 
Journal, which shall be sent free by post. Copies may be presented 
by the Council to other Societies or to distinguished individuals, 
and the remaining copies shall be sold at such prices as the Council 
shall from time to time direct. 

20. Twenty-five copies of each paper published in the Journal 
shall be placed at the disposal of the author. 

VII. Amendments to Rules. 

21. Amendments to these Rules must be proposed in writing 
to the Council, who shall submit them to a General Meeting duly 
summoned to consider them. If passed at such General Meeting 
they shall come into force upon confirmation at a subsequent 
General Meeting or at an Annual General Meeting. 



xxxii RULES. 

Affiliation Privileges of Members. 

Royal Asiatic Society. The Eoyal x^siatic Society has its 
headquarters at Grosvenor Street/ London, W., where it has a 
large library of books, and MSS. relating to oriental subjects, and 
holds monthly meetings from November to June (inclusive) at 
which papers on such subjects are read. 

?. By rule 105 of this Society all the Members of Branch 
Societies are entitled when on furlough or otherwise temporarily 
resident within Great Britain and Ireland, to the use of the Library 
as Non-Eesident Members and to attend the ordinary monthly 
meetings of this Society. This Society accordingly invites Mem- 
bers of Branch Societies temporarily resident in Great Britain or 
Ireland to avail themselves of these facilities and to make their 
home addresses known to the Secretary so that notice of the meet- 
ings may be sent to them. 

3. Under rule 84, the Council of the Society is able to accept 
contributions to its Journal from Members of Branch Societies,, 
and other persons interested in Oriental Besearch, of original 
articles, short notes, etc., on matters connected with the languages,, 
archaeology, history, beliefs and customs of any part of Asia. 

I. By virtue of the afore-mentioned rule 105 all Mlembers 
of Branch Societies are entitled to apply for election to the Society 
without the formality of nomination. They should apply in writ- 
ing to the Secretary, stating their names and addresses, and men- 
tioning the Branch Society to which they belong. Election is by 
the Society upon the recommendation of the Council. 

5. The subscription for Xon-Besident Members of the Society 
is 30/- per annum. They receive the quarterly journal post free. 

Asiatic Society of Bengal. Members of the Straits Branch 
of the Boyal Asiatic Society, by a letter received in 1903, are 
accorded the privilege of admission to the monthly meetings of 
the Asiatic Society of Bengal, which are held usually at the 
Society's house, 1 Park Street, Calcutta. 



Exchange List and Donations, 1921. 



The following is a list of the Scientific Institutions and 
Societies on our Exchange List, together with the Publication's 
received from them during the year 1921. 

A list of Donations to the Society's Library is also appended. 

AMERICA. 
Canada. 

Toronto. Royal Canadian Institute. 

United States of America. 

Baltimore. John Hopkins University, 

(i) Circular, New Series, 1918, Pts. 5-10. 

1919, Pts. 1-10. 

1920,, Pt. 1. 

(ii) American Journal of Philology, Vol. 39, 1918, 
Pts. 2-4, Vol. 40, 1919, Pts. 1-Jf. 

Berkeley. University of California, 

(i) Bulletin, Scripp's Institution of Biological Re- 
search, Xo. 9, 1919, No. 10, 1921. 

(ii) Publications in Zoology, Indices and Contents, 
Vols. 14, 17, 18, 1917-1919: Vol. 19, No. 6, 
1919, Vol. 20, No. 7, 1921, Vol. 23, 1921 — 
(Marine Decapod Crustacea of California). 

Cambridge. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard, Bulletin 
Vol. 64, 1920-21, Index: Vol. 64, Nos. 3-7, 1921, Vol, 65, 
Nos. 1-2, 1921. 

Chicago. Field Museum of Natural History, 

(i) Annual Reports, 1917, 1918, 1920. 
(ii) Report Series, Vol. 5, Pts. 3-4. 

Lincoln. University of Nebraska. 

New York. American Museum of Xatural History, 

(i) Bulletin, Vol. 39, 1918-19, Vol. 40, 1919, Vol. 

41, 1919. 
(ii) Novitates, No. 4, 1921. 
(iii) Bibliography of Fishes. 



XX xiv EXCHANGE LIST AND DONATIONS. 

Xew York. Zoological Society, Bulletin, Vol. 24, Pt. 2, 1921. 

Ohkulix. Oberliu College — Wilson Ornithological Club. 

Philadelphia. Academy of Natural Sciences, Proceedings, Vol. 
71; Pt. 8, 1919, Vol. 72, Pt. 2, 1920. 

1 \\ ttsburg . 'Carnegie Museum, 

(i) Annals, Vol. 11, Nos. 3-1,, 1917, Vol. 12, Nos. 

1-4, 1919, Vol. IS, Nos. 1-2, 1920. 
(ii) Memoirs, Vol. 7 , Nos. 5-6, 1920. 
(iii) Annual Reports for 1918-20. 

Washington. Academy of Sciences, Proceedings, Vol. 71, Pt. 3, 

1919. 

Washington. Smithsonian Institution, IT. S. National Museum, 
(i) Herbarium Contributions, Vol. 20, Pts. 8~9, 

1920, Vol. 2®, Pts. 4-5, 1921. 
(ii) Bulletins 100, Pts. 7-9, and 101, 1920; 105, 

106, 109, 1920; 112, 115, 116, 1921. 
(iii) Annual Report, 1920. 
(iv) Proceedings, Vol. 56, 1920. 

Washington. United States Department of Agriculture, Journal 
of Agricultural Research, Vol. 20, Pt. 6, 1920, and Index; 
Vol. 21, Pts. 8-12, 1921; Vol. 22, Pts. IS, 1921. 

Hawaiian Islands (Honolulu). Bernice Pauahii Bishop 
Museum, 

(i) Memoirs, Vol, 6, Ser. 3, Pt. 3, 1919, Vol. 8, 
Pts. 1-2, 1921. 

(ii) Occasional Papers, Report for 1919, Vol. 7, 
Pts. 7-9 } 1920, Vol. 8, Pt. 1, 1921. 

ASIA. 
Cej Ion. 

Anuradhapuea. Archaeological Survey of Ceylon. 

Colombo. Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 

Colombo. Colombo Museum, " Spolia Zei)lanica,'' Vol. 10, Nos. 
56-39, 1911,-17, Vol. 11, Pts. 43-44, 1918-19. 

India. 

Bombay. Bombay Branch of the Koyal Asiatic Society. 
Bombay. Bombay Natural History Society, Journal, Vol. 26, Pt. 

5, Vol. 27, Pt. 3, Vol. 28, Ft. 4, 1921. 
Calcutta. Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

(i) Journal and Proceedings, Vol. 16, Pts. 5-8, 

1920, Vol. 17, Pt. 1, 1921. 

(ii) Numismatic Supplement, No. 31,, 1920, No. 35, 

1921, and Index to No. 32, 1920. 



EXCHANGE LIST AND DONATIONS. 



Calcutta. Indian Museum, 

(i) Memoirs, Vol. 5, Nos. 7-8, Vol 6, Vol 7, No. 3, 

1920-21. 
(ii) Records, Vol. 18, Nos. Jf-5, Vol 19, Nos. 3-5 

and Index, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1920-21. 
(iii) Reports, 1917-20. 

Calcutta. University of Calcutta, 

' (i) Journal of the Dept. of Letters, Vol. 6-7, 1921. 
(ii) " Post-Graduate Teaching" 1919-1920. 

Lahore. Pan jab Historical Society. 

Pusa. Agricultural Eesearch Institute, Memoirs of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture in India, 
(i) Entomological Series. 

(ii) Bacteriological Series, Vol. 1, Pt. 8, 1920. 
(iii) Bulletin, Nos. 100-115, 1921. 
Simla. Archaeological Survey of India, 

(i) Memoirs 3 and 5, 1920; 7, 8, 9 and 12, 1921. 
(ii) Reports for Northern, Frontier, Southern and 

Central Circles, 1920-21. 
(iii) "Tile Mosaics of the Lahore Fort," 1921. 

Burma. 

Bangoon. Archaeological Survey of Burma, 

(i) Epigraphia Birmanica, Vol. 2, Pts. 1-2, 1921. 
(ii) Report, 1921. 
(iii) IAst of Inscriptions, 1921. 
(iv) Amended List of Ancient Monuments, 1921. 

Eangoon. Burma Eesearch Society, Journal, Vol. 1, 1911, to Vol. 
10, 1920. 

Malaysia. 

Borneo (Sarawak). Sarawak Museum. 

Java (Batavia). Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en 
Wetenschappen, 

(i) Notulen van de Algemeene en Directievergader- 

ingen, Deel 58, 1920. 
(ii) Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land- en Vol- 
kenkunde, Deel 59, Pts. 5, 1920, and 6, 1921; 
Deel 60, Pts. 1-2, 1921. 
(iii) Oudheidkundig Verslag, tweede, derde en vierde 
Kwartaal 1920, erste en tweede Kwartaal 
1921. 

Java (Batavia) . Commissie voor de Volkslectuur, " Geschiedenis 
van Java," 1920. 

Java (Batavia). Het Algemeen Proefstation der A.V.E.O.S., 

Mededeelingen, 

(i) Algemeene Serie, Pts. 10, 11 and 13, 1921, and 

Engl. Translation of Pt. 8, 1920. 
(ii) Rubberserie, Pts. 27-31, 33, 1921. 



xxx vi EXCHANGE LIST AND DONATIONS. 

Java (Batavia). Togografisehe I^>ienst, jaarverslag, 1919, Deele 
1-2, (1920). 

Java (Buitenzorg). Department van Landbouv, Xijverheid en 
Handel in Xederlandsch Indie, Mededeelingen, No. 1+1, 
1920. 

Java (Buitenzorg). Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg, Bulletin, 
Ser. 3, Parts US, 1921, and Index, Vol. 2. ' 

Malay Peninsula (Kuala Lumpur). Department of Agricul- 
ture, F.M.S., Agricultural Bulletin, Vol. 8, Pts. 3-Jf, 1920, 
Vol. 9, Pt. 1, 1921. 

Malay Peninsula (Kuala Ltjhfuh). F.M.S. Museums, Journal, 
Vol. 8, Pt. 2, 1918, Vol. 9, Pt. 3, Vol. 10, Pt. 3, 1921. 

Singapore. Botanic Gardens, Bulletin, Vol. 2, So. 12, 1921. 

Singapore. Baffles Museum and Library, Report, 1919-20. 

Siam. 

Bangkok. Natural History Society of Siam, Journal, Vol. J/-, Pts. 
2-3, Vol. 5, Pt. 1,1921. 

Bangkok. Siam Society. 

Bangkok. The Yajiranana National Library. 

Indo-Ghina. 

Hanoi. L'Ecole Francaise de L'Extreme Orient, Bulletin, Tome 
20, Pt. 3, 1920. 

Saigon. La Societe des Etudes Indo-Chinoises, Bulletin, No. 70, 
1921. 

Philippine Islands. 

Manila. Bureau of Science, 

(i) Philippine Journal of Science, Vol. 17, Pts. 3-5, 
1920, Vol. IS, Pts. 1-6, Vol. 19, Pts. IS, 1921. 
(ii) Annual Report, 19th, 1921. 

China. 

Shanghai. North China Branch of the Boyal Asiatic Society,' 
Journal, Vol. 52, 1921. 

Japan. 

Tokyo. Asiatic Society of Japan. 

Australia. 

Adelaide. Royal Society of South Australia, Transactions and 
Proceedings, Vol. 4*,, 1920. 

Sydney. Royal Society of Xew South Wales, Journal and 'Pro- 
ceedings, Vol. 52, 1918, and Vol. 53, 1919. 



EXCHAxVGK LIST AND DONATIONS. xxxvii 

EUROPE. 
Belgium. 

Bruxelles. Societe. Beige cPfitudes Coloniales. 

Finland. 

Helsingfors. Finska Vetenskaps^Societeten, 

(i) Bidrag till Kannedom, II. 78, Pts. 2 and 5, 
1920, II. 79, Pt. 1, 1919, Pt. 2, 1920, H. 80, 
Pts. 1-2, 1921. 
(ii) Ofversigt, 61c, 62a, b, 63a, b, 1921. 
(iii) Acta Societatis Scientiariim Fennicae, Tome 
48, Pts. 5-7, Tome 49, Pts. 1-2, Tome 50, Pts. 
1-2, 1919-21. 

France. 

Havre. Societe de Geographic Commereiale du Havre, Bulletin, 
Vol. 37, 1920. 

Marseilles. Societe de Geographic et d' Etudes Coloniales. 
Paris. Commission Archeologique de Plndo-Cihine. 
Paris. Instiitut Francais d'Archeologie Orientale. 
Paris. L'Ecole des Langues Orientales. 

Paris. Societe Asiatique de Paris, Journal Asiatique, 11 Serie, 
Tome 16, Pts. 1~2, 1920, Tome 17, Pts. 1-2, 1921. 

Paris. Societe de Geographie, " La Geographic/' Tome 35, Pts. 
1-5, Tome 36, Pts. 1-3, 1921. 

Paris. Societe de Geographie Commereiale de Paris, " Revue 

J^conomique Francaise," Tome 48, Pt- 3, 1921. 
Paris. Societe de Linguistique de Paris, 

(i) Memoirs, Tome 21, Pt. 6, 1920, Tome 22, Pts. 

1-2, 1920, Pts. 3-) h 1921. 
(ii) Bulletin, No. 68, 1920. 

Great Britain. 

London. British Museum (Natural History). 

London. Eoyal Anthropological Institute, Journal, Vol. 51, Jan.- 
June, 1921. 

London. Eoyal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 
Journal 1921. 

London. Eoyal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 
(i) Bulletin, 1920. 

(ii) General Index to Bulletins, 1887-1918. 
(iii) Additional Series, Vol. 11. 

London. Eoyal Colonial Institute, " United Empire," Vol. 12, 
1921. 

London. School of Oriental Studies, London Institution, Bulletin, 
Vol, 2, Pt. 1, 1921, 



xxxviii EXCHANGE LIST AND DONATIONS. 

London. Zoological Society of London, 

(i) Proceedings, Pts. 1-3, 1920. 
(ii) List of the Fellows, to May 1921. 
(iii) Report, 1920. 

Holland. 

Amsterdam. Koloniaal In'stitivut. 

Amsterdam. Koninklijk Xederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genoot- 
schap, Tijdschrift, Deel 38, Pts. 1-6, 1921. 

Hague. Koninklijk Institunt voor de.T'aal-, Land- en Volken- 
kunde van Nederlandsch Indie, Bijdragen, Deel 11, Pts. 

1-2, 1921. 

Leiden. Ethnographisches Eeichsmuseum. 
Leiden. Universiteits Bibliotheek. 

Sweden. 

Stockholm. Iv. Svenska Vetenskapsakademien, 

(i) Arlciv for Zoologie, Band Ik, Pts. 1-2, 1921. 
(ii) Arlciv for Botanik, Band 16, 1921. 

"Dps ala. Boyal University Library. 

Switzerland. 

Zurich. Naturforschende Gresellschaft, Vierteljalirsclirift, Vol. 65, 
Pts. 3-4, 1920, Vol. 66, Pts. 1-2, 1921. 



DONATIONS. 



AMERICA (NORTH). 
Canada. 

Ottawa. Canada Department of Mines. 

(i) Publications, Nos. 369 and 51+8, 1921. 
(ii) Memoirs 118-124, 1921. 
(iii) Bulletin, Nos. SI, 32, 39, 1921. 
(iv) Summary Report, 1919 and 1920. 

United States of America. 

Boston. Museum of Fine Arts, Bulletin, Vol. 29, Pt. Ilk, Aug. 
1921. 

New York. Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station, 
(i) Bulletins WO'-kOl, 1920. 
(ii) Memoirs 28-29, 1919, 30-33, 1920. 
St. Louis. Missouri Botanical Gardens, Annals, Vol. 6, Pt. k> 
1919, Vol. 7, Pt. 1, 1920. 

Urbana. University of Illinois, Illinois Biological Monographs, 
Vol. 3, Pt. k, 1917. 

Mexico. 

Vera Cruz. Institute Geologico di Mexico, 
(i) Amies, No. 9, 1920. 
(ii) Boletin, No. 33, Tomo 1-2. 

AMERICA (SOUTH). 

Argentine. 

Buenos Aires. Museo National de Buenos Aires, Anales, Tomo 
26-29, and Index Tomos 1-20, 19H-16. 

Brazil. 

Bio de Janeiro. Bibliotheca National do Rio, 

(i) Boletin Bibliographico, Nos. 2-k, 1919. 
(ii) Anales, Vol. 38, 1916. 

ASIA. 
Malaysia. 

Java (Batavia). Balai Poestaka, "Sri Poestaha" tahoen 3, Pts. 

1-12, 1921. 
Java (Batavia). Mijnwezen in Nederlandsch Oost-Indie, Jaar- 

ooek 1918, Verhandelingen 1. 



XL EXCHANGE LIST AND DONATIONS. 

Java (Batavia). Moquette (J. P.), " De oudste Mohammedan- 
sche Inscriptie op Java, n.m. de Grafsteen te Leran," 1921. 

Java (Batavia). Ivoninklijke Natuurkundige Vereeniging in 
Nederlandsclie Indie, Xaturhundig Tijdschrift-, J) eel 81, 
Pts. 1-2, 1921. 

Java (Batavia). Eerste Congres voor de Taal-, Land- en Volken- 
kunde van Java, Handelingen, 

(i) Solo, 25-26 Dec, 1919. 

(ii) Programma voor lie! Congres van het Java In- 
stituut, June, 1921. 

(iii) Catalogus van de Houtsnijwerk Tentoonstel- 
ling, June, 1921. 

Malay Peninsula (Kuala Lumpur). Committee for Malay 
Studies, Papers on Malay Subjects, 2nd Series, No. 5, 
1921. 

Japan. 

Tokyo. Ivaiserliche TTniversitat zu Tokyo, Mitteilungen aus der 
Medizinischen Falultat, Bd. 20, II. k> Bd. 22, E. 2%, Bd. 
23, H. 1 & 3, Bd. H, H. 1-3, Bd. 25, H. 1 & 2, 1918-21. 

AFRICA. 

Egypt. 

Cairo. Ministry of Public Works, Zoological Service Report, 

Publication 34, 1921. 

EUROPE. 
Germany. 

Hamburg. Geographische Gesellschaft in Hamburg, Mitteilungen 
Band 33, 1921. 

Great Britain and Ireland. 

Dublin. Department of Agriculture, etc. for Ireland, Scientific 
Investigations, 1920, JSlo. 2, "Sponges of the Coasts of 
Ireland." 

Holland. 

Leiden. Pijks Herbarium, Mededeelingen, Pts. 38-41, 1919/21. 

Italy. 

Pome. Eeale Societa Geografica Italiana, Bolletino, Serie 5, Vol. 
10, Pts. 1-9, 1921. 

Trieste. " Scientia," Anno 9, New Series, Vol. 2, Pt. 11. 



The Grave-Stone of Sultan Mansur Shah of 
Malacca (1458-1477 A. D.) 



By J. P. Moquette. 
(Translated by Dr. R. 0. Winstedt from the Journal of the 
Batavian Society, Vol. LIX, Part 6). 
In the J. R. A. S., S. B./ June 1918, pp. 47-48, Dr. R. 0. 
Winstedt gave a description with photos of two grave-stones pur- 
porting to be from the tomb of Sultan Mansur Shah of Malacca. 

It occurred to me at once that the two stones in no way match- 
ed, either in shape or ornament or workmanship. The head-stone 
undoubtedly once was placed on a tomb, while the other stone* be- 
longs to the kind that lies on the ground. On all tombs and graves 
kjiown to me head and foot stones correspond and it would be 
very strange if there were any departure from this custom at 
Malacca especially in the resting place of Sultan Mansur Shah. 
For the rest I could not learn much from the plates accompanying 
the article since the inscriptions, blackened for clearness, were thus 
made illegible. 

Winstedt gave readings of the inscriptions on the head-stone 
and on the side's of the stone from a version procured by Mr. 
Blagden from Hervey (op, cit. p. 47). 

I was certain that after the word Mansur should come the 
name of his father and that the date given was impossible, because 
(1) one word was not accounted for and (2) the Malay word dua 
seemed very strange in a purely Arabic inscription. 

Fortunately I met Mr. I. H. Evans, Curator of the Taiping 
Hufeum, who promised to look up the stones for me at Singapore. 
Both the stones are in Raffles Museum and plaster-casts were made 
for me by Mr. Valentine Knight, then acting for Major Moulton 
the Director. Both, as shown in Dr. Winstedt' s photos, are black- 
ened. The head-stone has apparently been broken off the tomb, 
so that the inscription on the lowest line is damaged, and the other 
stone has a large round hole making the middle line of obverse and 
reverse illegible. As I am positive that the second stone neither 
came from the grave of Sultan Mansur nor from any other tomb, 
I shall leave it out of this discussion. 

* Note. The stone, in my opinion, has no historical value. Heer G. 
P. Rouffaer infor.ms me that the round hole in it shows that it was used 
for the taking of oaths. Should the headstone belonging to it be 
•discovered, possibly my view might not stand. [There is a stone at 
Pengkalan Kempas, Negri Sembilan, with a round hole in it, which 
tradition avers will tighten on the arm of the person who takes a falsa 
oath E. O. W.]. 

Jour. Straits Branch R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



2 GBAVE-STONE OF SULTAN MANSUR SHAH OF MALACCA. 

The head-stone is worth deciphering, because it is so far as is- 
known the only extant stone of the tombs of the Sultans of Malacca 
and secondly because Mansur Shah played a great part in Malay and 
Chinese records. 

By the help of the casts I was able to decipher the inscriptions 
and by reconstructing a pair of damaged words to get an absolutely 
certain reading of the names and of the date. Only the first line- 
presented difficulties but by the help of my friend R. A. Dr. Husein 
Jaya-diningrat a reading in my opinion satisfactory was secured,, 
so that all the words on that line with the first word of the second 
line duly accounted for are meant to glorify not the Sultan as in 
Hervey 's version but the grave. Major J. C. Moulton kindly sent 
me at my request photos of all four sides of the stone which is now 
placed on a cement pedestal for its better preservation. I give my 
reconstruction for each side on the accompanying plates so that 
any one more competent than I may express his views on it. 

The reading is as follows: (Plate I. obverse) : 

Plate II (Reverse) reads : — 

(A i yb*a*') J\ (>>) ^1\ (oj£) J\ ^ aAcUj C^'Vc_5 0$-£ 

Compared with the Hervey version it thus reads : Hadzihi al- 
raudzat al-mukaddasat al-miitahharat al-zawiyat al-safiyat al- 
mun-awxvarat lil Sultan al-adil al-badzil al-Sultan Mansur Shah bin 
Muzaffar Shah al-marhum : lead intakala min dar al-mahal ila dar 
amal yaum al-arbaa min Rajah sanat thanatein wa thamanin wa 
t]ia\man mi'ah min al-Hijrah al-Nubawyah al-mustafawyah 
Or translated 

" This is the consecrated the holy grave the brilliant illumin- 
ated tomb of the just Sultan, the magnanimous ruler Sultan Man- 
vsur Shah son of the deceased Muzaffar Shah. He removed from 
this mortal abode to the abode of hope on Wednesday of Rajab in. 
the year 882 after the Hi j rah of the Prophet, the Chosen One." 

As my reading of the gravestone differs in many places from 
that of Hervey, I must add an explanation of some details. The* 
difference in my conception of the words of the first line is great 
and I take it that mim has been broken of! in the middle words, and 

read 5^Lx\ ( 5 stands in the lower corner), but the reading is 

of little or no consequence since, once we know who the person en- 
tombed is, it matters relatively little if one takes a word to be in 
praise of the grave or of the dead. However the correct reading 
of the bottom line on Plate I is of very great importance for the- 

Jour. Straits Branch. 



GRAVE-STONE OF SULTAN MANSUR SHAH OF MALACCA. 3 

determination of the father's name ; it is now' irref ragably esta- 
blished that we have to do with the gravestone of Sultan Mansur 
Shah of Malacca, who according to all accounts was a son of Sul- 
tan Muzaffar Shah. It is clear that between " Mansur " and 

"Muzaffar" the word ^ stands, but the a r" of "Mansur" 

and the "n" of "Sultan" cannot be traced. Mistakes on these 
gravestones are very frequent so that it is quite possible the mason 
omitted the letters. As regards the reverse, it is clear that in the 
top line not dar al-wirad but dar amal occurs. More important 
however is the date. The cast showed at once how the faulty 
reading dua came about. The nourish of the word min has been 
mistaken for a dal and combined with the wau of the year been 

read _j3« 

In 8'8'2 A.H. the month of Eajab began on a Thursday, the 
9th of October, 1477 A.D. 

So following my reading one must choose between Wednesday 
the 7th, 14th, 21st or 28th of Ra,jab 882 A.H. = Wednesday the 
15th, 22nd, 29th October or 5th November, 1477 A.D. 

Seeing that it seldom happens that the word for " year " is 
omitted in dates, I have assumed it occurs on this stone and read 

ix- with Hervey. I must point out however that one can equal- 
ly well read <"~» = G, so that the reading would run 

i>UU^ OV>Vc^ CjO-^ i-r-Tj i>* **** wo ji ' *■*•>. 

Wednesday 6 Eajab 882 A.H. = Tuesday 14 October, 1477 A.D. 

My emendations for the words defaced on the bottom are borne 
out by the legible lines and require no defence. 

Hervey's reading of the side inscriptions is untenable. It is 
(Plate III) the beginning of a verse repeatedly found on stones 
in Northern Sumatra: — 

which Professor Dr. van Eonkel translated for me as follows : — 

" The world is but transitory ; the world has no per- 
manence; the world is but as a house made by a spider." 

The end of this text occurred probably on the lost foot-stone 
and the adventures of the stone we have discussed testify to the 
truth of the words. 

I give my best thanks to all who have been kind enough to 
assist me. 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



The Malay Pantun. 



By H. Overbeck. 

From the study of Malay pantuns arises the question how 
far this peculiar kind of quatrain is the sole property of the 
Malays, or if something identical, similar or akin is to be found, 
amongst other peoples in their neighbourhood. Eesearch would 
naturally turn first to Java, as both the Javanese and the Sundanese 
language are akin to Malay. 

I do not recollect to have heard any Javanese pantuns during 
my stay in East Java, and J. J. de Hollander, who fully describes 
the Malay pantun and seloka (on the relationship of the two some- 
thing will be said later) in his work on the Malay language, 1 does 
not mention any similar quatrains in his work on the Javanese 
language. 2 Plain love songs of course may exist, as given in chap- 
ter XIV of the " 'Sejarah Melayu v : — the Malay author, by the 
way, gives to the ditties sung in honour of Hang Tuah the name 
of pantun, though it is not a Javanese name. The word seloka' is 
known and according to the dictionary means a figurative expres- 
sion, or way of speaking with the purpose of conveying a thought 
in a more or less veiled form. Whether the word seloka is used 
also to designate moral verses as in India, I have been unable to- 
discover. Generally speaking, Javanese poetry differs entirely 
from the Malay shaer and pantun; a verse similar to that of the 
Malay shaer is unknown. The Javanese poet has at his disposal 
ten or more different metres, the verses Of which have from 4 to- 
12 lines, the lines being of different structure within each verse, 
with a rhyme hardly noticeaible for a European ear, and a prosody 
on which the views of learned men differ.. In this poetry, where- 
in the greater part of Javanese literature is written, there is no- 
place for anything like the Malay pantunJ Mention is made by 
some writers of the Javanese luangsallan, which according to the 
dictionary is a kind of charade or riddle in verse, wherein in an 
enigmatical way principally by the last, or also by the first syllable- 
of a word something is hinted at, whilst in a second verse/ called 
jaivab (answer) the thing hinted is plainly stated. But I can- 
not give any examples of such wangsallan or say if there exists in. 
Javanese any unwritten literature as in Sundanese. 

Sundanese poetry generally follows the way of her Javanese 
sister; the Sundanese poet works with the same metres as his- 
Javanese neighbour, and their names are identical in both lan- 
guages. But besides the written literature there is the pantun^ 
which in Sundanese means a tale taken from legends or from the 

1. F. J. de Hollander, Handleiding tot de Kennis der Maleische- 
Taal-en Letter Kunde, Breda, 1845, p. 150. 

2. F. J. de Hollander, ib. 1848. 

Jour. Straits Bran< h R: A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



THE MALAY PANTUN. 5 

history of old times, half sung, half recited by the bard, the tukang 
pantun, to the accompaniment of a sort of violin (tarawangsa) or 
lute (Jcachapi). Mr. C. Pleyte has edited some of these Sundanese 
pantun with their different versions, together with a synopsis, a 
partial translation and a glossary. 1 Although these tales are taken 
mostly from legends or history of old times, they resemble the 
Malay penglipor lara tale, being also interspersed with blank verse 
and sindir. 

The blank verse Mr. Pleyte calls purwakanti, a Javanese word 
which according to the dictionary means " a verse or verses, being 
a combination of words having the same sound, which sometimes 
are not much more than jingling nonsense/' These blank verse, 
often roughly humoristic, describe the proceedings of a festival, 
the dress of a man or woman, their way of walking or journeying 
and so on and they are often repeated. Without being quite identi- 
cal with the blank verse of the Malay penglipor lara tale, they have 
the same metre and quaintly resemble them in their w T ay of being 
used. An attempt at a translation would be pretty hopeless for 
anybody but a Rabelais; they abound in onomatopoeics and syn- 
onyms, in which the 'Sundanese language is exceedingly rich. 

As regards the sindir appearing in the pantun edited by him, 
Mr. Pleyte in the preface to the glossary writes as follows : 

" To Mr. J. Knebel ... is due the credit of having- 
" pointed out the nature of the Javanese wangsallan, i.e. 
" charades, of which the beginning lines give the rhyme-word 
" for the solution given in the following lines. So too, many 
" of sindir, are something more than simple rhymes, which 
" they are always represented to be. They contain hidden 
" warnings, lessons of life, admonitions and so on clad in the 
" garment of a play upon words or a pun, sometimes more, 
" sometimes less ingenious, as will be seen from the examples 
" in the text. 

" Attention ought to be drawn to this, not only because 
" without such knowledge some passages in the pantun would 
" remain unintelligible, but also because the sindir are so close- 
" ly interwoven with daily conversation, that a fairly animated 
"colloquy seldom passes without the use of these puns, which 
" are understood everywhere. They season discourse as quota- 
tions season ours, and for an intimate chat one ought to 
" know at least some of them. ■ Also for easy intercourse with 
" the kampong people they are indispensable, as they are the 
"common property of the. chachah, the common people, as 
" well as of the highest educated class. 

" A few examples may serve as illustrations. 



1. Batavia, 1906, 1910, 1911 in the Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal, 
Land en Volken Kunde, Part XLIX, afl. 152, and in Verhandelingen van' 
het Bataviaasch genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschapen, Part 
LVIII. 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



<3 THE MALAY PANTUN. 

" In a native household a new servant is to be engaged. 
" A candidate has offered his services, makes a good im- 
" pression and is therefore accepted, say, with the following 
" words : ' Tapi lianto salisung gardu, enya/ ' Akin, 
"modi/ ' Oh no!' is the reply. As the first sentence, liter- 
" ally translated, means ' but not a watch-house-mortar (for 
fi rice-pounding),' the question arises as to what has actually 
" been said to the man. 

" Under salisung gardu is to be understood the saKkokol, 
" i.e. l a sounding-board ' hanging in the watch house, where- 
" on the hours are struck and wherewith the watchmen also 
" give alarm-signals. Even then it has no meaning here. 
" But the meaning will become clear if one knows that the 
" catch-word or rhyme-word on sahkokol is salcongkol, i.e. 
" ' gossiping/ and we therefore get the following : hento sali- 
" sung gardu = hento sakahkol = ulah sakongkol — ' no gossip ! ' 
" Not only in the presence of grown-up people are such 
" covert sayings used; they are addressed also to children. A 
" naughty child has repeatedly been bidden to obey, but re- 
" mains obstinate. At last the mother loses her temper and 
u exclaims angrily : ' Ah, sia mah sok kokbk aing mah; mun 
" kitu, mental: mentil liiris ngembang bedil : ' — ' Well, you put 
" your will against mine ; if you persist, it will be mentil liiris 
" ngemoang oedil.' 

" Mentil liiris 1 means kepokan, 2 and the naughty one is 
" made to understand matak kapok, in other words, ' It will 
" not be long before you will be kapok, i.e. you will come to 
"grief, which will so frighten you that you will not do it 
"again, and then it will be ngemoang oedil, 3 — obat, which 
" means here totobatan, ' I shan't do it again.' 

" But the sindir are by no means always of a moral ten- 
" dency, and least of all in the allegorical language of courting, 
" wherein they play an important part and often show an un- 
'' mistakable ingenuity. For example. 

(Puchung metre). 
Jaring panjang aya-na di-parahu 

To puguh kahayang 
Bengkel kawung chumawene 
Diyuk nongtung barang teda hento ngbnali. 
Which means literally translated. 

' A long net is lying in the ship, 

Foolish is the desire. 
Tapping-peduncle of a virginal arenga-palm, 
Whether one sits or stands up, one does not enjoy one's 
meal.' 



1. i.e. the hiris (a kind of pulse) is forming the first fruit after 
flowering. 

2. i.e. a very young fruit. 

3. i.e. the flowering of a gun. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



THE MALAY PANTUN. 7 

"These lines, taken literally, form an entirely meaning- 
less combination. The following is the solution. 

" Jaring panjang could be expressed by one word mayang 
(ii a drag-net/ Under 'lying in a ship' one should under- 
" stand ' in the house/ Mayang is not used in this, but in 
" another of its meanings, i.e. ' the blossom of the betel- 
"palm' — a marriageable maiden. 

" The second line contains a question to be rendered as 
" follows : would it be too foolish to desire you ? 

iC Bengkel kawung chumawene again is a paraphrase. 
" Instead of bengkel, ' tapping-peduncle of a sugar-palm/ one 
" should take the synonym jonah, suggested by the rhyme- 
" word n-gonah. Kawung chumawene means i a virginal, i.e. 
"not yet tapped Arenga saccharifera/ the word chumawene, 
" ' to be a virgin,' being a form of chawene ' virgin/ Now, 
"as an incarnation of Nyi Pohachi Sanghyang Seri, the 
"primitive goddess of agriculture, the kawung -palm is con- 
" sidered as a female being, who from earliest youth, until 
" the palmwine-tapper marries her when she is grown up, is 
" deemed to go through all stages of development from a little 
"girl to a marriageable maid. 1 Bengkel kawung chumawene 
" therefore means : ' a just budding virgin/ 

" The last line does not need further explanation, and it 
" will be clear that the whole is a lover's entreaty. 

" However, sindir are rarely as intricate as the above. 
" The plainness of the following lampoon on divorced women, 
" leaves nothing to be desired : 

" Anak kuda susurian 
" Tikait tali kanchana 
" Ay a rang da sosorian 
" Ngarebut osi chalan-a.^ 2 

In the texts edited by Mr. Pleyte sindir in versified form 
are not used as pantun, are used in a Malay Hikayat, i.e. to form 
dialogues and so on, but occur apparently mixed up with the blank 
verse, which have the same metre as the last verse quoted above. 
The puchung -metre of the first sindir-vevze given above is a four- 
lined one of the different metres at the Sundanese poet's disposal, 
already referred to. Whether sw^ir-verses occur also in metres 
having more than four lines, Mr. Pleyte does not say, though else- 
where he speaks of sindir n as ' four-lined love-songs/ 

1. Cp. C. Pleyte Jockang sadap in Bijdragen tot Taal-Land en 
Volkenk. v. Ned. Indie, 7 volgr, dl V, p. 591. 

2. A literal Malay translation would be 

Anak kudo berbulu tengkok 
Terkait tali kenchana. 
Ada janda tcrsenynm-senyum 
Merebut isi clielana. 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



8 THE MALAY PANTUN. 

As regards the Dayaks of Borneo, Gomes 1 mentions several 
kinds of songs often to be heard amongst the people, but he does 
not give any texts from which one can draw conclusions. 

From the Philippines I have been unable so far to obtain any 
information. 

In the Buddhist literature of Siam and Burma Pali verse 
sometimes comes very near the structure of the pantun, as pointed 
out by Marsden and summed up by Wilkinson — " the first 
pair of lines should represent a poetic thougnt with its 
beauty veiled, whilst the second pair should give the same thought 
in all its unveiled beauty.' 7 Marsden writes : — " The first two 
lines of the quatrain are figurative, containing sometimes one, but 
oftener two unconnected images, whilst the latter two are moral, 
sentimental or amorous and we are led to expect that they should 
exemplify and constitute the application of the figurative part. 
They do so in some few instances." " Dhammapada " or " Way 
of Truth," a collection of Buddhist verses, contains many quatrains 
in which the first couplet contains a picture, the meaning of 
which is applied in the second: 

" As into a house, which is badly thatched, 
The rain will enter. 
Thus into an untrained mind 
The craving will enter. 

or 

" As a beautiful flower, 
Brilliant of hue but yielding no fragrance, 
Thus is the well-spoken word 
Fruitless to him, who does not act (accordingly) " 

Without the " as " (vatha) and " thus " (evam) there would not 
be much difference between these Pali verses and many a Malay 
pantun. 

Pali is a daughter-language of Sanskrit, and in Sanskrit 
poetry " by far the most frequent and most useful form of verse " 
Is the Sloka. 2 The Sloka consists of two lines of sixteen syllables, 
or rather four lines of eight syllables each, only four of which are 
fixed in quantity, the others being at option long or short. 3 Of the 
Slokas in the Sanskrit Bamayana some in the first two lines have a 
picture or poetic thought, whose meaning is applied in the second 
couplet. The following quatrains are translated by Bomesh Chan- 
dra Dutt in his condensation of the Bamayana, book IX, Canto 9, 

" Raindrops fall upon the lotus, 
But unmingling hang apart; 
False relations round us gather, 
But they blend not heart with heart.'' 

1. E. H. Gomes, Seventeen years amongst the Sea-Dayaks of Borneo. 

2. Ralph J. H. Griffith, The Bamayana of Valmiki, Benares 1895, p. 
VIII quoting from Wilson's Sanskrit Grammar, p. 436. 

3. ib. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



THE MALAY PAN-TUN. 



Winter-clouds are big with thunder, 
But they yield no freshening rain; 
False relations smile and greet us, 
But their soothing words are vain." 



" Bees are tempted by the honey, 
But from flower to flower they range; 
False relations share our favours 
But in secret seek a change. — " 

With these verses Eavan reproaches his brother Bibishan, who. had 
given him advice not much to the Raksba-king's liking, but they 
quaintly resemble pantuns wherewith a Malay girl rebukes a faith- 
less lover. 

Kalidasa, who lived probably in the fifth century of the Chris- 
tian era, the greatest of the later Sanskrit poets, has generously 
interspersed the prose of his dramas with lyric and descriptive 
stanzas. The following quotations are taken from Arthur W. 
Ryder's translation of " Shakuntala " in " Everyman's Library." 

Act. IV, 2. King Dushyanta, owing to the curse of the Rishi 
Durvasas, has entirely forgotten that he had married Shakuntala, 
and her foster-father, the hermit Kanva, decides to send her to 
the King's palace. One of his pupils on the dawn of the day of 
her departure, says: 

"Night-blooming lilies, when the moon is hidden, 
Have naught but memories of beauty left; 
Hard, hard to bear! Her lot, whom heaven has bidden 
To live alone, of love and lover reft!" — 

Act Y. When the hermits, who bring Shakuntala to the palace, 
are received by the king, one of them says : 
"Fruit-laden trees bend down to earth, 
The water-pregnant cloud hangs low; 
Good men are not puffed by power; 
The unselfish are by nature so." 

When Shakuntala reminds him of his former kindness and pro- 
mises, the king replies : 

"A stream, that eats away the bank, 
Grows foul and undermines the tree; 
So you would stain your honour, while 
You plunge me into misery." 

And when the hermits reproach him, the king reminds them of 
the verse : — 

" Night blossoms open to the moon, 
Day-blossoms to the sun; 
A man of honour ever strives 
Another's wife to shun" 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



10 THE MALAY PANTITN. 

The use of verse, especially of some well-known epigramma- 
tieal sloka, to illustrate one's words, is of course common in Indian 
literature and probably in daily conversation, but in the king's re- 
ply to Shakuntala, if correctly translated, we have an ex tempore 
improvisation to suit the occasion. 

With Sanskrit we are in India, and India of course has great- 
ly influenced the Malay language and literature. " Negeri Keling," 
the country of the dark people of the Kalingas, mentioned 
in the Eamayana and Mahabharata as living on the East-coast of 
the Indian peninsula, would seem to be the source of this influence. 
Tamil is a Dravidian, non-Aryan language, but has been in- 
fluenced largely by Sanskrit. The Eamayana, the Mahabharata, 
the Panchatantra have been translated into Tamil. From the Tamil 
translation of the Eamayana the Malay Hikayat Seri Rama is 
derived. Speaking of the different kinds of Tamil poetry, the Abbe 
Dubois 1 mentions the " Padam," which corresponds to strophe, 
stanza or couplet. The " Padam " includes not only odes in 
honour of gods, princes and great personages, but also obscene and 
amorous ditties, sprightly dialogues between gods and goddesses 
and similar compositions. Dubois 2 further mentions Slokas or 
stanzas, and gives translations of a number of " niti-slokas " or 
moral stanzas, familiar to all educated Hindus. " They are written 
in Sanskrit-verse, but as this classical language is not understood 
by many people, each sloka is accompanied by a literal translation 
in the vulgar tongue." The Hindoos take great delight in intro- 
ducing these slokas into their ordinary conversation." Many of 
these slokas, of which Dubois gives a prose-translation, have in 
their first part a picture or saying, whose moral is given in the 
last part. For instance. 

"When one sees blades of Dharba-grass 3 on white-ant-heaps, 

one can tell at once that snakes are there. So when one sees 

anybody frequenting the company of wicked men, one may 

feel sure that he is as wicked as they." 

Perhaps Sanskrit scholars can tell us how it came that the word 

sloka, which appears to have been formerly the name of a metre 

or stanza, later came to mean an epigram. 

The Malays, too, know the word seloka. According to Wilkin- 
son's dictionary it means "rhyme, especially when humorous/; 
ironical or satirical poetry when not in the form of the pantun." 
A pantun, according to the same dictionary, is a " quatrain, the 
first line of which rhymes with the third, and the second with the 
fourth." Mr. Wilkinson has further laid down the principle of 
assonance and that of the veiled and unveiled thought referred to 
above. That the principle of assonance is not always kept, a 

1. Abbe J. A. Dubois, Hindu Manners, Custom and Ceremonies, 3rd 
ed., Oxford, 1906, p. 619. 

2. Dubois chapter XXII, page 392 et seq. and chapter XXIII, page 
474 et seq. 

3. The sacred grass, Poa cynosuroides, essential in all sacrifices. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



THE MALAY PANTUN. 11 

glance over any collection of pantuns will show. The veiled and 
unveiled thought also occurs in many Indian selokas. As regards 
the rhyme the Malays seem to be rather careless, and a pantun 
may sometimes have the same rhyme in all four lines : 
Masvk hutan haw a senapang Ada satu panglima garang 

Hendak bedil anak beruang. Jang gut panjang misai bercha- 

JSnche' laksana binatang hong- bang. 

hang Pofcok pisang boleh tuan tebang 

Kepala di-tundok chelah hang- Ka-pada sahaya jangan di-cha- 

kang. 1 dang. 2 

Marsden, Crawford and others make no distinction between 
pantun and seloka. J. J. de Hollander, however, remarks that in 
Malay writings a distinction is made and quotes a passage from 
the Hikayat Shah Mardan or Indera Jaya: — " segala dayang pun 
berpantun dan berseloka," In the Hikayat Hang TuaJi we are 
told of Hang Tuah and hi? friends, when they were in the for- 
bidden park of the Batara of Menjapahit : — " maka ia dudok .... 
bersendu, bernyanyi dan berpantun dan berseloka berbagai-bagai 
ragam-nya." The word pantun has in the Hikayat Hang Tuah a 
double meaning: it is used several times for such a proverbial say- 
ing as pagar makan padi, as pointed out by Dr. Winstedt in his 
preface to " Pantun Melayu," and it is used also for the quatrain. 

In my collection of pantuns I find the following quatrains : — 
Sabar sung g oh Raja Kuantan, 
Mengikut perang dari kudla, 
Adinda tuan sa-pantun intan, 
Tidak ternilai yang puny a harga. 



Panah memanah Raja Andoman, 
Panah lalu ka-segara. 
Adinda sa-pantun sharbat minuman, 
Sa-puloh tahun ta' hilang rasa. 



Ya Galon Raden di-pinang, 
Tempat raja dari Patani; 
Tuan sa-pantun si-pohon pisang, 
Kawan-nya banyak kanan dan kiri. 

These three quatrains belong to an incomplete series of pan- 
tuns of the kind called Alif-ba-ta. The series was procured from 
a Chinese collector and probably hails from Malacca. In these 
quatrains the word pantun or sa-pantun is used in place of the lak- 
sana or sa-umpama of modern times. Is it possible that the 
seloka, either with the alternate or the fourfold rhyme, existed long 
ago and that those quatrains containing a pantun or simile in the 
first two lines have in course of time received the name pantun in 

1. Pantun Melayu No. 970. 

2. ib. No. 1021. Compare further the pantuns in "Pelandok Jenaka. M 

R. A. Soc.. So. 85, 1922. 



12' THE MALAY PANTUN. 

contradistinction to the seloka, in which the same thought runs 

through all four lines? The following quatrains would then be 
called seloka: 

Anak dara dua sa-pasang, Sudah bertemu kas eh say ang, 

Pakai baju, pakai kerosang, Dudok Mrkurong malam siang, 

Sa-biji nanas, sa-biji pisang, Hingga sa^tapak tiada renggang, 

Belum tahu rezeki musang. 1 Tulang sendi habis bergunchang. 2 



Chakapan pelet orang Petani, Jalan-jalan sa-panjang jalan, 

Marl ka-tanjong hendak mem- Singgah-menyinggah di-pagar 

beli, orang, 

Bodoh kurang paham herti, Pura-pura menchari ayam, 

Kambeli di-kata permaidani. 3 Ekor mata di-anak orang. 4 " 

The verse of the seloka would he the usual shaer verse, which 
in its turn is possibly the old Indian sloka or stanza. A study of 
such seloka would probably show that the principle of the fourfold 
rhyme is not always strictly observed. Whoever has read a Malay 
shaer, knows the awful difficulties the Malay poet has to master to 
get the fourfold rhyme, a difficulty which would make the popular 
use of such a quatrain rather impossible. When the pantun be- 
came popular, the double thought in it possibly caused the alternate 
Thyme, which is much easier to find. 

A collection called " Shaer Pantun Seloka " has been publ- 
ished in Singapore by the Malay press. It contains a number of 
series of pantun berkait, but I have failed to find any essential 
difference between the quatrains of this collection and the usual 
pantun. 

Something which seems akin to the Malay pantun is to be 
found in the Chinese language. When trying to read the " Kin 
Ku K?i Kuan," " Stories of old and new times," the well-known 
collection of 4'0 Chinese novels dating from the Ming dynasty 
(1368 — 1644 A.D.) I came across some Chinese verses interspersed 
in the text which even to my imperfect knowledge of Chinese 
seemed to be on the lines of a pantun. Grube in his " Greschichte 
der Chinesischen Literatur " quotes from the preface of V. von 
Strauss's translation of the "Shi-King," "The Book of Odes," 
one of the four classical books of Chinese literature, as follows: 

" The Chinese editors always indicate at the end of each 
"stanza whether it contains a direct statement (fu) a simile 
" or comparison (pi) or a metaphor or symbolical saying 
" (Using) . Only the latter is something peculiar, as in each 
" stanza, before coming to the real object of the poem, in one 
"or two lines a peculiar natural phenomenon, a well-known 
"event or occurrence is mentioned as an introduction not un- 
" like a clever arabesque in order to prepare reflection, sensa- 

1. "Pantun Melayu," No. 8. 

2. ib. No. 951. 

3. ib. No. 975. 
'4. ib. No. 955. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



THE MALAY PANTUN. 



13 



" tion and the state of mind for that which follows. The 
" symbol is either the same in all stanzas, or a new one is 
" taken each time. Thus we find in the symbolical introduc- 
" tion of different poems absolutely independent from each 
. " other the same picture or metaphor." 

The few examples given below are taken from the few pretty, 
ttut rather free translations in the little volume, " The Book of 
Odes " in the "Wisdom of the East " Series. The number refers 
io the usual Chinese edition in four volumes, from which the in- 
dications at the end of each stanza also have been taken. For two 
•of them the writer has added the Chinese text in modern Man- 
darin dialect, which however does not always correspond with the 
.sound of the words at the time the poems were written. 



(I, III, 2). Brave Thoughts. 
'Green is the upper robe, 
Green with a yellow lining; 
My sorrow none can probe, 
Nor can I cease repining. 

(Styled pi). 

Green is the upper robe, 

The lower garb is yellow ; 
My sorrow none can probe, 

Nor any season mellow. 

(Styled pi). 

The silk was of emerald dye; 
Ah, this was all your doing ; 
But I dream of an age gone by, 
To keep my heart from rueing. 

... (Styled pi). 

Fine linen or coarse, 'tis cold. 
But all I have to dress me; 
So I think of men of old 

And find brave thoughts possess me. 
(Styled pi). 



Chinese text. 
Yuan- hsi 1 i 1 hsi 1 
Yuan 2 i 1 huang 2 li 3 
II sin 1 chih 1 yu 1 i 3 
lie 2 wei 2 ch'i 2 i 3 . 



Yuan 2 hsi 1 i 1 hsi 1 (same as 

in first stanza) 
Yuan 2 i 1 huang 2 shang 1 
Hsin 1 chih 1 yu 1 i 3 (same as 

in first stanza) 
He 2 wei 2 ch'i 2 wang 2 . 



Yuan 2 hsi 1 szu 1 hsi 1 
Nil 8 so 3 chih* hsi 1 



Wo 3 szu 1 ku 3 



yen' 



Pi* wu 2 yu 2 hsi 1 



Ch'ih 1 hsi 1 hsi 4 hsi 1 

Ch'i 1 ch'i 2 i 3 feng 1 

Wo 3 szu 1 ku 3 jen 2 (same as 

in third stanza) 
Shih 2 - 4 



(III, VII, 5). The Slanderers. 
'The blue flies buzz upon the iving, 
From fence to fence they wander; 
O happy king! courteous king! 
Give heed to no man's slander! 

(Styled fu). 

The noisy blue flies rumble round, 



B. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



Chinese text. 
Ying 2 ying 2 ch'ing 1 ying 2 
Chih 3 yu 2 fan 2 
Cr'i 3 ti* chiin 1 yii 2 
Wu 2 hsin 4 t'san 2 yilan 2 . 

Ying 2 ying 2 ch'ing 1 ying 1 
(same as in first stanza) 



u 



THE MALAY PANTUN. 



Upon the gum trees lighting; 
A tongue of evil has no bound 
And sets the realm a-fighting. 

(Styled Using). 
The clumsy blue flies buzzing round 

Upon the hazels blunder; 

cursed tongue that knows no bound 

And sets us two asunder. 

(Styled Using). 



Chih 3 



yu- 



chi 4 



T'san 1 jen 2 wang z chtf 



Chiao' 



kuo- 



Ying- ying 2 ch'ing 1 ying* 
(same as in first stanza) 

Chih* yu 2 chen 1 

T'san 1 jen 2 ivang 3 chi 24: 

Kou 4 wo z er 4 jen 2 . 

(same as in second stanza): 



A wife's Memories. (I, V, 5). 
With taper rod of tall bamboo 
You angle in the ICe; 
Do I not go by dream to you, 
Who cannot come to me? 

To left the T'seuen waters roam, 
TUe ICe flows to the right; 
Ah! never gleams a newer home 
Like that lost home to siglit. 

Leftward the T'seuen stream beguiles, 
And right ward calls the ICe; 
Return, o light of happy smiles 
And girdle-gems, to me! 

TUe oars of cedar rise and fall 

From, boats of yellow pine; 

Would I might roam the banks, where all 

TUe gliosis of girlUood sliine! 



(Styled fu) 



(Styled fu). . 



(Styled /«). 



(Styled /m)- 



Happy in Haou. (Ill, VII, 7) . 
Fishes are there by the score, I trow, 
Their large heads sleepily showing; 
The king is here, in the city of Haou, 
At ease with the wine-cup's flowing. 

((Styled Using).. 

Fishes are there in the weed enow, (in the Chinese text 

same as in first stanza) 
Their long tails lazily swaying; 
The king is It ere, in the city of Haou, 
Drinking, dreaming, delaying. 

(Styled hsing). 

Jour. Straits Branch 



THE MALAY PANTUN. 15 

The fish lie under the willow-bough (in the Chinese text 

same as in first stanza) 
That leans and shadows the rushes; 
The Icing is here in the city of Haou, 
At peace, and the wine-cup flushes. 

(Styled Using). 



May-time. (I, II, 12). 

Deep in the grass there lies a dead gazelle; 

The tall white grass enwraps her where she fell. — 

With sweet thought natural to spring 

A pretty girl g'oes wandering 

With. lover that would lead astray. 

(Styled hsing). 

The little dwarf oak hides a leafy dell; 

Far in the wilds there lies a dead gazelle; 

The tall, white grass enwraps her where she fell. — 

And beauty, like a gem, does fling 

Bright radiance through the blinds of spring. 

(Styled hsing). 
"Ah, gently! do not disarray 
My kerchief! Gently, pray! 
Nor make the watch-dog bark 
Under my lattice dark ! " x 

(Styled fu). 

Even these very free translations will show the pantun-like 
.style of some of the oldest Chinese poems. 

In the preface to the " Lute of Jade," a selection from later 
classical Chinese poets in the same " Wisdom of the East " series, 
L. Cranmer-Byng says : " Concentration and suggestion are the. 
two essentials of Chinese poetry. There is neither Iliad nor 
Odyssey to be found in the libraries of the Chinese 5 indeed, a 
:f avourite feature of their verse is the " stop short," a poem con- 
taining only four lines, concerning which another critic has ex- 
plained that only the words stop, whilst the sense goes on. But 
what a world of meaning is to be found between four lines ! Often 
a door is opened, a curtain is drawn aside in the halls of romance, 
where the reader may roam at will." As regards the rhyme, the 
same author says : " in the four-line or stop-short poem . . . 
the first line rhymes with the second and fourth, curiously recalling 
the Eubayat-form of the Persian poets." It is difficult to find one 
<of these stop-short poems from the translations given in the " Lute 
of Jade," as probably the English version does not follow the 
Chinese metre. There is one from Po Chii I (A.D. 772—846) : 

1. The stanza of the Chinese original have 4, 4, and 3 Hnes respec- 
tively 

_R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



16 THE MALAY PANTUN. 

A Palace Story. 

"A network handkerchief contains no tear. 
'Tis dawn at court, ere wine and music sate. 
The rich red crops no aftermath await. 
Rest on a screen, and you will fall, I fear/'— 

In the above-named " Kin Ku Ki Kuan/' verses similar to 
the epigrammatieal seloka or to the pantun are used much in the- 
same way as similar verses are used in Indian literature, at the be- 
ginning, in the middle and at the end. Perhaps Chinese scholars 
can tell us whether there are quatrains of a similar kind used in 
daily life as the pantun is used in Malaya. Chinese literature is 
a bad collecting-ground for popular ditties, on which university 
literates look down with even more contempt than they already do 
on the popular novel, the " Hsiao Shuo." 

It seems rather far out of the way to look for something akin 
to the Malay pantun in Chinese poetry, but between the two lan- 
guages there is a certain affinity in idiom. Common to both lan- 
guages are the " classifiers," certain words used in addition to the 
numeral, different according to the class of objects referred to, as 
in Malay ekor, ' tail ■ for animals, buah ' fruit/ for countries, 
houses, ships and so on. Xo such classifiers are to be found in 
the Javanese or Sundanese language. In one of his lectures on 
" Language and Letters " Dr. Graebner drew a comparison between 
Arabic as a most subjective and Chinese as a most objective lan- 
guage. The Chinese, he said amongst other things, in expressing 
himself, shows us a picture, a sort of cinematographic film, which 
he has before his mind's eye and which he describes and explains- 
to us by degrees. Hence the usual co-ordination instead of our 
subordination of sentences, hence the frequent use of the posses- 
sive and of the demonstrative pronoun, and hence possibly the use 
of the classifiers. All these characteristics are to be found also 
more or less in the Malay idiom. The co-ordination of sentences 
is much more frequent than subordination, the possessive suffix 
-nija is to be found in nearly every sentence, and the demonstra- 
tive pronouns ini, itu and pun are used much more frequently 
than in any European language, and much in the same way as in 
Chinese. 

Is it possible that to Chinese influence may be attributed the 
fact that the connection between the first and last couplet in the 
Malay pantun is often so very loose ? 

In the Indian sloka, to judge from translations, the rule that 
the picture given in the first lines must absolutely agree with the 
thought conveyed in the second lines, is always strictly observed. 
In all Indian verses the picture is quite clear; it is always an 
obvious illustration of the thought which follows and not 
merely as in the Malay pantun an impressionist sketch, whose 
connection with the following lines a European mind often fails 
to understand. In Chinese poetry we have just this very loose- 

Jour. Straits Branch 






THE MALAY PANTUN. IT 

ness of connection between the picture and the thought it illus- 
trates. A literal translation of course would make this point much 
clearer than the verses quoted above, but even some of these, trans- 
lated into Malay, would not be much out of the way in a Pantun. 
■In the noisy blue-bottles and the slanderers, in the lazy fishes and. 
the king feasting at Haou we have pictures and thoughts, which a 
European mind can as well connect as the picture of the creeper 
that winds round the tree and the thought of the snake that coils 
round the flower in the pantuns of the " Guarded Bose." 1 But in 
" May-time " the first lines are of that class which, to use Dr. 
Winstedt's expression, " sound inane enough on a gramophone - 
record, but may well have given the spirit of the hour and place 
of its original context." Parallels for the green upper robe and 
yellow lower robe could be found in many pantun. 

The points of resemblance between many Chinese verses and 
Malay pantun appear to be so numerous and so close that the 
thought of fortuitous coincidence seems hardly satisfactory. Per- 
haps Chinese scholars could help us to fathom the meaning of the 
introductory lines in many a Chinese verse and their inner connec- 
tion with the following lines in the same way as Dr. Winstedt has 
done for the pantun in his preface to " Pantun Melayu." 

I once went through my collection of pantun with a clever 
Malay munshi from Sumatra and learned something about the 
meaning of the second lines, but very little of their connection with, 
the first pair. The munshi indeed declared the first couplets to be 
meaningless, and observing my apparent incredulity, pointed 
triumphantly to the passage in the " Pelayaran Abdullah : " 

" Ada pun jalan segala pantun itu empat-empat mistar ada- 
nya; oermula mistar yang di-atas dua itu, tiada erti-nya,. 
melainJcan ia-itu menjadi pasang-nya saliaja; maka yang dua 
mistar di-oawah, itu-lah yang ada oererti, ada-nya." 

Menjadi pasang-nya the munshi declared to mean that they- 
were only there " to carry the rhyme." Undoubtedly there is a 
grain of truth in Abdullah's statement, at least as far as modern 
Malays and pantuns are concerned. A glance over the quatrains 
of " Pantun Melayu " will show that the principle of assonance is 
frequently dispensed with, and as regards the " veiled and unveiled, 
thought " I would venture to add the " compulsion of rhyme " to 
the long list of explanations enumerated by Dr. Winstedt to solve- 
the difficulties of the European student when he meets with an 
apparently meaningless first pair of lines. 

" Out of a big repertory of old-world verses the singer chooses 
one suitable for the purpose or possibly invents a new verse or 
changes and adapts an old." " Favourite quatrains have under- 
gone a little Odyssey of adventure up and down the Malay Archi- 
pelago." 2 The real meaning of a pantun lies in the second coup- 

1. Pantun Melayu, Nos. 306-313. 

2. From the preface to "Pantun Melayn. ,? . 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



18 



THE MALAY PANTUN. 



let: what the singer wants to say, he expresses in the second coup- 
let, and apparently the second couplet lingers in the memory of 
the Malay much stronger than the first. When hearing extem- 
porised pantun, I have often noticed that the singer has fixed in 
his mind only the last couplet and improvises the first simply to 
get the rhyme, without paying any attention to principles of as- 
sonance and veiled thought. If he finds in bis momentary sur- 
roundings or occupation a motive for the rhyme he needs, he will 
seize it at once. Again any adept in pantun has at his com- 
mand a large number of rhyme-equivalents which will enable him 
to construct at a moment's notice the first couplet that gives the 
rhyme for the second, and even to do it in a neat style, giving a 
nice little picture, which however has hardly any inner connection 
with the thought expressed in the second couplet. Sometimes he 
simply alters a stock-phrase just to get at the rhyme. The choice 
vof fruits put by the extemporiser into a puan or dulang very often 
seems to be determined solely by the rhyme, and so too the use of 
stock-phrases dari ... .belay ar ka...., orang . . . . pulang ka....; 
.kalau tuan pergi ka. ... ., charikan sahaya. 

Below are given some quatrains taken from Pantun Melayu, 
Pantun Dondang Sayang and my own collection, in which the 
third and fourth lines are quite or very nearly identical, whilst 
the first two lines differ more or less. Sometimes the rhyme-words 
still linger in the singer's memory, and sometimes the principle of 
-assonance makes itself felt vaguely. These examples may serve 
to illustrate the working of the Malay pantun-smger. Experts 
perhaps will be able to discriminate between the work of the poet 
•and that of the plagiarist. 



Kumbang terbang keliling kota, Zamzam telaga ada di-21ekali, 

Makan rukam sa-pokok habis; Minum orang anak si- All; 

Adinda jangan bimbang taf suka, Adinda jangan bimbang ta' suka, 

Ambil keris tikam sa-kali. Ambil keris tikam sa-kali. 



Yu put eh si-lumba-lumba, Jin besar turun bertapa, 

Lain berenang ka-Tanjong Jati. Makan sa-hari sa-gantang padi; 

Anak sungai kalau ku-tuba, Anak sungai kalau ku-tuba, 

Lotong siamang jatoh mati. Lotong siamang jatoh mati. 



Baik-baik tuan mengikat; 
Anak balam terbang tinggi; 
Baik-baik tuan menyurat, 
Kalam jangan buat penyugi. 



Ada suatu Haji Tambi, 
Berjumpa kolam turun mandi; 
Baik-baik tuan menulis 
Kalam jangan buat penyugi. 



4. lb. No. 90t). 



Jour. Straits Branch 



THE MALAY PANTUN. 



19- 



Layang-layang terbang melayang, 
Sayang serai dalam cherana; 
Bidadari turun melayang 
Nantikan sore bulan pernama. 



TetaJc mayang seludang mayang, 
Emas urai di-dalam cherana; 
Bidadari turun melayang, 
Nantikan sore bulan pernama. 



Mayang terendam di-pusat tasek, 
Pusat tasek tumboh chendawanj 
Bintang merindu chenderawaseh, 
Chenderawaseh burong di-awan. 



Seri Rama raja di-Tasek, 
Sayang tasek tumboh chendawan; 
Bintang merindu chenderawaseh ... 
Chenderawaseh burong di-awan. 



Zaman tatkala raja di-Kelang , 
TcM di-ukur dengan gelang; 
Budi sedikit bila-kah hilang, 
Sudah serap di-dalam tulang. 



Kalau tuan pergi ka-Gelang, 
Pesan sahaya limau lelang; 
Budi sedikit bila-kah hilang, 
Sudah serap di-dalam tulang. 



JRamai berkahwin raja Kelang, Kalau kerja raja di-Kelang, 

Pakai dokoh dengan gelang; Pakai kebaya sama gelang ; 

Budi baik mana 'nak hilang, Budi sedikit bila-kah hilang, 

Mesera sampai ka-dalam tulang. Berserap sampaika-dalam tulang .. 



Pagar sahaya pagar keliling, 
Pokok kara-kara tiada mulxa; 
Chaching bertapa lautan kering, 
Bila-kah boleh menjadi nagaf 



Ada suatu Penglima Gading. 
Masok ka-hulu hendak menjaga; 
Chaching bertapa lautan kering,. 
Bila-kah boleh menjadi nagaf 



Dari pauh singgah pematang, 
Singgah merapat papan kemudi; 
Dari jauh sahaya datang, 
Kama tuan baik budi. 



Berapa jauh tanah Palembang, 
Burong terbang pulang hari; 
Dari jauh sahaya datang, 
Dengarkan tuan baik budi. 



Acheh berperang ka-Bangka Hulu Si Langsat anjing pemburu, 

Seri Padifka penglima-nya; Busa sa-kawan di-adang-nya, 

Diam tuan sabar dahulu, Diam tuan sabar dahulu 

Ada masa ketika-nya. Ada masa ketika-nya. 



Buah bachang sa-tangkai Ubat, 
Mari taroh di-dalam gedong; 
Dua di-panching, satu ta' dapat 
Baik beraleh ka-tempat yang Dain. 



Pinjamkan sahaya si-pisau raut, 
Hendak meraut bingkai tudong ; 
Gila apa ikan di-laut, 
Melihat umpan di-atas gunong. 



Putek machang sa-tangkai lebat,. 
Enche J Salleh berkedai kain; 
Dua di-panching, satu ta' dapat 
Ikan beraleh di-tempat lain. 



Pisau wali buat peraut, 
Chamchajatoh patah berdengong 
Gila latah ikan di-laut 
Melihat umpan di-atas gunong. 



R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



20 



THE MALAY PANTUN. 



TIarap liarap kelapa puan, 
Tidak puan kelapa Bali; 
II a rap hati ka-pada nan tuan, 
Tidak tuan, siapa lagi? 



Puan kelapa puan, 
Ketiga dengan kelapa Bali; 
Harap hati ka-pada tuan, 
Tidak tuan, siapa lagi? 



Li mau manis di-tepi perigi, 
Lebat buah di-hujong dahan; 
Harimau garang, kuku-nya besi, 
Di-berak tiong mati beragan. 



Yang mana serang mana kelasif 
Mana satu jadi juragan? 
Harimau garang, kuku-nya besi, 
Di-berak tiong mati beragan. 



Ada suatu anak kelasi, 
Baharu sekarang menjadi juragan 
Harimau garang, kuku-nya besi, 
Di-berak tiong mati beragan. 



Limau purut limau lelang, 
JIasak sa-biji di-pangkal Rama; 
Harimau mati tinggalkan belang, 
Manusia mati tinggalkan nama. 



Anak babi dari kuala, 
Mati sa-ekor mabok cliendawan; 
.Hati hanchor bertambah gondah, 
Dalam bei'alii pada-mu tuan. 



Belah buloh sangkaran balam, 
Belah di-rumah Tok Penghulu; 
.Allah belum jadikan alam, 
Kit a sudah berjanji dahulu. 



Datok Japar anak Temenggong, 
Lari masok di-hujong lorong; 
Kalau lapar makankan jagong, 
Jagong jangan katakan rebong. 



Serindit di-gonggong lang, 
Jatoh ka-longgok Indragiri, 
Sudah terselit di-kampong orang, 
Baik-baik membawa diri. 



Anak Melayu pakai selendang, 
Singgah petek buah delima; 
Harimau mati tinggalkan belang 
Orang mati tinggalkan nama. 



Thalasa liari yang kedua, 
Terbang tiong dua sa-kawan; 
Hati hanchor bertambah gondah, 
Dalam berahi pada-mu tuan. 



Belah -belum bunyi malam,, 
Bunyi di-atas bumbong Peng- 
hulu; 
Allah belum jadikan alam, 
Sahaya sudah berjanji dahulu. 



Enche' Japar mudek menyabong, 
Ayam kelabu- di-sangka tedong; 
Kalau lapar makankan jagong, 
Bambu jangan di-sangka rebong. 



Pisang kelat di-gonggong lang, 
Jatoh ka-laut Inderagiri; 
Abang terselit di-negeri orang, 
Baik-baik m&mbawa diri. 



■Jatoh ka-longgok ka-Indragiri, 
Beli gula satu tempayan, 
Jikalau pandai m&mbawa diri, 
Banyak orang belas kasehan. 1 



Kalau tuan pergi ka-Deli, 
Baiva gula satu tempayan; 
Kalau pandai membawa diri, 
Di-mana jatoh orang kasehan. 



1. This and the quatrain just above are out of a series of 5 pantun ber- 
kait-kail. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



THE MALAY PANTUN. 



21 



Buloh perindu di-atas atap, 
Hendak di-buat bambu joran; 
Kalau rindu jangan meratap, 
Siapa lalu baik di-pesan. 



Sembilu di-atas atap, 
J atoli ka-bawah sahaya tekankan; 
Kalau rindu jangan meratap, 
Lain orang sahaya pesankan. 



Buloh perindu di-atas atap, 
Anak itek ampas-ampaskan ; 
Jikalau rindu jangan meratap, 
Siapa lalu tuan pesankan. 



Anjing menyalak di-tepi kota, 
Hendak di-adang rusa sa-kawan; 
Kalau sampai niat-nya kita, 
Ku-bayar kaul puasa sa-bulan. 



Simpai rotan dari Malaka, 
Buat pemihul rusa berjalan; 
Jikalau sampai niat-nya kita, 
Bayar kaul puasa sa-btdan. 



Ada suatu kapal Surati, 
Matt tukang, mati kelasi; 
Kalau ta' dapat bagai di-hati, 
Biar-lah bujang sampai ka-mati. 



Anak sepat di-dalam padi, 
Anak seluang melompat tinggi; 
Kalau ta' dapat bagai di-hati, 
Biar-lah bujang sampai ka-mati. 



Kenchang-kenchangangindi-atas, Di-tenun kain dengan kertas, 

Hendak memutus tali kechapi; Bermacham-'inacham warna ragi; 

Jong lilin, layar kertas, Perah u lilin, layar kertas, 

Hendak mela-lu lautan api. Berani ku-langgar lautan api. 



Buah beludu buah keledang, 
Besar greja di-atas bukit; 
Lain dahulu, lain sekarang, 
Jauh beda, bukan sedikit. 



Ka-hulu membeli arang, 
Greja di-atas bukit; 
Lain dahulu, lain sekarang, 
Jauh beda, bukan sedikit. 



Lain hulu, lain parang, 
Sayang greja di-atas bukit; 
Lain dahulu, lain sekarang, 
Jauh beda, bukan sedikit. 



Lim,au manis di-kebun raja, 
Hilang di-bungkus puncha kain; 
Mulut manis di-depan sahaja, 
Hati sudah ka-pada lain. 



Jjimau manis chondong ka-paya, 
Boleh buat sampaian kain; 
Mulut manis ka-pada sahaya, 
Hati kaseh pada yang lain. 



Rumput manis di-dalam pay a, 
Padi linat di-atas permatang ; 
Mulut manis ka-pada sahaya, 
Hati-nya bulat ka-belakang. 



R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



22 



THE MALAY PANTUN. 



Rioh-rendah potong kerbau, 
Kasi mak an orang yang ram at; 
Orang diam ku-sangka bodoh, 
Om bak-nya besar menutup sungai. 



Ada gala, ada-nya semnt, 
Bagai Touching mamah tulang ; 
Orang I' ay a a pa di-sebut? 
Kita miskin berbanting tulang. 



Masak nasi, potong kerbau, 
Ilcndak di-jamu raja Berunai; 
Orang diam di-kata bodoh, 
Sa-bagai ombak tutup sungai. 



Jikalau tuan pergi ka-Lukut-, 
Sing gali di-l)Hing di-Kuala Ke- 

lang; 
Orang kaya jangan di-ikut 
Kita miskin membanting tulang. 



Apa.melintang rumah Che' Judi, 
Tampak dari pangkalan raja? 
Puas sudah mengambur budi, 
Sah ay a tniskin, di-buang sahaja. 



Dari mana tanam Unggundif 
Lenggundi tanam di-pintu raja; 
Chnma sahaya menabur budi, 
Budi di-tabur terbuang sahaja. 



Anak balam di-atas pang gong, 
Kalau tuan ka-Bandar Rekan; 
Hindu sahaya tidak Urtanggong, 
Sakalian burong sahaya berpesan. 



Tetak nibong buat pang gong, 
Ranyut tern pur ong di-Kuala Re- 
kan; 
Rindu sahaya tidak Urtanggong, 
Burong terbang sahaya berpesan. 



Makan tebu di-luar serambi, 
Anak tekukur atas bwmbongan ; 
Sa-hari bertemu, sa-hari mati, 
Sa-ribu shukur atas junjongan. 



Tanglong tergantong di-Tanjong 

Jati, 
Sayang tekukur atas bumfyongan; 
Sa-hari bertemu, sa-hari mati, 
Sa-ribu shukur atas junjongan. 



" Bismillah " itu mula di-karang, 
Pantun anak Jawa Semarang. 
Sahaya umpama kainyang jarang, 
Jual tidak di-beli orang. 



Gulama ikan di-karang, 
Di-kail oleh anak Semarang ; 
Sahaya umpama kain yang jarang, 
Takut di-jual ta' belt orang. 



Tanjong Katong ayer-nya biru, 
Tern pat berlaboh kochi Malaka; 
Sedang sa-kampong lagi ku-rindu, 
Inikan pula jauh di-mata. 



Tanjong Katong ayer-nya biru, 
Boleh buat chefmin mata; 
Sedang sa-kampong lagidi-rindu, 
Ini pula jauh di-mata. 



Anak kambing put era dewi, 
Mengulam puchok akar beludu; 
Sireh raja, pinang menteri, 
Yang mana patut di-makan da- 
hulu. 



Kambing ini kambing biri-biri, 
Ilendak makan puchok clieru- 

choh; 
Sireh raja, pinang menteri, 
Yang mana patut makan dahutu. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



THE MALAY PANTUN. 



23 



Kambing sahaya sedang lari, 
Makan tar oh kachang bulu; 
Sir eh raja, pinang menteri, 
Yang mana sahaya jawai dahulu. 



Ay am denak dari Petani, 
Di-sembah ka-Dato' Raja Muda; 
Sir eh di-semat dengan nyanyi, 
Pinang di-belah dengan suara. 



Berkokok ayam di-Banting , 
Bersahut ayam di-kuala; 
Sir eh di-tebok dengan gunting, 
Pinang di-belah dengan suara. 



Burong berteriak di-atas keramat, Mempelam tumboh tepi keramat, 

Suara bunyi berdayu-dayu; Di-tanam oleh anak Melayu; 

Tanda ini dunia kiawiat, Tanda dunia hendak kiamat, 

Tinggi rumput dari-nya kayu. Tinggi rum put dari kayu. 



Pin jam kapak pin jam beliong, 
Hendak menebang hawarberduri; 
Tuan di-atas kemunchak payong, 
Sahaya di-batvah menjunjong 
duli. 

Ikan menghempas di-atas daifong, 
Sisek-nya jatoh ka-atas kemudi; 
Tuan di-atas kemunchak payong, 
Sahaya di-baiuah menjunjong 
duli. 



Timpa kapak dengan beliong, 
Tetak mari pauh berduri; 
Tuan di-atas kemunchak payong, 
Sail ay a di-baauah menjunjong 
duli. 

Ada sa-ekor burong puchong-, 

Leher panjang, kaki-nya kudong; 

Tuan sa-umpama kemunchak pa- 
yong, 

Sahaya di-bawah twmpang me- 
lindong. 



Punai jantan terbang sa-kawan, 
Sangka tidak kembali lagi; 
Tuan sa-umpama kain kapan, 
Hanchur tidak berganti lagi. 

Terengganu berkota papan, 
Dudok di-atas tuan puteri; 
Tuan sa-umpama kain kapan, 
Hanchur tidak berganti lagi. 



Punai jantan terbang sa-kawan, 
Entah tidak kembali lagi; " 
Tuan laksana kain kapan, 
JEntah tidak berganti lagi. 

Babi bermain di-terang bulan, 
Singgah berkubang di-rumpun 

buloh; 
Tuan sa-umpama kain kapan, 
Hanchur luloh lekat di-tuboh. 



Sembilan-belas hari rejang-nya halipan, 
Halipan beranak di-dalam padi; 
Tuan sa-umpama si-kain kapan, 
Burok tidak dapat di-ganti. 



Laksamana mudek bergendang, 
Baju zirah ting gal di-bukit; 
Tuan laksana- timun dendang, 
Di-luar merah, di-dalam-nya 
pahit. 



Kalau tuan pergi ka-bendang, 
Baju merah baharu di-jahit; 
Tuan laksana timun dendang, 
Di-luar merah, di-dalam pahit. 



R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



24 



THE MALAY PANTUN. 



Kalau tuan membeli limau, 
Mari tar oh di-dalam gendong; 
Tuan memakai kulit liarimau, 
Bagi Urkejut kambing di-kam- 
pong. 



Si-rangkak di-atas bukit, 
Patah sompek tulang dada-nya, 
Tuan tahu berhati sakit, 
Tiba di-orang apa rasa-nya? 



ffiris dalian tepi surau, 
Tempat sembahyang dato' peng- 

hulu; 
Tujoh musim timpa kemarau, 
Baik di-tolong hujan di-hulu. 



Harimau sa-ekor dari jambatan, 
Utusan anak raja Surati; 
Tuan di-pandang tidakkelihatan. 
Gondah gulana di-dalam hati. 



Kain sutera berkabong-kabong \ 
Pakaian anak raja maulana; 
Pasang jerat di-ujong tanjong, 
Mengkarong lalu, chichak terkena, 



Kalau tidak karna kunchi, 
Papan peti sahaya belahkan; 
KalUu tidak karna mati, 
Belah dada sahaya tunjokkan. 



Anak berok besar lengan, 
Masok ka-bendang makan padi; 
Kalau kaseh alang-alangan, 
Biar ta'usah sa-kali-kali. 



Itek belibis di-Lautan China, 
Mengirai bulu jantan betina; 
Chan-tele mejlis bertambah warna, 
Sa-bagai jahitan sulaman China. 



Bum ah besar berkisi-kisi, 
Belanda mabok dua tiga; 
Chakap jangan di-habisi, 
Besar rambut di-tinggal juga. 



Nangka bulat di-sangka limau, 
Sayang sa-biji di-petek kang- 

kong; 
Tuan pakai kulit harimau, 
Hendak geretak rusasa-kampong. 



Sayang durian di-atas bukit, 
Mari di-belah ambil pangsa-nya; 
Tuan tahu berliati sakit, 
Kata orang apa rasa-nya? 



Sumpit mari si-barau-barau, 
Masok di-hutan mudek ka-hulu; 
Tujoh musim timpa kemarau, 
Baik di-tolong hujan di-hulu. 



Anak harimau dari Bent an, 
Kena panah raja Surati; 
Tuan di-pandang tidak kelihatan, 
Gondah gulana di-dalam hati. 



Asam kelat buah tanjong, 
Perahu-perahu anak China; 
Pasang jerat di-ujong tanjong, 
Chicliak lalu bengkarong kena. 



Anak lang di-kayu jati, 
Turun ka-pantai menyambar 

ikan; 
Kalau tidak karna mati, 
Di-belah dada sahaya tunjokkan. 



Chenderawaseh burong keyangan, 
Singgah hinggap di-pauh janggi; 
Kalau kaseh alang-alangan 
Baik ta'usah sa-kali-kali. 



Apa terlintang lant-nya tengahf 
Sisek-nya ijau nag a betina; 
Chantek mejlis bertambah warna, 
Sa-bagai jahitan sulaman China, 



Ada suatu orang Habshi, 
Belanda mabok dua sa-rupa; 
Chakap jangan tuan habisi, 
Sa-helai rambut tinggalkan juga. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



THE MALAY PANTUN. 



25 



Orang berlayar Lautan Ambon, 
Fatah tiang patah kemudi; 
Putus benang boleh di-sambong, 
Fatah arang sudah sa-kali. 



Dari Gangsa pergi ka-Kubong , 
Singgah ka-Tualang merentang 

tali; 
Putus benang boleh di-sambong, 
Patah arang putus sa-kali. 



Perahu lancliang dari Petani, 
Naik ka-darat beli kain; 
Buah machang sa-rupa kuini, 
Rupa-nya sama, rasa-nya lain. 



Dari sana pergi ka-sini, 
Mas.ok ka-dalam turun kain; 
Bachang jangan di-sangka kuini } 
Kulit-nya sama, rasa-nya lain. 



It would be interesting to have a Malay poet's view on this 
point; but something may perhaps be inferred from the discre- 
pancy between the pantuns of a Malay Hikayat and those con- 
tained in its (metrical version, the Shaer. A " Hikayat Chendawan 
Puteh" was published in Singapore in 1328 (1909 A.D.) and a 
"< Shaer Chendawan Puteh" in 1331 (1912 A.D,). The date of 
the latter in the writer's copy is blurred and it may be 1321, but 
in any case the Sliaer must be a later production, as many facts 
and episodes of the Hikayat are missing, and towards the end the 
poet, apparently weary of his task, is progressing by leaps and 
bounds, which makes the Shaer fairly unintelligible without the 
knowledge of the Hikayat. Many of the pantun of the Hikayat 
have been taken over into the Shaer, but the poet has altered them 
according to his taste. A few quatrains will show how he did it. 



Hikayat Chendawan Puteh. 

Padi di-saivah petek tangkai-nya, 
Orang Feringgi jadi kelana; 
Tuan di-bawah patek bertanya, 
Sekarang pergi akan ka-mana f 

Orang Feringgi jadi kelana. 
Menchari landak sa-kaivan lima; 
■Sekarang pergi akan ka-mana? 
Patek nan hendak bertanyanama. 
Menohari landak ka-kawan lima, 
Fi-makan chendawan di-pohon 

uni; 
Patek nan liendak bertanya nama, 
Siapa pula tuanku inif 



Shaer Chendawan Puteh. 

Padi di-sawah petek tangkai-nya, 
Orang Feringgi melanggar 

China; 
Tuan di-bawah patek bertanya, 
Sekarang pergi hendak ka-mana? 

Orang Feringgi melanggar China, 
Berapa banyak mati penglima; 
Sekarang tuan pergi ka-mana? 
Kami nan hendak bertanyanama. 

Berapa banyak mati penglima, 
Di-bantu oleh segala Serani; 
Kami nan hendak bertanyanama, 
Anak siapa tuanku inif 



Rajawali raja per man, 

-Singgah memanah burong kedidi; 

Tinggal-lah balai, tinggal-lah la- 
man, 

Tinggal pengkalan tempat ku- 
mandi. 



Merak men gig al di-dalam taman, 
Mati di-patok ular-nya lidi; 
Tinggal mahligai kampong hala- 

man, 
Beserta kolam, tempat-ku mandi. 



B. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



26 



THE MALAY PANTUN. 






Sing gah memanah burong kedidi, 
Terbang hinggap di-pohonraman ; 
Tinggal pengkalan tempat bu- 
rn andi, 
Entah-kan balek akhir-al-zaman. 

Terbang hinggap di-pohon raman, 
Di-sambar paksi burong dewata; 
Entah-kan balek akhir-al-zaman, 
Sudah-lah nasib pertemuan kita. 



Mati di-patok ular-nya lidi, 
Di-panah oleh Raja Hanuman; 
Beserta kolam tempat ku-mandi^ 
Entah-kan balek akhir-al-zaman . 

Di-panah oleh Raja Hanuman, 
Di-sambar paksi burong dewata; 
Entah-kan balek akhir-al-zaman . 
Sudah nasib pertemuan kita. 



Siamang ku-sangka Zanggi, 
Mati di-bunoh hulubalang tua; 
Memang ta'baik orang pendengki,. 
Badan sendiri ia- kechewa. 



Mcdi di-bunoh hulubalang tua, 
J atoh di-sisi pada pengkalan; 
Akhir sendiri jua kechewa, 
Maksud to 'sampaijadi kembalan* 

Pergi ka-pantai menjala ikan, 
Di-tebar dapat alu-alu; 
Sanak bukan, saudara bukan, 
Hampir ka-mari tidak-kah malu? 



Orang Daik bermain judi, 
A wan di-mega jadi tudong-nya; 
Memang ta'baik orang pendengki, 
Akhir sendiri juga menanggong- 
nya. 

Awan di-mega jadi tudong-nya, 
Sarang pipit di-dalam negeri; 
Sendiri juga yang menanggong- 
nya, 

Hendak-lah ingot kemudian hari. 
Hendak makan tidak bSrikan, 
Helang ber sarang di-pohon uni; 
Sanak bukan, saudara bukan, 
Mengapa gerangan datang ka- 
sini f 

Kayu udek dekat desa, Di-tebar dapat alu-alu; 

Di-hinggapi oleh si-burong lang ; Di-sambar unggas si-raja helang. 

Orang arif lagi berbangsa, Hampir ka-mari tidak-kah malu?' 

Baik-lah segera kembali pulang. Baik-laJi segera kembali pulang. 



Whilst in the usual pantun the second couplet is the essential 
part, and the first lines may differ occasionally without much affect- 
ing the total meaning, there is another class of pantuns wherein 
much more stress is laid upon the first couplet, and the second 
seems to be more loosely attached. There are pantuns belonging 
to certain series of quatrains strung together by a connection be- 
tween the different first couplets, other than " pantun berkaitf 
Such series for example are those which in tlie first couplets 
narrate a legend like that of Panji Semerang or Seri Roma, or 
series of mnemonic verses such as the Rejang Sombang, Rejang 
Stale and Rejang Sindiran, and the Alif-Ba-Ta series. In those 
quatrains which are mostly inferior in quality as compared with 
the usual pantun, the first couplet is apparently the most im- 
portant, and the second often differs in different versions, whilst 
the first couplets are identical. The second couplets often seem to 
be taken from a general stock of puji-pujian, kenang-kenangan or 

Jour. Straits Branch 



THE MALAY PANTUN. 



27 



merendahkan diri verses, and show no individuality. In a con- 
test of singers they may be used to show the wit of the rivals, or 
-during a long trip on a river a lover may drone them to his sweet- 
heart. 1 .Most of these series are too long to be given here, but two 
variant versions of the " Storm in a tea-cup " will illustrate the 
point. 



"Pantun Melayu." 

Anak ayam turun sa-belas 
Mali sa-ekur tinggal sa-puloh. 
Mata siapa tidakkan belas 
Melihat kapal beraleh laboh. 

Anak ayam turun sa-puloh 
Mati sa-ekur tinggal sembilan. 
Melihat kapal beraleh laboh 
Di-laut Pulau Sembilan. 



The writer's collection. 



Missing. 



Anak ayam turun sa-puloh 
Mati sa-ekur tinggal sembilan. 
Angkat tang an jari sa-puloh 
Hendak bermohon kapada-mu 
tuan. 



Anak ayam turun sembilan 
Mati sa-ekur tinggal lapan. 
Di-laut Pulau Sembilan 
Di-situ-lah banyak kapalberagan. 

Anak ayam turun delapan 
Mati sa-ekur tinggal tujoh. 
Di-situ-lah banyak kapal beragan 
Anak kelasi habis gadoh. 

Anak ayam turun tujoh 
Mati sa-ekur tinggal enam. 
Anak kelasi habis gadoh 
Kapal di-laut habis jehanam. 

Anak ayam turun enam 
Mati sa-ekur tinggal lima. 
Kapal di-laut habis jehanam 
Panggilkan-nya tukang China. 

Anak ayam turun lima, 
Mati sa-ekur tinggal empat. 
Panggilkan-nya tukang China 
Mana yang renggang habis rapat. 

Anak ayam turun empat 
Mati sa-ekur tinggal tiga. 
Mana yang renggang habis rapat 
Che' kelasi baharu-lah suka. 



Anak ayam turun sembilan 
Mati sa-ekur tinggal delapan. 
Hendak bermohon ka-pada tuan 
Niat di-hati menjadi kapitan. 

Anak ayam turun delapan 
Mati sa-ekur tinggal tujoh. 
Niat di-hati menjadi kapitan 
Kapal berlayar sudah berlaboh. 

Anak ayam turun tujoh 
Mati sa-ekur tinggal enam. 
Kapal berlayar sudah berlaboh 
Di-pukul ombak sudah jambatan. 

Anak ayam turun enam 
Mati sa-ekur tinggal lima. 
Di-pukul ombak, sudah jambatan 
Kasi baik tukang China. 

Anak ayam turun lima, 
Mati sa-ekur tinggal empat. 
Sudah baik tukang China 
Mana yang renggang kasi rapat. 

Anak ayam turun empat 
Mati sa-ekur tinggal tiga. 
Mana yang renggang kasi rapat 
Kapal baik di-layar juga. 



1. Compare the pantuns in "Anggun che Tunggal." 
R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



•28 



THE MALAY PANTUN. 



Anak ayam turun tiga 
Mati sa-ekur ting gal dua. 
Che' kelasi baliaru-lah suka 
Bongkar sauh berlayar sa-mula. 

Anal- a gam turun dua 
Mali sa-ekur ting gal satu. 
Bongl'ar sauh herlayar sa-mula 
Hendak menuju gedong batu. 



Anak ay am turun tiga 
Mati sa-ekur tinggal dua. 
Kapal baik berlayar jug a 
Hainan menuju tanalt Jawa. 

Anak ay am turun dua 
Mati sa-ekur tinggal satu. 
Baluan menuju tanah Jawa 
Sudah naik di-atas batu. 



Anak ay am turun satu Anak ay am turun satu 

Mali sa-ekur habis sudali. Mati sa-ekur liabis lain. 

Hendak menuju gedong batu Sudah naik di-atas batu 

Jual barang harga yang murali. Di-pukul ombak bertalu-talu. 

Anak ayam liabis lalu 
Tali rotan ambit di-chabut. 
Di-pukul ombak bertalu-talu 
Segala kapitan kelam kabut. 

The examples given above of pantuns with different first and 
identical second couplets, and on the other hand of quatrains with 
identical first and different second couplets may tend to show that 
the connection between the first and the second pair of lines is not 
very strong, and that often the picture contained in the first coup- 
lets is not conditional or depending on the thought expressed in 
the second lines. Such pantuns therefore seem to follow rather 
the " clever arabesque " of some Chinese poetry than the way of 
the picture strictly illustrating the thought of the Indian sloka. 1 

It would be interesting to know if other peoples besides the- 
Malays and Sundanese have verses similar in structure and use to 
the pan-tun. Dr. Winstedt in his preface to " Pantun Melayu " 
speaks of the pantun as the love-verse and lampoon of Indonesian 
peoples, and a comparison with songs from the Philippines, Fiji,. 
Xew-Zealand should give interesting results. Perhaps the learned 
societies there could furnish the necessarv material. 



1. The writer has since found in Menangkabau tales six-lined pan- 
tuns, of which the 1st and 4th, the 2nd 5th and 3rd and 6th lines rhyme. 
Particulars will be given in another paper. 



A Tamil Malay Manuscript, 



By Dr. Ph. S. van Ronkel. 
Professor of Malay at Leiden University. 

It is well known that Islam and the greater part of Moslem 
mysticism found its way to the Indonesian Archipelago not from 
Arabia, but from Southern India. It is, indeed, a truth so well 
proved, that it seems superfluous to lay stress on it, or to deal with it 
in detail. It may suffice to remind the reader of the undeniable facL 
that the very form of popular Islam, the character of its mysticism, 
the whole Islamic edifying and romantic literature, the form of 
many Arabic loanwords, the style of Muhammedan tombs and 
so on point to Southern India as the land of their origin.-. 

The Tamil words which were introduced by the Dravidian 
Moslem merchants, who converted the partly animistic partly 
Hinduistic population of Sumatra and Java, are still in use. 
Many a Dekhan saint or divine is venerated in these islands to the 
present day; in short, the Muhammedanism of the Dekhan still 
flourishes in the Indonesian world, in spite of later orthodox in- 
fluences from Mecca and Hadramaut. 

The substratum of animistic ideas is always visible through 
the Islamic tenets in their popular form while the Hindu nomen- 
clature of some Moslem ideas indicates the intermediate layer that 
preceded the Islamic period. Let us only call to mind that to de- 
signate the Moslem teacher, the Islamic fast and the Muhammedan 
religion old Sanskrit words (guru, yuwasa and agama) have sur- 
vived in many Indonesian languages. 

All such historical evidence as is now available regarding the 
introduction of Islam into the Archipelago has been elucidated by 
various scholars in the course of their investigations. The people 
themselves are not aware of the link which exists between their 
creed and the distant Mohammedan, provinces of Southern India. 
At best, a few Indian immigrants may have a dim consciousness of the 
existence of that historical connection. Thus, some thirty years ago, 
a member of the Indian merchant family Akuan at Samarang showed 
a trilingual Muhammedan manuscript to Dr. Snouck Hurgronje. 
"This document," the owner explained, "shows the way by which the 
penetration of Islam has taken place; the Persian part representing* 
the original literary language of Islamic culture in India ; the portion 
in a modern Indian idiom, not understood by us, being represen- 
tative of the interjacent country between Hindustan and these 
islands, and the third portion, the wholly intelligible Malay part, the 
speech of Islam as it is now in this country." But that intelligent 
merchant certainly is an exception. In order to follow the current 
of Islamic civilisation we have to examine historical facts and lin- 
guistic and religious evidence. In certain cases we iiave to rely on 
a single book, tale or manuscript. 

Jour. Straits Branch R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



30 A TAMIL MALAY MANUSCRIPT. 

So with the subject of the present paper, a manuscript which 
clearly shows that the Islam of Indonesia is South Indian in its 
origin, and was introduced by Indian Moslems, who came from the 
Dekhan, especially from the Tamil country, The MS. I review, is 
an ancient looking folio, described in my recently published sup- 
plementary catalogue of the Malay manuscripts in the Leyden 
University Library sub No. 754. 1 It mentions neither the place 
where it was written nor the name of its original owner. Yet it 
speaks an eloquent language, as it is composed in two idioms, Tamil 
and Malay, and contains moreover passages in Persian. So here 
we find the three Islamic languages in question employed in one 
book. 

This manuscript, moreover, presents an example of Tamil 
written in Arabic characters and used for the rendering of an Arabic 
text. Tamil books, it is true, printed in Arabic characters are by 
no means unknown — (I was shown some specimens in the library 
of the India Office at London in 1907 ) , but such manuscripts so far 
as I know, are very rare, and this one at least is unique both in 
Holland and Dutch India. 

I will not tax the reader's patience by an exposition of the 
system followed in rendering Tamil sounds by Arabic characters; 
it will suffice to state that a copious use has been made of the so- 
called emphatic letters and dental letters with dots beneath them. 
Moreover the transliteration does not seem to be quite consistent. 
The very first page is typical of the nature of the whole book, Malay 
being mixed with Tamil without any apparent transition. This 
page is taken up by a niyyali -formula in Malay (the formulary for the 
inward intention to perform the ritual prostrations, sembahyang), 
ending in an Arabic prayer, which in its turn is followed by an ex- 
planation in Tamil, all by one and the same hand, (and in one con- 
tinuous handwriting. So, after an Arabic prayer, at once the text 
continues with an explanation in Tamil, 2 and so on. Evidently the 
author or scribe wrote the three languages w T ith equal ease and 
understanding. 

After some introductory matter a regular text begins, viz. an 
Arabic treatise styled: Izam al-fawa'id fl nizam al-'a~kaid, on the 
tenets of the creed, accompanied by a Tamil version with fully 
vocalised Arabic transcription, many diacritical signs but not a 
single Tamil letter; so it is all in queer-looking Arabic writing. 
The Arabic dogmatical treatise, by Mahmud Ibn Muhammad Labai 
Ivumaran begins, after the usual eulogy in honour of Allah and the 
Prophet, as follows : " The poor slave, who needs the intervention 
of the Prophet, says : this is a short treatise which deals with what 

1. A MS. in folio 90 folios (180 pp.) -written on European paper in a 
bold and char handwriting, dated 5 Sha'ban, 1192; worm-eaten. 

2. .pVi V;.>-(_£A*VS ^*\\ id est. inda kalimawai connanagil == if ODe has 
recited his prayer. The original has diacritical marks. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



A TAMIL MALAY MANUSCEIPT. 31 

adults should know about the right creed and pious works, and 
which I have compiled from books of great, renowned imam's, as 
Al-Gbazall, Al-Xawawi, Muhammad Ibn 'Arabi, 'Abdulkarlm 
Al-Jabli, iMuhammad Ibn Fadlallah, Ahmad Al-Kushashi and 
others, together with a translation into the Ariwi-language for the use 
of whosoever does not fairly understand Arabic. I have named it : 
the great guides in the -arranging of tenets, and divided it into an 
introduction, four paragraphs and a conclusion." 

Now;, every sentence of this dogmatical treatise is followed by 
its rendering into Tamil. The translation therefore is not an inter- 
linear one presenting the equivalents of each separate word and 
every suffix as is often the case in Malaised and Javanised Arabic 
texts, but >a connected translation of complete periods, in full 
agreement with the syntax of the idiom used for the translation. 
But, it is almost superfluous to add, the language used shows an 
admixture of Arabic words and Persian terms such as is never found 
in non-Islamic Tamil writings. 

The first question which presents itself is : wiiy is the Tamil 
language indicated by the curious term AriwI? 1 . Evidently, it 
represents the Islamic name for the Tamil idiom. At first sight 
one might be tempted to identify it with AriwI, the language of 
Arvi in the Wardha Districts. But according to the Imperial 
Gazetteer (XXIV, 368) : — "about 86 per cent, of the population 
are Hindus and nearly 4 per cent. Muhammedans. The statistics 
of language shows that 79 per cent, of the population speak 
Marathi ; of the remainder 13,642 persons (in 1908) probably 
all Muhammedans speak Urdu, 25,7'H-O Hindi (principally Brah- 
mans and Rajputs), 39,385 Gondl and 2,428 Telugu." Arvi 
moreover does not belong to the Tamil area, and counts too small 
a proportion of Moslems among its population to give its name 
to a language used by millions in other parts of India. But, it 
is known that Aruwa is one of the thirteen countries, in which the 
inferior type of Tamil is spoken 2 (un pays ou l'on parle le bas 
tamoul), and although the language of this translation is by no means 
the so-called kodun Tamil (the rude, unpolished form), I am un- 
able to propose a more plausible derivation than that from Aruwa 
with the Arabic ending I. Perhaps a better etymology may be 
given by some authority in Tamil matters; it may be added that 
in Hindustani arwa, being a Dakhni word, means : " of or belong- 
ing to Malabar/' which nearly indicates the Tamil-speaking 
country. 

1. Arabic <_£ * ,^i\ »\.vA» but in the translation .jiA' *y 'arabvppacai 

ariyadawanukku lecyaivendi araivippacai kondu oraicceyiyappodi tagawum 
korwaiceyden idai peruwaitten etc. 

2. "13 Tamil-nadu (gnQgrsn® u)^) which belong to the country 
wherein Tamil is spoken< i.e. the Cen-tamil-nadu, where elegant Tamil is spoken 
and 12 in which the common language is spoken, as Tenpandi, Kuttam, Aru- 
wa, Cinam, Matadu etc. 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



32 



A TAMIL MALAY MANUSCBIPT. 



I proceed to quote a few sentences of the beginning of the 
treatise in Tamil translation : for convenience's sake I abstain 
from using the elaborate Tamil characters. The Arabic preamble 
runs : — " Praise to Allah who created the creatures in order to 
know Him, and ordained them to follow His commands; prayer 
and greetings be on His apostle Muhammad the Prophet on whom 
His mercv be bestowed." 



The Tamil translation runs thu; 
ellCi pug alum pugalciyum 



all 



praise 

padaippugalai 
creation (ace.) 

ianudaya markattudu 

his divine way in 



laudation and 



Allah Ta'ala 
Allah Ta'ala 



pa daitt a n 
who created 



tanai 
him 



any a 
to know 



uhJcu 

to 

wendi 
for 



Allah Ta'ala 
Allah Ta'ala 

til dan ul'hu 

messenger to 

rahmattanawidam . . . . 
grace means .... 



nadakkumpadi 
to walk like 

udaya sola mum 

of peace and 

na m udaya nobiyar 

our Prophet 



tolanmdr 
comrades 



awai-udaya 
his 



awargalai 

to his 

ummatuklcu. . . . 
family to .... 



I'ottiram 
tribe 



parlmanan 
he ordained 

awanudaya 

his 

Muhammad 

Muhammad 

awar 

his 



undawatagawum 

shall become. 



Certain portions which were illegible to me (a Tamil Moslem, 
no doubt, would be able to read them) I have left vacant. In the 
same manner the translation runs, ever increasing in its inter- 
pretation of the Arabic sentences, so that gradually it developes 
into an ample commentary, fifteen folios, till there comes an ab- 
Tupt ending- The last page of these fifteen folios is not covered 
with writing; on the page immediately following a Malay dog- 
matical tract of six folios begins. Xext come some Tamil pages 
containing different dogmatical and legal items, and some niyyah- 
formulae and wedding-formulae, the Arabic prayers being indi- 
cated either by Tamil or by Malay titles, on one page even by a 
Persian one. So we find here the four great Moslem languages 
united : the sacred Arabic for the formulae, the old literary Per- 
sian, which once was the court language in Xorthern India, the 
far spread Malay, which is both the intermediary language of all 
Indonesian nations of the Moslem creed, and the islamised Tamil, 
the commercial idiom of the Dekhan. 

The text further deals with the common dogmatical and 
mystical or divinatory subjects, which are usually to be found in 
so many Indian and Indonesian religious tracts. It would be ex- 
tremely tiresome to. enumerate the contents of this varied manu- 
script in detail; it may suffice to point out the characteristic parts 
only. So we pass by in silence the Malay portions on dogmatics 
and the mystic circles (so-called dairahs) and on the different 

Jour. Straits Branch 



A TAMIL MALAY MANUSCRIPT. 33 

spirits (ruh) as well as a treatise in catechism form on islam and 
Imdn, which altogether takes up nearly one-third of the whole book. 
We will restrict ourselves to a summary. 

After a page filled partly with Malay, partly with Tamil and 
for the third part with Arabic, follows a small treatise in Arabic, 
concerning the Prophet Muhammad; each Arabic sentence being 
followed by its Tamil translation and commentary. Subsequent- 
ly — we omit prayers, some of them with a Tamil introduction — a 
Tamil enumeration of the Muhammedan months and the luck at- 
taching to them is succeeded by prayers and invocations, and this 
portion in its turn by a short Malay tract of dogmatical tendency. 
This joins on to an enumeration, in Tamil again, of the ancient 
prophets and of Muhammad's wives, which is concluded by a great 
magical quadrat, fully and completely elucidated by means of 
Tamil comments, i.e. an elaborate and crudely worded exhortation 
regarding sexual matters. It is very remarkable to find a page 
containing a Persian portion and a Tamil one, the former being 
preceded by a couple of lines in Arabic characters in a language 
ndiich is neither Tamil nor Persian nor Hindustani, but presum- 
ably some other Indian idiom. 

Xext there follows a Malay treatise dealing with nearly the 
same subject, viz. exceedingly intimiate and confidential hints 
about coitus and allied items, and this treatise is succeeded by a 
Tamil portion of a divinatory kind, with a complete calendar. 
In order to give an idea of the transcription of Tamil in Arabic 
characters I mention now the numerals in both scripts. In the 
■original diacritica marks are used Arabic characters. 



ondru 



eparrjpj 



xj 


irandu 


gg)j<mr(i 


Jo j* 


niundru 


^Lpfihr jpi 


& 


nalu 


/eit eg 


i 


anju 


=2/(55^ 


) 


aru 


=^J2/ 


C^-ii 


elu 


Vqp 


-X. 


eddu 


otlI® 



9 



j^.Jl<\ 



onpadu 



Gpsarujgi 



Finally the last folio, which is detached, but evidently belongs 
to the book, concludes with a Malay verse of the ordinary kind, 
on a lady and her birds, with some Javanese words, by a certain 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



34 A TAMIL MALAY MANUSCRIPT. 

Tambi Mirah, who styles his poem Sha'ir Indra Dibawan, a name 
of no importance. The author pretends that the book was in the- 
possession of an inhabitant of Batavia, but this assertion proves 
nothing regarding its real origin. Over the poem there is written 
a date, viz. A.H. 119>2, 4 Sha'ban (1191 warusham Shaban masam 
J± tiram) i.e. 29 August, 1%7, and its owner's name a certain 
Kumaran with an illegibly written name of a town ending in 
puram, certainly not Singapura. This name, if it be one, is 

divided into three unvocalised words, viz. . j • z\> \' ( 

Having completed my summary of the manuscript I wish to 
offer a few remarks on the question of its origin. The former 
proprietor, Professor Snouck Hurgronje, purchased it in Java. 
But, evidently, it was previously the property of a Moslem, to- 
whom Malay was as familiar as Tamil, and to whom Persian was- 
not an unknown language. An individual of this type one may 
expect to find in Singapore, at Pulau Pinang, in the Federated. 
Malay States, in short, anywhere in British Malaya and islands,, 
but certainly not in the Dutch Indian Archipelago, ' not even in 
Acheen. " Habent sua fata libelli," and Malay books too may have 
their vicissitudes. I saw in Sumatra Malay manuscripts, which, 
had been the property of descendants of the Sepoys, who on the 
cession of the 'Western parts of that island to the Dutch govern- 
ment went over from British to Dutch service. These books had. 
been provided with interlinear comments: in Javanese and in 
Arabic characters, so-called p'egon. Evidently this commentary 
was due to some later owner of Javanese blood. Almost any col- 
lection of manuscripts in Java comprises some books of remote 
origin, which one would hardly expect to meet with in this part. 
of the world. 

The manuscript which forms the subject of the present note- 
must have been brought to Java by a native of that country. 
Through the agency of Dr. Snouck Hurgronje, late Adviser to- 
the Netherlands-Indian government and now Professor of Arabic 
at the Leyden University, it has found its way to the University 
Library. As regards the original owner, we can only conjecture- 
that he was a Tamil Moslem, who had dwelt long enough in Malaya, 
to know Malay. But we cannot fancy the existence of a Tamil 
who lives long enough in a Malay country to master the Malay 
language so that it becomes equally easy for him as his own 
original idiom. It is obvious therefore that not he but a son of" 
his, born in Malaya from a Malay mother, wrote this book. From 
his father he got his familiarity with Tamil, from his mother his. 
knowledge of Malay, from both his Islamic creed. Such a man 
would be a typical representative of the immigrants who intro- 
duced Islam into the Archipelago. 

Jour. Straits Branch! 



A TAMIL MALAY MANUSCRIPT. 35 

These settlers, Dravidians or Guzeratis, married native wo- 
men in the Peninsula and in the islands, and their sons, so-called 
jperanakan, were familiar with the languages both of their father 
and of their mother. The former idiom they gradually forgot so 
that finally their only language was Malay. Their sons, in their 
turn, knew neither Tamil nor Persian, but understood and talked 
.nothing but Malay. 

This worm-eaten, slovenly written, manuscript, although nei- 
ther very ancient nor specially important is a curious historical 
-document belonging to the period when Islam was introduced 
from the negeri di-atas angin (Persia and Hindustan) into the 
negeri di-bawah angin (Malaya, Sumatra, Java and the islands 
further on to the East). It is a document bearing evidence of the 
t great movement that swept away Hindu culture in the Indonesian 
world. It points to the Straits as the link between Southern 
India and the Archipelago. Consequently it seemed particularly 
fitting that an account of this manuscript should appear in the 
-Journal of the Straits Branch of the Eoyal Asiatic Society. 

Leiden, March, 1921. 



L A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



The Tiger-breed families. 



By Zainul Abidist bix Ahmad. 

Among the peasant population of Jempul, a settlement of 
Malay villagers along a river of that name in the Kuala Pilah 
District of negri Sembilan, there is a belief that certain families 
in the local tribe (svku) of Tig a Batu have a mysterious connec- 
tion with tigers. Eeport has it that this belief is not peculiar to 
Jempul, but extends over a wide area in the Nine States — Juasseh, 
Bembau, Tampin, Teraehi, Gunong Pasir, Jelebu and Pantai. The 
writer however has not made a study of the belief in all these places, 
and this paper deals only with Jempul. For want of a better term 
I call the families in question " The tiger-breed families/' 

The belief is that members of the particular families become 
tigers after their death; a man becomes a tiger, and a woman a 
tigress. Thus, though the belief recalls the were-tiger and were- 
wolf stories which are widely known and believed in many parts 
of the world, it is not exactly the same : the one belief supposes the 
transformation to take place at will during life, and the other 
that it takes place only after death. In their life-time as human 
beings members of these families are said to be peculiarly related 
with certain tigers of the forest, whom they vaguely recognise as- 
incarnations of dead relatives. These tiger " relatives " some- 
times come to the compounds of their human kinsmen, protect 
their cattle from the attack of foreign tigers, their poultry from 
civet-cats (musang) and their paddy-fields or tapioca plantations 
from the ravages of wild-boars. The visitors are expected es- 
pecially during the nights of Hari Eaya, or when there is grave 
trouble in the family to which they belong. But it is seldom that 
many come together. Usually one or two represent the clan.. 
Often a man will warn a friend belonging to one of these families, 
not to make mischief When he becomes a tiger. "When your turn 
comes to become a tiger'' (i.e. when you die) he will say, "I trust 
you will still remain a friend to me, and not do me or my folk 
and cattle any harm. Otherwise I will shoot you. If you require 
food, you .are free to hunt your own fellows in the jungle. Why 
harm our human kind?" Sometimes such words are spoken jest- 
ingly, but more often in a tone of deadly earnestness. 

All this sounds as absurd as it is interesting. But all the 
villagers living within circumference of the families tell the same 
tale. They say that when a member of one of these families is ill. 
there is always one tiger at least haunting the neighbourhood of 
the patient's house (as though there had been telepathic communi- 
cation between the two). He comes closer and closer as night ap- 
proaches, and at such a time nobody dares to go out of the house 
unaccompanied. The compound of the Malay villager's house is 

Jour. Straits Branch 



THE TIGEK-BEEED FAMILIES. 37 

usually surrounded with scrub and patches of low-lying shrubs : it 
is in these that the tiger has his hiding- place during those 
anxious moments of the patient's illness. If the illness is serious,, 
or the patient is dying, the tiger will show signs of trouble and 
uneasiness. He groans, makes piteous noises and restlessly moves- 
from one end of the compound to the other. Occasionally in his 
seeming anxiety for the patient's condition, he encounters the 
human visitors who pass with their torches to or from the patient's 
house. But he is harmless, though the people have their hearts 
in their mouths. The dying patient in the house seems no longer 
conscious of his or her identity as a human being. He tosses about, 
grinds his teeth and looks wild, manifesting a hundred and one 
of the characteristics of a tiger, trying to force out a tail (meng- 
Jiejan ekor) from the coccyx, and often giving unmistakable res- 
ponses to the signals from his tiger-friend below. Very often more 
than one tiger will come .and make circuits round the house. With 
the first peep of day the inmates of the jungle betake themselves 
to the nearest bushes, showing themselves at times, and making 
their presence felt all through the day. The following night 
brings them back to their sentinel routine. But they are not to 
be harmed nor do they do any harm. The patient breathes his last 
and then all is silent till the burial is over. 

In ordinary cases the prospective tiger dies peacefully, and 
then becomes a tiger. Xo one has ever cared or dared to go and 
watch what really happens at the grave during the few nights fol- 
lowing the burial. They say that some days after the burial, the 
white shroud (kain hapan) of the buried body is found lying be- 
sides the grave, torn and tattered ; and a hole of the size of a man's 
body is found to have been made into the grave, while the foot- 
prints of tigers are seen everywhere. From this it is concluded 
that the tigers must take the corpse and bear it (usong) into the 
forest where the metamorphosis takes place in some inexplicable 
way. A tiger representing the dead person makes his appearance 
shortly afterwards. Even if the person dies in another country, 
he comes home to his native village in the shape of a tiger, and 
■announces his arrival through a dream to the principal member of 
the family. Soon after the announcement, a new tiger appears 
in the neighbourhood. There are characteristic marks on the tiger 
answering to the marks on the person when alive as a man. If the 
person had a deformed leg, the new tiger also has a deformed leg. 
If the person was bald-headed, the tiger also is bald-headed. He 
is also distinguishable as the personification of such and such a 
member of the family by peculiar gait and bearing or general build 
which are those of the dead person. These tigers understand 
and respond when called by their human names. I cannot illus- 
trate this better than by a personal story. One night, many years 
ago, my grand-mother was troubled by a herd of buffaloes break- 
ing again and again into her poorly-fenced compound where veget- 
ables and young fruit-trees were sprouting. The moon was over- 
cast, and the night was cool and calm. Eepeatedly the old lady 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



38 THE TIGEE-BEEED FAMILIES. 

drove the intruders away, but as repeatedly they returned. It 
happened that she had an old friend named Faseh who had died 
about a year before and was believed to have become a tiger. In 
her impatience, the old lady shouted out : " Faseh, my friend ! 
If you really have become a tiger, please do me the favour of driv- 
ing away these nasty buffaloes, and thus save my little garden from 
being destroyed." A few moments passed. Then all of a sudden, 
the buffaloes bellowed and rushed out of the compound helter- 
skelter for their life; while above the confusion rose the terrible 
roar of an angry tiger. We were panic-striken in the little hovel 
where we lived, and the old lady felt sorry for having called the 
tiger. But for the rest of the night and for many nights after- 
wards the buffaloes never returned. 

Another incident of a different nature illustrates the supers- 
tition. A Malay woman named Ba'idah, belonging to one of these 
tiger-breed families, had a dead brother, believed to have turned 
into a tiger. One night she dreamt that this brother in the shape 
of a man returned home from a long journey, very badly wounded 
in his chest by an accidental shot from a spring-gun (belanteh 
*usa). He came up the verandah (serambi) and there lay groan- 
ing with agony and saying he was going to die. When she woke 
up in the morning she told her husband what she had seen in her 
dream. On opening the door leading from the main room to the 
verandah they found that all the verandah was besmeared with 
fresh blood. They suspected this was the blood of the wounded 
brother who had come home in the woman's dream. It seemed 
that the tiger had left the house only a short while ago. Calling 
their neighbours who came with guns and spears, they followed the 
track of the blood and foot-prints into the forest. They did not 
go far when they came upon the carcase of a huge tiger. The dis- 
tinctive marks they found on the carcase assured them that it was 
indeed the woman's brother. The mortal wound was exactly in 
the chest, and appeared to have been inflicted the very same night. 
Many similar incidents are known throughout Jempul. Time and 
again it is related these family-tigers visit their relatives' houses 
during the nights of holy festivities, such as Hari Baya. Some- 
times they manage to make their way into the kitchen, and feast 
over some rebus kerbau or ihan pindang that may have been left 
on the hearth. 'Morning comes to tell the tale from the traces 
they leave behind and the clean-licked cooking pots and dishes. 
This would make an interesting counterpart to the well-known 
nursery tale of Santa Claus who comes on Christmas eve to bring 
presents for children. 

There are many little graveyards throughout Jempul which 
are credited with having produced tigers out of human corpses. 
Two of them deserve special mention, and these are Kubor Nesan 
and Kubor Leban, situated in Kampong Tengah. These two are 
among many which have become highly revered by the ignorant 
masses. They pay their vows (niat) there, and propitiate the 
spirit of the place. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



THE TIGEE-BEEED FAMILIES. B9 

They say that all the tigers springing from these graves are 
saints (Harimau Keramat) under the more saintly lordship of the 
great Dato Parol whose abode is Gunong Angsi, as opposed to 
Gunong Ledang which has its own army of tiger-warriors and 
settlers. Fancy and superstition have associated endless tales and 
legends with these two leading personalities — the Dato Paroi and 
Dato Gunong Ledang. Of them as of a few other tiger-tales I 
propose to speak in some future article. 

Belief in were-tigers whose transformation takes place during 
life, is general all over the Peninsula. But, as a rule, the power 
is ascribed to people of the Korinchi tribe from Sumatra. The 
possession of the power by a person is said to be indicated by the 
absence of the furrow (alor) which ordinary men have on their 
upper lip immediately below the nose. Tigers of this sort are 
called harimau clienaku, or harimau jadi-jadian. They change 
back into man just as the man changes into tiger. Sir Hugh 
Clifford in his book " The Further Side of Silence " relates a case 
of a Malay were-tiger. 



R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



Two Legends of Malacca 



By E. 0. Winstedt, D. Litt. (Oxon.) 

The " Malay Annals " (Shellabear's romanized Sejarah Me- 
layu, 1909, Vol. I, p. 60) record how Sultan Iskandar was hunting 
near Bertain Kiver, when a white mouse-deer kicked his hunting dog 
into the water. He chose this spot where mouse-deer were valiant 
for his new settlement and named it Melaka after a tree (Phyllan- 
thus pectinatus of the Order Eupltorbiaceae) against which he was 
leaning at the time of the incident. 

Now there exists a similar Sinhalese legend of the founding 
of Candy, a hare and a jackal taking the place of mouse-deer and 
dog and the hare's courage being ascribed to recoil from a rock that 
intercepted her flight (Parker's " Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon/' 
1914, No. 76, Vol. II, p. 3). 

In the Hikayat Hang Tuah it is related how when they came 
to Malacca the Portuguese bought as much land as an ox-hide 
would cover and their captain cut it into strips and so got enough 
land to erect a large godown (J. R. A. S., S. B. 83, p. 12»2). Ben- 
fey has collected many parallels from mediaeval and modern 
literature and folk-lore; there is the famous tale of the founding 
of Carthage, the tale of Hengist in Geoffrey of Monmouth, and 
another in the French romance Melusine; there is the popular 
etymology of Hyde Park. Popular etymology erroneously finds 
the same origin for Bhutnair and Calcutta (Todd's "Annals and 
Antiquities of Rajasthan," II, 235; 1852). " Thare-kettaya near 
the modern city of Prome was built 443 B.C. Its name has to do 
with a very ancient artifice. ' Facti de nomine byrsam taurino 
quantum possent circumdare tergo.' " (Scott 0' Connor's " Man- 
dalay," p. 301; London, 1907). American Indian attributed the 
trick to Europeans who bought land from them. In Sanskrit 
gotsliarman (lit. cowhide) = "a land measure, one hundred feet 
long and ten broad." 



Jour. Straits Branch 



Hikayat Si-Miskin or Marakarma. 



By R. 0. Winstedt, D. Litt. (Oxon.) 

There are 5 M<SS. of this tale at Batavia (van Ronkel's 
Catalogus," CXL-CXLIV) : two at Leiden (JuynbolFs "Catalogus," 
CXII and van EonkeFs Supplement-Catalogus (1921) 13); 
one in the possession of the Royal Asiatic Society, London 
("Essays on Indo-China," Second series, vol. II, p. 35). 
It has been twice (1857 and 1'89'4) lithographed and once (1915) 
printed in Malay characters at Singapore. It is the printed ver- 
sion I have used for this paper. Newbold mentions the romance 
and gives a brief synopsis — " British Settlements in the Straits of 
Malacca," vol. II, pp.328-330 (1839). 

Many writers have quoted Professor Snouck Hurgronje's 
dictum on the home of most Malay romances being " that part of 
South India which is also the source whence are derived the 
popular mysticism and the popular religious legends of the Muslim 
peoples of the East Indian Archipelago " (" The Achehnese," vol. 
II, p. 122). At the same time few English scholars have adopted 
•his method of analyzing and giving an outline of a tale, so that 
it may be accessible to students of comparative folk-lore most of 
whom are ignorant of Malay. Outlines in English are especially 
likely to be of value, because, so' many European and Oriental ex- 
perts in the folklore of British India will have little acquaintance 
with Dutch; and it is those experts particularly who should be in 
a position to identify the sources of Malay borrowings. 

I give first an outline of the romance of Marakarma, to use 
its more apposite title, and I add comparative notes. 

In Anta Beranta, a land ruled by Maharaja Indra Dewa, lived 
a poor vagabond couple, iSi-Miskin and his wife, erstwhile rajas 
from the heaven of Indra but exiled by the curse of Betara Indra. 
They were driven away wjth sticks and stones from palace and 
cottage and (market-place, so that to allay their hunger they fed on 
plant-shoots and picked bundles of rice (ketnpat) and sugar-sticks 
from dust-heaps on the highway. When Si-Miskin's wife had gone 
three months with child, she longed for a manggo (emp&lam) 
from the royal orchard, and the Maharaja granted her husband's 
supplication for the fruit. Three months later she longed for a 
jack-fruit and again the ruler was gracious. She bore a son and 
najmed him Marakarma, because he was born in poverty. Digging 
a site for a hut her husband found a jar (tajok) full of gold. He 
went to the town and ordered shoes, a staff, clothes, horse and 
trappings, creese, sword and shield {otaw-otar) . Then after bath- 
ing he prayed to the dewa that a town might be raised up in the 
forest. His prayer was heard. He ruled over this town, Puspa 
Sari, with the title Maharaja Indra Angkasa, and his consort was 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



42 HIKAYAT SI-MISKIN OR MAEAKAEMA. 

styled Eatna Dewi. She bore a daughter Xila Kesoma. The 
merchants from Anta Beranta brought fans, water-kettles, shoes, 
shields, creeses, spears, saddles and umbrellas. Incited by the 
jealous ruler of Anta Beranta lying astrologers tell Maharaja 
Indra Angkasa that his two children will work his ruin. They are 
driven into exile, with no possessions save a ring, a magic stone 
(gcmala) and seven bundles of rice, the parting gifts of their heart* 
hroken mother. 

After the departure of the two children, Puspa Sari is com- 
sumed by fire and its ruler with his consort left poor and homeless 
again in the forest. 

In his exile Marakarma learns magic (kesaktian) from genies, 
botas, raksasas, dragons and snakes. The children come to a re- 
volving hill where dewas play, and they sit down under a luaringin 
tree. The boy catches a bird for his little sister. She wants it 
roasted. Her brother hearing the crowing of cocks goes in search 
■of a house where he can get fire. The householder mistaking him 
for a thief, beats the }^oung prince and throws him bound into the 
sea. 

Xow the land to which the two children had come was 
Pelinggam Chahaya. Its ruler Eaja Puspa. Indra and his queen 

,{y 3J~^ had a son, Mengindra Sari, who refused to wed. Hunt- 
ing, Mengindra Sari finds Xila Kesoma under the waringin tree, 
weeping and holding a wild bird in her hand. His parents adopt 
her and call her Princess Unfolding Palm-blossom (Mayang 
Mengurai). Finally she (marries Mengindra Sari. There is a 
dramatic passage describing how in his wooing the infatuated 
prince teases his young mistress over permission to enter his 
garden. 



pi 



One day the young princess laments the loss of her brother 
Marakarma. In vain they search for him. Cast into the sea he 
had been borne by the tide to the shore of a land where a Eaksasa 
and his wife lived in a house of hair land bones and batu liidup. 
This Eaksasa had carried off Chahaya Khirani, daughter of Maha- 
raja Malai ( JW Kisna, and was keeping her till she should 

grow big enough to eat. Three months at a time the demon 
travelled in search of food; three months at a time he abode in his 
hut. During his absence Chahaya Khirani finds Marakarma on 
the shore, and revives him. He woos her and promises to slay 
her demon captor. They bandy love verses (pantun). When the 
demon returns, Marakarma hides under his mistress' bed. The 
demon declares he can smell man but the captive princess denies 
it. The Eaksasa lights a fire as big as a burning town, pours rice 
on to a mat 3O0 feet wide, and eats it along with spiders, centi- 
pedes, lizards, rats, flies and mosquitoes which overcome by the 
steam drop into the rice. He drinks a well of water, hiccups like 

Jour. Straits Branch 



HIKAYAT SI-MISKIN OR MARAKARMA. 4S 

thunder, picks from his teeth with a log chunks of food so big that 
they kill cat, goose or fowl by their impact. Then he sings so that 
the beasts in the forest flee. He asks his captive if her liver is big 
enough for him to eat. Instructed beforehand by her lover, she 
declares it will never grow big enough unless he gives her the livers 
of 100 animals to eat. The demon bids her kill the lice in his 
hair. With pincers and hammer she kills centipedes and scorpions 
which the demon has mistaken for lice; and eating fried beans and 
maize she pretends the noise she makes is the cracking of the eggs 
of the lice. The Kaksasa and his wife go to get the livers of 100 
animals but all have fled far from has singing. Marakarma digs 
a pit near the demon's hut, and sets it with caltrops. He piles up 
rubbish and lights an ijoh fuse which will take three days to burn. 
He and his bride escape with the demon's property in a passing 
ship. Three days later the Eaksasa seeing flames rushes home, 
falls into the pit and is killed. 

Lustful for his wife and riches, the captain of the ship pushes 
Marakarma into the sea. A shark, asked by Marakarma to put 
him out of his misery, does obeisance and carries the prince in his 
belly in the wake of the ship till it reaches Pelinggam Chahaya. 
The shark sprawls on the beach by the jetty of the Fairy God- 
mother .(Ninek Kebayan). An eagle instructs the old lady to put 
rice-grass (daun padi) on the shark's belly, whereupon Marakarma 
steps out. Mnek Kebayan teUs him of the country, its ruler and 
the royal family. Marakarma guesses that Princess Unfolding 
Palm-Blossom must be his sister. He arranges cut flowers in 
posies. Mnek Kebayan sells one to Marakarma's wife on the ship, 
containing the hero's ring and a letter graved on flower-petals, 
bidding her go to the palace and tell Princess Unfolding Palm- 
Blossom of their straits. (The first posy she sold, Mnek Ke- 
bayan pretended was arranged by herself. Chahaya Khirani wants 
to be taught the art. To keep the old lady in countenance Mara- 
karma sends a green fly with her on her next visit which buzzes 
over the bunch and settles wherever flowers should be stuck ! ) 

Chahaya Khirani is invited to the palace, shows her husband's 
ring and tells of his plight. The king summons all people to a 
farewell feast to the wicked ship's captain. Miraculously pro- 
vided with a steed a prince's attire and 40 followers, by means of 
a magic stone (gemala) given him by a bota, Marakarma goes to 
the feast. The householder who first cast him into the sea and 
the ship's captain are both executed (solan glean). 

Transported to Puspa Sari by the help of a magic stone, the 
hero finds his father's kingdom desolate forest. He meets his 
mother gathering firewood and stays with his parents in their forest 
hut. He reveals himself and prays that Puspa Sari be restored. 
His prayer is heard. He returns to Pelinggam Chahaya and 
fetches his sister and her husband and his own wife. Mnek Ke- 
bayan is twitted with her inability to walk and advised to get a 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



4i HIKAYAT SI-MISKIN OR MARAKARMA. 

young husband to carry her. The royal party set out for Puspa 
Sari in glass sedans {mongkor kacha) and on horseback and are 

met on the plain Tinjau-maya Ci$V^V Maharaja Indra 

Dewa fearful lest the importance of Puspa Sari eclipse that of 
Anta Beranta attacks Marakarma. Marakarma invokes the aid 
•of seven genies, whom in his early exile he had met at lake Indra 
Semandra, — Kaja Mengindra Dewa, Dekar Agas Pri, Eaja Kisna 
Indra Dewa, Eaja Mengerna Lela, Eaja Chindra Lela and his 
wife's brother Eaja Bujangga Indra. A great battle ensues. 
Eaja Gerclan Shah slays Eaja Berma Gangga. Eaja Eum Shah 
is captured and put to scorch in the sun, whereupon firing an 
arrow that brings rain and mist Eaja Shah Pri releases him and 
ties Eaja Bahrum Dewa in his place. The hero causes a town with 
fort and palace to arise by virtue of a magic stone given to him 
by Maharaja Dewa Angkasa on the revolving mountain. He en- 
counters his jealous rival, the ruler of Anta Beranta, Each shoots 
arrows, that turn to fire and to rain that dout the fire, to dragons 
and to countless demons that devour the dragons. " Thunder 
rumbled and crackled faintly in the distance; a rainbow stretched 
across the heavens; stormy sunset clouds arose everywhere; rain 
drizzled; scale-like clouds were in the sky; the rain-bow was hard- 
ly visible; a breeze blew softly; the sunlight was yellow, and 
lightning now and again streaked the sky; black clouds gathered: 
portents all of a great prince's dearth." Maharaja Indra Dewa, 
ruler of Anta Beranta, fell slain, charging the victor with his last 
"breath to have mercy on his daughter, Nila Chahaya, His wife 
and daughter and their women hurry on to the field. The wife 
stabs herself on her husband's body. Nila Chahaya is married to 
Eaja Bujangga Indra and the young couple rule Anta Beranta. 
"Where are we going now?'' asks Ninek Kebayan. "To marry 
you to a vizier," laughs her mistress. " Well," croaks the old dame, 
" I did dream last night I was bitten by a snake." 

Eaja Bujangga Indra takes his sister and Marakarma and a 
royal party to visit his father, Maharaja Malai Kisna, in the land 
Merchu Indra. The Maharaja takes his daughter and son-in-law 
seven times round the country on a seventeen-tiered throne (pancha- 
persada). Marakarma becomes Sultan of Merchu Indra. 

Mengindra Sari becomes ruler of Pelinggam Chahaya. 

The episode of lying astrologers is paralleled in the Hikayat 
Jaya Langkara, and the folk-tales Raja Budiman and Raja Denan. 
The episode of two children exiled, separated under a tree, the 
girl being found and married by a hunter prince and reluctant to 
tell of the loss of her brother until after her wedding, is found in 
a Sinhalese tale (Paker's " Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon," vol. II, 
No. 155 (a) ), though details and conclusion differ. A packet of 
cooked rice is commonly a parting present to a banished child or 
prince in Sinhalese tales (ib. I, No. 7; II, 146 (a) ). The incident 
of a prince incognito marrying a girl and taking her on a ship, be- 

Jour. Straits Branch 



HIKAYAT SI-MISKIN OE MAEAKAEMA. 45 

ing thrown overboard but rescued, arid coming to a land where he 
is recognized and honoured;, is found in numerous Indian tales 
(Steel and Temple's "Wide- Awake Stories," p. 138; F. A. Steel's 
•" Tales of the Punjab/' p. 129; Swynnerton's " Indian Nights' En- 
tertainment," p. 276; Knowles "Folk-Tales of Kashmir," p. 167) 
which all commence with the banishment of two princes owing to a 
step-mother's cruelty. In a Sinhalese tale with a similar beginning 
(Parker op. cit, I, No. 7) it is a dried fish he had restored to the 
water which rescues the prince and put him on a sand-bank near 
to a " flower-mother's " house ; the flower-mother discovers that 
the fellow who threw the prince overboard is about to marry the 
princess; the prince interrupts the wedding; his oppressor is 
quartered and the prince becomes a king. It is pretty clear that 
this Indian tale with its many variants is connected with the more 
elaborate composite Malay romance. 

The comic interludes, in which Ninek Kebayan " the flower- 
mother " is twitted, remind one of a passage in Raja Donan (J. E. 
A. S., S. B. XVIII, p. 242) and of the passage in the Hikayat 
Maliaraja Bikrama Sahti (or Nahltoda Muda) where the princess' 
maids are frightened by the parroquet. The description of the 
-demon Raksasa is spirited. 

There are a few pantun in the romance, but to discuss the 
•occurrence of such verse profitably it is necessary always to collate 
;all available MSS. and determine if copyists have followed one 
original or preferred to substitute verses they happened to fancy. 

In quoting parallels from Sinhalese folk-lore, one must re- 
member " that stories which are current in central India, or the 
lower part of the Ganges Valley, or even the Pan jab, as well as 
tales of Indian animals such as the lion, may have been brought 
direct to Ceylon by immigrants from Kalinga or Magtadha or 
Bengal. Apparently it is in this manner that the evident con- 
nexion between the tales of Ceylon and Kashmir is to be explained, 
the stories passing from Magadha or neighbouring districts, to 
Kashmir on the one side, and from Magadha or Kalinga to Ceylon 
on the other " (Parker, op. cit. vol. I, pp. 38-39). 

It will be of interest to students of local folk-lore to learn 
that according to Perak legend Marakarma, the hero of the romance 
-dealt with in this paper, built a fort of cockle-shells on the plain 
Anta-Beranta at the mouth of the Bruas Piver (cf. McNair's 
^Terak and the Malays," pp. 23-24) ! A Chinaman is said to 
have removed the shells to Penang and burnt them for lime. 



.S. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



Hikayat Indraputra. 



By E. 0. Winstedt, D. Litt. (Oxon.) 

In Journal No. 82 (I92'0), pp. 145-6, I discussed the date of 
the Hikayat Indraputra, prefacing my paper with references to the 
MSS. of that romance. Here I propose to give an outline of the 
story from the lithographed Singapore edition and to add notes 
on some of the incidents and sources of the tale. 

Indraputra was the son of Bikrama Puspa, ruler of S'aman- 
tapuri, and his queen Jumjuma Eatna Dewi. Astrologers pro- 
phesied luck for him but declared that at the age of seven he would 
be separated from his parents and undergo many adventures; the/ 
advised that he should not play with animals. One, day two 
craftsmen made the king fishes that swam and a golden peacock. 
The peacock flew off with Indraputra and set him under a pome- 
granate tree in the garden of Ninek Ivebayan. When the old lady 
went to sell flowers in the palace, she took Indraputra, pretending 
he was her grandson. He was brought up by her and a childless 
vizier. The ruler of that country, Shahsian, speared a deer while 
hunting and noting how a fawn ran to tend its wounded dam 
thought of his own childlessness and ordered his viziers on pain 
of death to discover a means of getting him a child within 40 days. 
Indraputra volunteered to get from Berma Sakti a cure for the 
king's childlessness. He sets out. All the beasts of the forest bow 
to him and beg for help against their persecutor, a Eaksasa, who 
dwells on Mt. Indra Gilan. 

He comes to this bone-strewn mountain, whereupon a human 
skull warns him not to ascend 'and tells how the demon in the form 
of an old man had cut him down. The demon meets Indraputra 
in the shape of an old woman and offers him a sword: he cleaves 
the demon in two. The demon changes into a young woman : the 
hero resists her blandishments. The demon changes into a corpse 
beside a hill he creates. Indraputra ascends and enters a cave 
full of riches. He reaches the top of the. mountain and descends 
on the opposite side into an orchard. He comes to a plain 

(Padang Lela Sri) beside Mt. Teraji {^fr^J) where Muslim 
G-enies feed, water and exercise their horses, and practise warriors' 
games, under Prince Xabat Eum Shah (^*J ^V) son °^ 
Dzahir Johan Shah (oU ^yr j^*) • Infidel genies under 

Tamar Jalas (^^ j^) the son of Tamar Boga (<J>_y. j^) 

trespass there. The two troops fight. Indraputra helps the Mus- 
lim Genies and slays Tamar Jalas. He is given princess Jajama 

Jour. Straits Branch 



HIKAYAT INDRAPUTRA. 47 

(Uj»-) Eatna Dewi, sister of Nabat Rum Shah, in marriage. 

Anon he leaves on his quest. He comes to Lake Shamendiran 

(jjjJj.^ Samuclari Juynboll) and sees corpses strewn under 

.a large tree. One of the corpses warns Indraputra that a man- 
Hlling Kaksasa lives by the lake whose, coming troubles the water. 
Indraputra pretends to sleep and seizes the demon or fairy (peri) 
by the hair. The fairy gives him a magic stone (guliga) winch 
will raise storms, thunder and lightning ; also he tells how once 
in seven days Princess Gemala Eatna Suri, the betrothed of 
Raja Dewa Lela Mengerna, bathes in the lake and how atop her 
bower is a magic stone. 

The fairy bids Indraputra steal her jacket while she is bath- 
ing and demand the talisman as ransom. The fairy takes Indra- 
putra to his golden bejewelled palace under the lake. 

Now Gemala Eatna Suri dreamt she was nipped by a dragon 
:and her talisman stolen. She and seven serving nymphs (bidu- 
unda) don flying jackets and fly (followed by flying caskets of 
rice-paste and langir) down to the lake, where under a pome- 
granate tree hides Indraputra, having ascended by virtue of his 
magic stone from the fairy palace below the lake. The princess 
and her companions bathe. Indraputra steals their flying jackets 
.and then by virtue of his magic stone descends under the water 
and nips the princess' toe. 'She ascends the shore with her atten- 
dants. In vain they hunt for their jackets. The princess waits 
biting her finger under a date tree. Indraputra bandies verses 
with the nymphs. At last the princess approaches and promises 
him the magic stone in return for the flying jackets. Seated on 
one of the flying caskets he follows the princess to get the stone. 
The girls enter the bower. Indraputra is left outside. He forces 
the seven gates of the seven fences, guarded by an elephant, a 
tiger, a lion, a rhinoceros, a dragon, a roc (Geroda) and Eaksasas 
on horseback — all mechanical terrors with jewelled eyes; their 
springs cut by the hero, they fall down. He is taken to a plea- 
saunce full of singing birds and bathes in a fragrant stream, at- 
tended by the nymphs. He is put to sleep in the hall called 
Eangga Puspa Brahi, whose walls are of glass and ceiling adorned 
with a tree wherein an owl sits. 

Be marvels at the wonders of Allah. The princess gives him 
the magic stone that can create a country with viziers and thou^ 
sands of genies under four captains, Degar 'Alam leader of genies 
and fairies, Degar Kilat who in an instant can go to a far country 
or under the sea, Degar Agas who can fetch fire or wind, Degar 
Sru who can call down mist and lightning. To use the stone the 

nero must invoke the princess' ancestor, Dewa Lak Pri (^jiiJ) 

who lives in the sea. 

St. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



48 HIKAYAT INDRAPUTRA. 

Xow Eaja Dewa Lela Mengerna got a deer while hunting and 
sent it to his betrothed. The messenger reported that the bower 
had been forced and there was a youth with the princess. Eaja 
Dewa. Lela Mengerna sets out to fight. Indraputra by means of 
*he magic stone calls up rival forces and engages in single combat 
with the angry prince, calling rain to dout his rival's fire and so on. 

Xabat Rum Shah comes to his help. Eaja Beatadzir (^Jtl^ ) 

Shah, father of the princess Gemala Suri, hearing she has enter- 
tained a mortal, is angered "and prepares his armies, but the de- 
mon of the lake pacifies him. He settles the strife, and weds his 
daughter to her betrothed. Indraputra stays with the newl} 
married pair. One day while they are hunting Dewa Lela Men- 
gerna leaves Indraputra for a while and the hero falls asleep under 
a tree, where Tamar Boga flies off with him to cast him into the 
sea. Indraputra slays Tamar Boga and falling into a vast plain 
comes to a stream sweet as honey whose shell-fish (Tcarang) accost 
him by name. 

He eats the fish throwing back the shells which become alive 
again. A white lotus floats up and accosts him. He puts it in 
his turban, where it turns to rose-water and drips on his body. A 
red lotus floats up and then a blue ; he wears both and they turn 
to scent. Fish and crabs greet him: he eats them and throws 
bones and shells into the water where they come to life. Flowers 
greet him; he plucks them and they turn to posies (gubah; malai) .. 
He comes to mountains of' iron, tin, brass, silver, gold and gems 
respectively, on all of which birds welcome him. He comes to a 
mountain of fire and in despair uses his talisman to summon Dewa 
Lak Pri, whom he asks to take him back to Gemala Eatna SurL 
It is a long journey, " seven days' flight for a bird/' and if he asks 
for water he will fall into the lake called Sea of Love (Bahar u'l- 
'Ashek), whose sands are of gold and banks of camphor, and mud 
of musk, and stones of jewels. 

Of course he asks for water and descends at the lake. On its 
waters are beflagged boats (pelang, lancliang) of gold and silver, 
and royal genies and fairies race them. By the aid of his talis- 
man Indraputra creates a storm and sinks the boats, drowning- 
many of the fairies ; then to the amazement of the survivors he 
stills the storm and restores the boats and the drowned fairies- 
He comes to another lake BaharuT-Waji (^ r \^\ J >o) by which 
is an island Bahrum Dewa. 

On that island is a girl chased by two men ; she turns herself 
into a flower and they become pigs and try to eat the flower; she 
changes into a gem and the men into eagles which strive to seize 
the gem. A voice calls Indraputra. The gem falls into the lake 
and becomes a blue lotus; the birds change into dragons. All 
ranis]). Four maids stand by the edge of the lake. They tell In- 
draputra that the princess was Seganda Chahaya Iram daughter of 

Jour. Straits Branch. 



HIKAYAT INDRAPUTRA. 49* 

Eaja Buang Shah, being chased by two suitors (mambang) Degar 
Akas and Xgedan Kilat, both of whom had been encouraged by 
her father while she was a child. By the advice of astrologers she 
had been put on the island along with a tablet (loli lazuardi) : 
the astrologers had prophesied that a mortal Indraputra would 
solve the difficulty of the two suitors. Indraputra reads the writ- 
ing on the tablet. The maids invoke the princess who rises to 
the surface <a lotus and changes into a princess and talks to the 
hero. The two suitors appear in anger. Indraputra pacifies them 
and taking the princess to a well bids her look into the glassy' 
surface. Her shadow becomes a princess identical with herself, 
who is named Seganda Chahaya Bayang-Bayang. The princess 
takes Indraputra on an elephant into her kingdom and all the 
people run to see, "some with skirt, half adjusted, some with 
jackets half donned, others with hair untied." The two suitors 
marry the two princesses. 

Indraputra comes to a mountain wdiere is the treasury of 

Eaja Bahrum Tabit ( <d^ v. Honk el, ^.^ J-) guarded by a 

cobra (called jj-U^ J. and R.) which he kills. He enters 

the forty chambers and is attacked by a horse, a genie Zanggi 
Gerdan, whom he tames with genies' language. The horse tells 
him to take a talisman from the head of a glass casket containing 

a substance (j^J (S"^.) from the belly of the cobra: that sub- 
stance will revive the dead. 

Now in the land of Zaitun (j^j j) ruled Eaja Puspa 

Pandai, a 'Muslim genie, who had a son Detar (jUo) Pandai 

and a daughter Chendra Lela Nur Lela : his subjects were apes and 
monkeys, sloths, squirrels and beasts of the forest, who by night be- 
came human beings. He puts his daughter in a guarded bower with 
a myna-bird and a parroquet to amuse her. The birds sought a 
husband for their mistress and thirty-nine suitors came and heard 
the fish sing in the pond beside the bower but fell severed from 
the bridge of swords which led up to it: — the first suitor when 
sought was reading the romance of " Baginda Shah 'Alam." Now 
Zanggi Gerdan flew with Indraputra to this bower and the hero- 
entered it safely. He clipped his magic substance in water from 
a glass bowl (mundam) and restored the 39 suitors to life. The 
princess took him to her parents. 

In Zaitun was a great dewa king, Eaja Gohar (j*y ) 

Jin, who had a daughter Talela Mandu (Madu J.) Eatna he kept 
in a guarded bower on the plain of 'Aji. To this bower came the 
golden peacock, which had flown off with Indraputra, and told the 
princess of his prince's graces. 'She called a draftsman to draw 
his likeness. The peacock drew an outline on the draftsman's 
breast and the man copied it. 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



50 HIKAYAT INDRAPUTRA. 

After arranging that princess Chendra Lela Xur Lela marry 
Xabat Rum Shah, Indraputra departs on his steed and waters him 
at a pool where a dewa Malik Zahib waters his goats. Malik 
Zahib is angry. Inclraputra by magic dries up the pool and at 
Malik Zahib's entreaty refills it with water. Talela Mandu Eatna 
sees him and sends her maid to ask Malik Zahib who he is. Malik 
Zahib prevaricates, but when the maid threatens his goat will die 
if he fail to tell, he reveals the name of his visitor. Her mistress 
4 tells her to take the golden peacock and pretend to sell him to 
Malik Zahib in the presence of the stranger prince. Indraputra 
recognizes the peacock and asks to meet the princess. Verses are 
bandied between him and the maid. At night his magic steed 
takes Indraputra into the princess' bower. Using the talisman 
.given by Gemala Eatna Suri he calls up hosts to fight the guards 
set round the bower by G-ohar Jin. A great battle ensues. In- 
draputra captures and throws into a trance 40 champions includ- 
ing Eaja Ghuran Shah, whose sword is a foot broad. Eaja Lela 
Mengerna, Eaja Nabat Eum Shah and all the royal fairies and 
genies, whom Indraputra had helped on his travels, arrive. Eaja 
Gohar Jin accepts the hero's suit for his daughter's hand. The 
40 champions are brought to life by a talisman dipped in oil. 

In Samanta Beranta ruled Eaja Talela ( J-i>~ * J-!>~ 7.) Shah, 

father of princess Sri Bulan, the sought of many suitors. In 
that land was a lake and by it a cave where dwelt a demon 

Ghuran Akas ( ^ J ^ J.) who roved and slew folk at night. 

Efforts to slay the demon and to block his cave failed. Astrologers 
declared he could be killed only by Indraputra. The ruler sent 

his sons Maharaja Derkas ( c r^ JJ ) an( ^ I n d ra Jil'ani with a 
letter inviting Indraputra' s aid. Indraputra set out, carrying his 
bride in a pearl casket, and followed by all the warriors and 
fairies he had helped. (The passage where Talela Shah asks his 
son if each passer-by in the procession is not Indraputra reminds 
of an exactly similar passage in the HiJcayat Pelandok Jenakti 
(Malay Lit. Series 1'3, 19 15, p. 65) where Eaja Shiga puts the 
same' question to Eaja Kra before Eaja Mousedeer passes). In- 
draputra enters the cave of Ghuran Akas, lighting its depths by 
his talisman and slaying the huge demon. In the cave is a treasure 
chamber, on whose door is inscribed the name of Eaksa Shah, 
ancestor of Eaja Bahrum Tabut. It takes a month to traverse 
the cave, wherein is found a pleasance, a bower and a sea guarded 
by Derma Gangga who gives Indraputra a magic arrow. Indra- 
putra marries Princess Sri Bulan. The pair are escorted seven 
times round the country on a seven teen-tiered platform (pancha 
persada). 

Bahrnm Tabut, ruler of ^jJ^j^]^ or o">*^ hears 

how Indraputra has slain Ghuran Akas and sends him a challenge. 
Indraputra by magic twists the head of the messenger, an infidel 

Jour. Straits Branch 



HIKAYAT INDEAPUTEA. 51. 

genie, face behind, and sets out to meet his aggressor. On his 
magic arrow he shoots to the feet of Bahrum Tabut a tablet (loh 
laznardi) found in Ghuran Akas' cave predicting death. Terri- 
fied Bahrum Shah seeks peace and welcomes Indraputra to his 
palace. 

Indraputra goes to the land of Raja Puspa Pandai and marries 
Nabat Rum Shah to Princess Chendra Lela Nur Lela. 

Raja Dewa Lela Mengerna tells Indraputra that to meet 
Berma Sakti he must shut his eyes and wish : opening them he 
will find himself on a plain under a great tree ; to sleep under that 
tree is to invite death from the demon that lives in it; presently 
a light as of swords will be visible and that light will be Berma 
Sakti and must be followed. Indraputra observes this advice. 
The demon of the tree gives him a talisman that will save him 
from death and enable him to enter rock or timber. The Jight he- 
follows turns into a pleasance, wherein dwells Berma Sakti sur- 
rounded by his pupils (murid). At the full moon Berma Sakti 

takes Indraputra to the lake Bahar-ulka (^-^^r^.) and the- 

island Maalim Khirat (*^r^" r^^**) where a white lotus to cure 

the childlessness of the ruler of Shahsian is to be found. On the 
way the pupils of Berma Sakti are scattered by a storm our hero- 
invokes and he arrives before them on his flying horse. At the 
island he turns into a dragon and frightens them and calls down 
rain that wets them while he remains dry. Berma Sakti takes him 
to a pool where floats a white lotus. They all return to Berma 
Sakti's palace. At night Indraputra calls forth his three wives 
out of his magic pearl casket. Berma Sakti takes him to the 
plain Puspa Beranta where a throne mysteriously appears and a 
sword of its own accord slays the pupils whom Indraputra is or- 
dered to revive with his charm (^c£j^i c£~H ^ The sword then 
chops them to pieces and Berma Sakti has to use his own magic 
stone (*s (j^J') to restore them. Berma Sakti tells how the 

white lotus must be cooked as vegetable ; if it fades, there is poison 
in the pot, for which he gives Indraputra a talisman that will serve 
as an antidote. He tells Indraputra to close his eyes and wish. 
So our hero finds himself back in Mnek Kebayan's untended gar- 
den. He presents the white lotus to Raja Shahsian. The jealous 
viziers poison the dish to kill him. He uses his talisman. He 
becomes court chamberlain. Two maids of the court eat plants- 
that spring from the discarded seeds of the white lotus and become 
pregnant. The jealous viziers accuse Indraputra of seduction and 
set him and the girls adrift at sea on a raft. Raja Shahsian's 
queen bears a daughter, Mengindra Sri Bunga, and thirty-nine 
princes come to woo her. 

Indraputra' s raft is broken in a storm; the girls are lost; In- 
draputra walking below the sea comes to the bower of an old prin- 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



52 HIKAYAT INDRAPUTRA. 

cess, Eaja Dewa Al-Kafri (^^iaJ)) grandmother of Gemala 

Eatna Suri, who gives him a cloth Samanta-Puri, (Sutrapuri 
■Jvynboll) which laid on the bod} 7 of a sick person will effect a 
cure. After wandering seven years below the sea our hero returns 
to the country of Eaja Shahsian and finds his daughter sick. The 
king proclaims he will marry her even to a slave if he can cure her. 
Indraputra cures her with his cloth. Then the jealous viziers and 
the 39 suitors urge the king not to fulfil his promise but to take 
the princess to the island Pelinggam Dewa and give her hand to 
the suitor who can catch her favourite parrot. Indraputra uses 
his talisman and calls genies to build a magnificent barge, which 
the princess chooses before those of other suitors for her voyage. 
He calls down a storm which troubles the others while his barge 
.sails through calm waters. On the island the parrot is released. ( 
The princely suitors climb a tree (merangsi) to catch the bird. 
Indraputra fires a magic arrow that turns into wasps and bees which 
sting the suitors and makes them tumble to earth. Indraputra 
goes to the tree and the parrot alights on his hand. They return. 
'The princes are defeated by Indraputra at sword-play. Ten of them 
waylay and slay him. His three wives issue in male attire from 
the casket wherein he keeps them and restore him to life by using 

the l£j-*^ (S-^. * Indraputra on his magic steed beats the prince 

on horse-back. Again they kill him and hack him to pieces. His 
three wives in male attire find the corpse and show it to Eaja Shah- 
sian. Later they revive him. He beats the princes at archery, 
his magic arrow creating a cloud and Avind to disperse the cloud,, 
fire and rain to dout the fire, the arrow returning each time to 
the quiver: by his magic the arrows of the princes cannot be 
drawn out of the quivers. Eaja Shahsian prepares to marry his 
daughter to Indraputra, who sends for all the friends of his 
travels. The wicked viziers and the princes remove all weapons 
secretly by night and prepare to attack Eaja Shahsian. Indra- 
putra calls on Dewa al-Kafri and uses (tambanghan) his talisman, 
whereupon is created a country of fairies and spirits armed and 
mounted on horses and elephants. Also Indraputra' s friends arrive 
in hosts. The wicked viziers and princes determine to flee by 
sea. Indraputra calls down storms that destroy their ships. De- 
gar Agas from the air tells them who Indraputra really is, and 
they return and ask his pardon. He marries princess Mengindra 
Sri Bunga and finally, taking his four wives in the casket worn at 
his waist, goes down to a ship and sails to his parents at Saman- 
tapuri, where amid great rejoicing he is made Sultan. 

The Ilikayai Indraputra bears marks of being a pastiche, con- 
taining a number of folk-tales clustered round the person of the 
hero. 

Flying wooden peacocks are common in Indian folk-lore 
(Parker's "Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon," II, pp. 18-30, III, 88- 
:91; Chavannes' "Cinq Cents Contes et Apologues/' II, p. 378). 

Jour. Straits Branch 



HIKAYAT INDEAPUTEA. 53 

In one Sinhalese tale (Parker, op. cit. Ill, p. 194) there is a prince 
who ■astrologers say will be spirited away to wander, who is there- 
fore carefully guarded, who is given a toy wax horse and flies off 
on it to the house of a " flower-mother/' the Malay Ninek Ke- 
bayan : — the beginning of our tale though the rest of the story is 
■quite different. The incident of a prince seeing a fawn run to 
its wounded dam is found also in the Hikayat Nakhoda Muda 
(J. E. A. S., S. B., 83). The incident of a speaking skull is 
found in the well-known Ht. Jumjumah where a skull addresses 
Jesus : — the romance was translated in the " Asiatic Journal/' 
1823. , The theft of the flying jackets of a princess and seven at- 
tendant nymphs occurs in the Ht. Malim Deman (J. E. A. S., 
S. B., No. 83), and is the plot of a worldhwide tale: — Hartland'e 
"" Science of Fairy Tales," eh. X ; Parker op. cit., II, pp. 344-355. 
Tne talisman that can call up cities and people from the inane is 
common in Eastern folk-lore: Parker op. cit. III. p. 130; Natesa 
Sastri's " Story of Madana Kama Barja," p. 20 ; " (Sagas from the 
Far East", p. 135. The transformation of a girl into a flower and 
a gem and of her pursuers into pigs finds parallels in the Hikayat 
Sri Eama, in " The story of Madana Kama Eaja," p. 2, and in 
Swynnertoir's " Indian Nights' Entertainments," p. 216 ; the 
transformation of a girl into a lotus in Stokes " Indian Fairy 
Tales," p. 144. A luminous cobra-stone such as lights the cave 
for our hero is found in many Indian tales : — Frere's " Old Deccan 
Bays," p. 36; Day's "Folk-Tales of Bengal," p. 18; Jataka tale, 
No. 543, vol. VI, p. 94. .So, too, the magic stone that dries up 
water (Parker, op. cit. II, pp. 14-15) and enables princes to visit 
palaces under the sea (D. Behari Day's " Folk-Tales of Bengal," 
]). 17). Of the quest for a flower as medicine I have written aL- 
ready (J. E. A. S., S. B., No. 82, pp. 147-8). "In the Malm 
Bliarata and Ramayana arrows are sometimes represented as re- 
turning to the sender, who in such cases was a being possessing 
supernatural power." 



R A Soc. No. 85, 1922. 



Hikayat Putra Jaya Pati, 



By R. 0. Winstedt, D. Litt. (Oxox.) 

So far as I have been able to trace, only two MSS. of this tale 
exist. One is recorded in Van der Tuuk's catalogue of Malay 
MSS. in the Library of the India Office, London : his account of it 
runs as follows: — 

"No. 98 small 4 vo. Ht. Indra Jaya Pati. The hero son of 
Kalawandu king of a realm in the west called Langkam Jaya is 
carried off in his seventh year by a spirit in the form of a tiger to 
a mountain Mahabiru, where the tiger vanishes after handing him 
over to Xarada to learn magic. When Narada turns himself into 
a giant and a garuda, Indra Jaya Pati alone of his pupils faces 
him. Finally the hero marries princess Chindra Nur Lela and is 
made heir apparent by his father under the title of Maharaja 
Bikrama Indra. " 

The other MS., which I have used for this paper, is in the 
library of the Committee for Malay Studies, Kuala Lumpur, 
Federated Malay States. The title reads Putra for Indra. A 
golden horse takes the place of the tiger. The MS. is written on 
blue ruled foolscap and the colophon records the copy was finished 
on Monday the 6th Shawal, 1238 A.H. in the year alif by Abdul- 
kadir ibni Hussin Mera, Jawi, of Kedah. 

The following is a summary of this second MS. : — 

Eaja Kalawandu ruler of Langkam Jaya is childless. On the 
advice of astrologers he lavishes alms on religious mendicants till 
by their pra}'ers his consort conceives and on Monday the 16th 
day of Eajab, while thunder rolls and a rainbow is seen and rain 
falls gentle, bears a son. Astrologers prophesy the child will have 
magic powers and be a mighty prince but a four-legged creature 
will soon divorce him from his parents till he reaches the age of 
thirty when he will return famous with many followers. He is 
named Putra Jaya Pati, and called Putra Jaya Pati Indra. 

One day the king takes his son to a field to watch other chil- 
dren play. He falls asleep on his dais and the little prince runs 
off to play. A genie disguised as a golden steed, approaches the 
field; the little prince mounts and is carried off into the forest 
toward a blue hill (Gunong Mahabiru). There the horse, who is 
descended from the genie Afrit, vanishes after telling the prince 
he will join in wars with genies, fairies, demi-gods and demons 
and should climb the blue hill and study magic arts from Begawan 
Narada. He sets out and meets ascetics who feed him with 
bananas, manggoes, jackfruit, mangosteens and so on, and take 
him to the teacher, who foreknowing his advent sends his pupils 
to escort the prince. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



HIKAYAT PUTRA JAYA PATI. 55 

From Xarada the prince learns all the magical arts of war, 
how to cause rain of fire and stone and weapons to descend. He 
turns a spike of grass (lalang) into a caparisoned steed and mount- 
ing practices the arts of war with the other pupils, turning the 
steed back into grass when night falls. One day Xarada trans- 
forms himself into a large red-eyed demon. All his pupils flee 
except Putra Java Pati who engages him with arrows which turn 
into fire, rocks, steel, dragons. The demon turns into a roc 
(geroda) ; the prince into a harpy (walimana). At last I^arada 
reveals himself and the fight ceases. One day thinking of his 
parents, Putra Jaya Pati weeps and asks leave of his teacher to go 
home. Xarada gives him a magic casket out of which can be in- 
voked four warrior genies with armies. He calls forth the four 



warriors 



o y> dSsA-. Slang Setiara, \$\X**> ^j'\j 



to swear fealty to the hero. The hero departs, and traverses plain 
:and forest till he reaches Lake Samandara, where fishes greet him. 
He eats shell-fish and casts the shells into the water whereupon the 
shell-fish come to life and laugh. He eats pomegranates from a 
tree hard by and casts the husks into the lake, whereupon a,t once 
they break into flower and fruit that ripens. A voice warns him. 
He looks and sees a skull. The skull says it was once a man, 
Bujang Juara, the servant of the hero's sire, who was killed by a 
demon as he slept under a tree at that spot. The hero pretends 
to sleep and worsting the demon takes his sword. He comes to a 
plain with a bright light in the centre and asks an old man Malik 
Indra whom he meets, what it is. It is the bower of Princess 
Chindra Xur Lela, sister of Indra Samandara Lela, and daughter 
of Eaja Gangga Wijaya, The princess is betrothed to a mighty 
fairy prince, Eaja Indra Warna. against her own and her parents' 
will. Malik Indra, guardian of the princess' garden, invites the 
hero to his house and takes him to bathe where^ the princess, bathes. 
He spies on the princess through the wall as she comes to the 
garden. The princess sends a maid to invite the wife of Malik 
Indra to accompany her to the garden called Kesoma Angjsoka. 
The maid faints at the sight of the hero's beauty. Another maid 
fetches the old lady who tells who her adopted son really is. The 
princess falls in love with her description. The old lady goes home. 

The princess sends her maid Dang Sangkurana (j\j^x**u£o) 

to beg her to detain her adopted son, and invite him to be a spec- 
tator of games on the morrow so that she may get a glimpse of him. 
The hero tells the old lady that if the princess is anxious for a 
love affair he must see her that night and bids her take a message 
to the princess : — 

Basahan sambil berdiri, 

Kain pualam di-dalam astana. 
Surohan dari-pada tuan puteri 

Sekarang malam beta ha-sana. 

Si. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



56 HIKAYAT PUTEA JAYA PATI. 

The princess replies : — 

Tetak bengkawan sa-berang sana, 

Terpenggal ka-batang pelpari, 
Jika- titan orang bijaksana, 

Silahan abang chub a ka-mari. 

She prepares a feast and gorgeously attired reclines on her 
couch reading the romance called " Perbu Jangga." Onr hero 
takes a spike of gra-s and turning it into a flying steed flies and 
enters her bower. He speaks in verse : — 

Chempedak berbuah di-dalam pekan, 

Membelah-belah tengah pematang. 
Jika tidak pun di-persilakan, 

Menengar sudah tuan beta datang. 

The waiting-maids reply: — 

Buloh di-belali di-tepi kola, ' 

Melpari chenderong ka-lubok. 
Oleli itu-lah patek persembahkan 

Dari-pada berdiri baik-lah dudok. 

He walks past the princess' curtains, saying: — 

Chempedak di-karang Dang Kembayat. 

Bekas beradu di-dalqm, bilek. 
Siapa gerangan membacha hikayat 

Suara-nya terlantas ka-rumah Malik. 

The princess accosts him : — 

Bunga di-karang oleh dang Merdu Lela 

Akan sunting di-dalam chembul. 
Siapa gerangan bertanya itu? 

Madah-nya datang serta chumbu. 

They feast and bandy love-verses. At last the hero calls to 
his steed and returns to Malik Indra's hut. He wanders and finds 
two genies atop a hill disputing whose shall be a bow and magic 
arrow, one having found the bow and the other the arrow. The 
arrow can be called by the archer. Our hero offers to settle the 
dispute, and discharging the arrow bids them race for it, but he 
himself recalls it to the bow and takes it to Malik Indra's house. 
His intrigue with Princess Chindra Nur Lela is disturbed by the 
arrival of her affianced suitor. The princess' father Eaja Gangga' 
Wijaya sends to fetch her but she refuses to go. The hero calls 
forth the four warrior genies from the casket Narada gave him 
and they and their soldiers defeat all Eaja Gangga Wijaya's men, 
while the hero toys with his beloved. Eaja Gangga Wijaya in des- 
pair informs his daughter's suitor. A great battle ensues. One 
side is ranged in the battle order known as " the 1 writhing dragon " 
(naga berbelit), the other in the order of "the gnashing dragon" 
(naga bergigit). Arrows are fired that turn to fire and rain and 
so on. The hero and his rival change into many-headed many- 
Jour. Straits Branch 



HIKAYAT PUTKA JAYA PATI. 57 

handed demons, dragons, snakes. Indra Warna fires his magic 
arrow Dewa Laksana, which Putra Jaya Pati spits at and tnrns to 
water. Putra Jaya Pati fires the arrows given to him by Narada 
and slays Eaja Indra Warna, whose army is broken and flees. 

Eaja Gangga Wijaya and his son Eaja Indra Samandra Lela 
had refrained from helping Indra Warna because he had started 

the battle without consulting them. 

Putra Jaya Pati feasts with his warrior genies and takes his 
ease with the princess. 

Xow a genie who saw the battle had flown and announced the 
tidings to the forty princes who had been fellow pupils of the hero 
under Xarada. They take leave of their teacher and come in a 
cavalcade to visit Putra Jaya Pati. • Two go and make peace with 
the princess' father and take the hero into his presence. Putra 
Java Pati weds the princess and is escorted seven times in a seven- 
tiered car round the palace. All the women run to see him and fall 
in love with him : — a passage recalling the account of the admira- 
tion of women for Hang Tuah, given in the Sejarah Melayu and 
Ut. Hang Tuah. 

The hero takes his bride to the home of his parents, passing 
■on the way a subject kingdom Beranta Pura Xilam Dewata. His 
father abdicates and he becomes ruler of Langkam Jaya with the 
title Maharaja Bikrama Indra Dewa or Paduka Sri Sultan Putra 
Jaya Pati Sif at Ala V-d-din Shah. 

In plot this romance is little more than a short redaction of 
the Hikayat Indraputra. The princeling who astrologers prophesy 
will be carried off by a four-legged creatire, who on his travels eats 
shell-fish that come to life when the shells are cast back into the 
water, who is warned by a skull that a fierce demon haunts the 
lake, who defeats the demon by pretending to sleep, who stays with 
-a gardener and flies by night into a princess' bower, who is helped 
by warrior genies in his fight for the princess' hand, wbo returns 
home at last with his bride and succeeds his father as Sultan — all 
these episodes occur in the longer romance. 

Parallels to the tale from Indian folklore are given in my 
.article on the Hikayat Indraputra in this number of the Journal. 

The many quatrains in the tale should be of interest to stu- 
dents of the pantun. 



B. A. Soc. No. 85, 1922. 



Hikayat Indra Bangsawan. 



a 



By K. 0. Wixstedt D. Litt. (Oxox.) 

There are six MSS. of this tale at Batavia (van BonkeFs 
"Catalogue/' pp. l'91--i94) J one of which has been published in 
Romanised Malay by the " Commissie voor de Volkslectuur " and 
used by me for this paper : — it is, if I may say so, a defect of the 
Commissie's " publications that they do not record from which 
Mss. their texts are printed. There is another Ms. at Berlin 
(Koenigl. Bibliotheek, Collection Schumann Y, 21). 

Lithographed editions were published in Singapore in 1310 
and 1323 A.H. 

There is also an Achehnese version (Snouck Hurgronje's " The- 
Achehnese," vol. II pp. 145-7.) 

I give an outline of the romance with parallels from Indian 
tales : — 

Indra Bangsawan, ruler of Ivobat Shahrial was childless. In 
answer to prayers of the pious his consort Siti Kendi bore twins, 
Shah Pri and Indra Bangsawan. With the elder was born an 
arrow, with the younger a sword. The boys learnt religion from. 
Mua'alim Sufian and studied the arts of war. Their father fears 
jealousy and strife if lie selects openly one of his sons to succeed 
him. So he tells how he has dreamt of a magic bamboo instru- 
ment (buloli perindu) and how whoever gets it is fated to be king^ 
The boys go on the quest and are parted in a storm. 

Shah Pri comes to a deserted bower and finding a drum beats- 
it. A princess hidden in the drum bids him refrain. He slits 
the drum and out steps Princess Dewi Batna Sari. She explains 
how the country of her father Baja Asik-Asikin has been destroyed 
by a roc (geroda) and how she and her eight maids in a casket 
(chembul) had been hidden in the drum. Shah Pri kills the roc- 
with his arrow and weds the princess. 

Meanwhile Indra Bangsawan comes to a cave, enters it and 
finds a garden with a house inhabited by a demon (raksasa), who 
receives him hospitably. The demon tells him he is in the country 
Anta Beranta ruled by Baja Kabir but subject to a monster,. 
Buraksa, who claims any child born to Baja Kabir. Xine princes 
are suitors for Batna Kemala Sari, the daughter of Baja Kabir, 
who will give her to him who can slay Buraksa and brings as 
evidence of his death the seven eyes and seven noses of the monster. 
The friendly demon gives Indra Bangsawan a magic garment 
which will change him into any shape, and & charm (isharat) 
which will take him to Anta Beranta. He chooses the guise of a. 

Jour. Straits Branch' 



HIKAYAT INDRA BANGSAWAN. 59 

curly-haired jungle boy, and is made the slave of Eatna Kemala 
Sari, who calls him Hutan, " Jungle," and gives him two goats. 
She relates how she is fated to be freed from Buraksa by Indra 
Bangsawan and how she is a cousin of Dewi Eatna Sari, whom 
Shah Pri has rescued from a roc. 

Eatna Kemala Sari falls sick. Astrologers declare that only 
the milk of a tigress that has just whelped will cure her eyes. 
Hutan pours goat's milk into a bamboo and hangs it on a tree; 
then resuming his former shape he sits beside the tree. The nine 
princely suitors see the vessel of milk and ask what it is. " The 
mi-Ik of a tigress who has just whelped," says Indra Bangsawan. 
" The owner enjoined that it may not be sold but given only to 
.any person who may be willing to have his thigh branded." The 
nine princes submit to branding, and get the milk. But the 
medicine-men declare it is only goat's milk! Meanwhile the 
friendly demon (raksasa) gets a tigress' milk for Indra Bangsawan. 
In the guise of Hutan he takes it to the princess and tells how 
hunting for his straying goats he had found it hanging from a 
tree. The sight of the princess is restored. 

The time comes to deliver princess Eatna Kemala Sari to 
Buraksa. Her father builds a bower outside the country with an 
iron tank beneath its steps, as a place where Buraksa can drink 
water impregnated with iron and the nine suitors can fight for the 
princess. Hutan follows his mistress and she changes his name to 
Kembar. He get? his friendly dejnon to help him slay Buraksa. 
The demon gives him a black (hijau) horse, Janggi Harjin, 
whereon Indra Bangsawan rides as a prince to his mistress^ bower. 
Instructed by the demon, he ties the bridle of his horse to the 
w T ater tank so as to noose Buraksa when he comes to drink, and bids 
the horse kick the monster. He pretends he is a nameless wanderer 
•come to see the nine suitors slay Buraksa. But he takes the terri- 
fied princess in has arms when Buraksa arrives. Buraksa is 
noosed. Indra Bangsawan slays the monster, cuts off his seven 
noses and seven eyes and rides away. The nine suitors come and 
finding eyes and noses gone, cut off ears, scalp, fingers, hands and 
feet as evidence of their prowess. Indra Bangsawan having reen- 
tered his magic garment arrives with the eyes and noses of the 
monster, modestly saying he had kicked against them in the jungle 
•and taking them for the skin of an ant-eater (tenggiling), had 
brought them for the princess to burn in her incense. The prince 
gives his daughter to Si-Kembar in return for his two acts of 
prowess. Si-Kembar pretends still to be a jungle slave and re- 
fuses to marry her. 

The nine suitors attack Anta Beranta, sending a rude letter 
which read by the priest Shaikh Aladin rouses the ruler's ire. Si- 
Kembar hurries by night to the friendly demon for sword and 
•steed. At dawn " before the stars have faded, or beasts wake to 
seek their prey or birds start to preen their feathers" the armies 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



60 HIKAYAT IKDEA BANGSAWAN. 

meet. Indra Bangsawan saves the day, charging " like a scorpion 
into fire." Then he vanishes. The next day he saves the fight 
again, and again vanishes. No one knows who he may be. Si- 
Kembar is missing from the palace. They guess he is the hero. 
Raja Kaibir is hard pressed while Si-Kembar stays five days at 
the friendly demon's house. At last Raja Kabir alone is left in 
the field. Finally Indra Bangsawan comes, escorts him into the 
fort and alone faces the nine suitors whose men have all fled. They 
recognize him as the prince who sold the goat's milk. He reveals 
his name. They beg for pardon and that he may not reveal the 
shame of their branding. 

Indra Bangsawan visits the friendly demon, dons his magic- 
raiment and returns to the princess as Si-Ivembar. Raja Kabir 
asks why their marriage is not consummated. The princess says 
Si-Ivembar is unwilling. The kathi sentences both to be imprison- 
ed in a cage in the palace. In the night Si-Kembar (the jungle 
boy whose race never bathes!) feels hot and uses the princess' 
bathing water, slipping out of his magic raiment. The princess 
marvels and asking to be released tells her father. Her father bids 
her pretend to sleep and seize Si-Ivembar's magic raiment. The 
device succeeds. She recognizes in Si-Kembar the prince who 
slew the monster (buraksa). He is taken to Raja Kabir but 
pleads for three days' grace to visit the friendly demon. He calls 
his magic steed which comes miraculously. The princely demon 
gives him a magic stone, which will give him whatever he desires,, 
even a kingdom and people under the command of Dekar Sari 
and Dekar Dewa. Indra Bangsawan journeys to Anta Beranta 
Permana where he orders the two Dekars to make him a kingdom 
with a court and people and a newer with a bridge of gold up to- 
the bower of Dewa Ratna Kemala Sari, and to inform her father 
that on the morrow when the nine princes have come the wedding 
feast will begin. In due course Indra Bangsawan and his bride 
are enthroned on a seven-tiered stand (pancha-persada) and taken 
in procession and married by Kadzi Fa'alu'd-din. The bride is- 
magnificently arrayed: — 

berbaju kesumba murub pinar emas, berurap-urap sari jayeng ke- 
katun, berpedaka susun telor, bertali leher tiga belit, beranting- 
anting kasna janoli perbuatan Sailan, berchinchin permata di-apit 
dengan intan ikatan Sailan, bergelang tiga sa-belah perbnatan 
Variaman, berhilat-kilat bulu naga suir, bersekar suliun, bersifai 
alis manisan berchelak seni bibir-nya merah bertemu urat. dan gigi- 
nya saperti delima merekah lidah-nya< saperti chermin. 

Indra Bangsawan pretending to visit his goat, goes and begs 
the magic bamboo instrument (buloli perindu) from the friendly 
demon and takes leave of his parents-in-law, purporting to take his 
bride to visit his own parents, and his brother Shah Pri with his 
bride Dewd Ratna Sari. But by the magic of a sister of the 
monster (buraksa) whom Indra Bangsawan had slain, he and his- 
consort fall sick unto death. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



HIKAYAT INDEA BANGSAWAN. 61 

Now one night Shah Pri dreamt he met Indra Bangsawan on. 
the top of a high mountain. Next day he sets out to find him, 
taking a magic stone which dipped in water renders it efficacious 
to cure folk sick unto death. Disguised as a shaikh he enters Anta 
Beranta Perm-ana and after curing Indra Bangsawan hands him 
magic water to cure his bride. In gratitude Indra Bangsawan be- 
stows on Shah Pri his own magic stone that can create a kingdom. 
Accompanied by the nine princes, they set out and visit Dewi Eatna 
Sari and the hero's parents. Indra Bangsawan presents the magic 
bamboo instrument to his father who abdicates in his favour. All 
live happily ever afterwards. 

Princes being born, one along with an arrow the other with 
a sword, find many parallels in Malay and Indian literature 
(Winstedt's " Literature of Malay Folk-lore/' p. 30). The incident 
of a land destroyed by a roc (garoda) occurs also in the Hilcayat 
MaaUm Dewa (ed. Winstedt and Sturrock, pp. 9 and 94-97 and 
Snouck Hurgronje's " The Achehnese," vol. II, p. 127.) 

In his paper on the Eomance of the Pose in Malay literature 
(Tijd. v. Ind. T. L. en Vie., deel LIV, afd. 5 and 6) Professor 
van Eonkel has pointed put how several episodes, the search for 
the magic bamboo and for a medicine, and the incident of the 
branding, occur also in the Hilcayat Gal Bakawali, a Malay 
Eomance from the Hindustani version of 17'0'2 A.D. by Nihal 
Chand (Garcin de Tassy, Histoire de la litterature hindouie et 
hindoustanie, tome II, p. 468) of which there is also a Ceylon folk 
version (Parker's "Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon," vol. I, No. 22, 
pp. 173-177). Again in the Hilcayat Fekav Madi (van Eonkel' s 
Catalogue of Malay MSS. at . Batavia, pp. 167-171) occur the 
episodes of branding and of a quest for medicine for a prince. 
There are many parallels in Indian folk-lore for incident? in the 
Hilcayat Indra Bangsawan. In Knowles' " Folk-Tales of Kash- 
mir" (2nd ed., p. 365) a prince disguised as a gardener is married 
by a princess. Her relations jealous at this arrange a hunt and 
leave the hero only a vicious mare to ride. He reached the jungle 
first, shot jackal, bear and leopard, and cut off the tail of the first, 
the nose of the second and the ear of the third, which he produced 
when the others who had shot no game exhibited the three corpses 
as evidence of their prowess (Cf. an episode in the Hang Tuah, 
J. E, A. S., S. B. 83, p. 117). In Mary Stokes' "Indian Fairy 
Tales" (p. 41) a prince born with a removable monkey-skin has 
it burnt by his wife and retains his human form; (p. 13'0) a simi- 
lar hunt is arranged, the prince disguised as a labourer brands the 
backs of the six princes, who had found no game and begged a meal 
from him, and afterwards exposes them. 



R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



Hikayat Parang Puting 



By E. 0. Wiststedt D. Litt. (Oxon.) 

All the recorded MiSS. of this tale are in English libraries. 
There are two copies in the- library of the India Office and one in 
King's College Library {J. R. A. $., 8. B. X;o. 82, 1930 p. 106; 
.Essays relating to Indo-China, 2nd series, vol. II, p. 53). Mr. E. J. 
Wilkinson has given a MS. of it to Cambridge University Library. 
The present paper is founded on a MiS. in the possession of the 
Committee for Malay Studies, Kuala Lumpur. This MS. is 
modern (19*20 A.D.) written in Singapore but exhibiting in patek 
apa to express the plural " all your servants " traces of a Kedah 
copyist: it fills 139 pages of a note-book. 

There are no references to Allah or Islam in the tale. Betara 
Brahma is the Supreme God and the world is governed by the 
u high great gods" (dewa<ta mulia ray a). There is mention of a 
silambara (Skt.) where a princess chooses a husband from a crowd 
of rivals. 

There are only two quatrains in the tale, uttered by the hero 
when he is on the princess' raft beset by dragons : — 

Dian dim, damar pun dua, 

Tanglong di-rumah Dewa Laksamana. 

Diam juga, sabar-lah jua, 

Ada untong tiada ka-mana. 

Enche' Baya selendang batek, 

Pandai mengarang bunga di-ukir. 
Adohai tuariku! junjongan patek! 

Jangan-lah tuanku berbanyak fikir. 

The process by which a pleasance is created by a magic stone 
is described as putting the stone exposed on the spot where the 
pleasance is wanted : by taking it up the hero causes the pleasance 
to disappear (Maka Ifambang Dewa Keinderaan pun mengambil 
guliga hikmat-nya yang di-tambangkan-nya pada taman itu: maka 
taman itu pun ghaib-lah dengan sa-ketika itu juga.) 

There are numerous Indian parallels for the main plot, tales 
■of a prince who buys a snake, a parrot and a rat (Jataka, Xo. 73. 
vol. I, p. 178) or kitten and snake, or cat, otter, rat and snake, 
and is taken in all the tales by the snake to his father the king of 
the snakes who gives the hero a ring that will create a palace and 
kingdom and bring him a royal bride. {The Story of Madana 
.Kama Raja: Natesa Sastri, p. 20; Bodding's Folklore of the Santal 
Parganas p. 88 •; Thornhiirs Indian Fairy Tales p. 67; Mrs F. A. 
Steel's Tales of the Punjab, p. 185; Knowles' Folk-Tales of Kash- 
mir, 2nd ed., p. 20 ; Parker's Village Folk-tales of Ceylon, vol. Ill, 
pp. 127-131.) 

Jour. Straits Branch 



HIKAYAT PAEANG PITTING. 6a 

The incident of a dragon growing too big for a river occurs 
also in the Perak folk-tale Raja Budiman (ed. — Clifford, Singa- 
pore, p. 5) and in the Achehnese Eikayat Banta Ahmat (Snouck 
Hurgronje's "The Achehnese," vol. II, p. 14'2). 

The following is the outline of the story: — 

Prince Dewa Laksana Dewa ruled in fairy-land. His consort 
Chahaya Ivhairan bore a beautiful daughter Putri Langkam Cha- 
haya. One day when she was plucking flowers in the pleasance, a 
fairy (dewa) Mambang Indra Segara espied her and fell in love. 
He cast a spell on a grass-hopper and sent him to fly and settle on 
the princess and awaken in her thoughts of love. Then wearing 
his creese and burning " as if he would set fairy-land afire/' he 
entered the pleasance. The princess sent a maid to call him. His 
hot words of love call forth her reproof and she bids him seek 
her parents. He flies away in dudgeon and resolves to bring a 
sickness upon her. He is sleepless till the dawn when " the 
cocks crowed, the birds of paradise (chenderawaseli) sang in the 
heavens, parrots sang in the angsoka trees, parroquets on the 
boughs of the nagasari, mynahs on the chempaika trees and a 
drizzle of rain made all the flowers in the garden bloom." 

After waiting seven days he charms (puja) a frangipanni 
flower and throws it into the bosom of the princess as she and her 
maids are picking flowers. She becomes pregnant. Her father 
curses her and changing her into the form of an ugly mortal wo- 
man casts her down into the world. iShe bears a child in the 
forest. She lives in an abandoned hut, at first begging rice and 
cooking-pots and later pounding rice for hire. One day in her 
absence, while her boy is playing under the house, a stranger offers 
to sell him a young snake for half a coconut-shell full of rice. He 
buys the snake and makes it his plaything day and night. Another 
day he buys a young hawk and later a white rat. The snake grows 
the horns (chula) and claws of a dragon. The boy rides about on 
the dragon's back and other children give fruit in return for per- 
mission to play with the hero. The harbour-master (shaJibandar) 
hears of it and sends for the boy who goes riding on his dragon 
with the young hawk flying above his head and the white rat fol- 
lowing. He is given fruit and rice and raiment. The Eaja of 
the country hears of the marvel and sends for the boy to come on 
his dragon. He bestows on him rice, raiment and two slaves 
(sahaya) . 

One night the dragon who has grown so big he cannot bathe 
in the river without flooding the country decides to run away to 
the lake where his father and himself live. His little master fol- 
lows and overtakes him. The dragon's grandsire, a terrible beast, 
gives him a ring out of his mouth which in a momenft can pro- 
vide food for a thousand men. He bids the boy call upon his 
whilom plaything if ever he needs his help. The hawk and the 
white rat take leave of their dragon playmate. 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



64 HIKAYAT PAEANG PUTING. 

The hero's mother is in great distress at the disappearance of 
her son. On his return he loses his way in the forest. His 
dragon's granddam, angry at hearing that the magic ring has been 
given to the- boy, sends a warrior dragon to ask for it back in re- 
turn for a magic stick. The dragon finds the boy. When he goes 
to bathe in a pool, the boy siezes the stick and striking the pool 
thrice prevents the dragon from leaving it. He hurries away, tak- 
ing the magic stick. He hears the sound of men felling in the 
jungle and going near espies a masterless knife (parang puting) 
felling a tree. At sight of him the knife runs off to a hut where 
an old man lives. The hero spends the night at the hut and shak- 
ing his magic stick provides food for them both. The old man 
gives him in return for the magic stick his knife which will obey 
all behests and can enlarge itself and fight foes. Our hero reaches 
home and goes to pay his greeting to the harbour-master. Always 
he provides cooked food for his mother and himself by means of 
the magic ring. 

Xow the ruler of the country, Eaja Indra Mahadewa was 

childless. He went to the island Chahaya Permana (j^^) 

to pay vows that he may get an heir. He and his consort bathed 
in a lake on the island, prayed and burnt incense. Betara Kala 
heard the prayer and dropped a manggo in the king's path 03 he 
went up from the lake. There was no manggo tree in the neigh- 
bourhood. The king accepted it as a sign, and he and his wife 
partook of the fruit. On their return a dragon bars the bark's way 
and the king induces him to desist by promising that his child if 
-a girl shall be the dragon's wife, if a boy his friend. The queen 
bears a daughter " Princess Mengindra., First Day of the Moon." 
The dragon king sends a lobster to see if the king has got a child. 
The lobster hiding at a royal landing-stage hears maids grumbling 
at having to carry up bathing water for the princess. He bids a 
prawn enter one of the water-vessels and report on the beauty of 
the princess. The lobster conveys the tale of her loveliness to the 
•dragon king. The dragon king sends one of his warrior dragons 
to block the estuary of the country of Eaja Indra Mengindra and 
flood the land so that he may remember his promise. A warrior 
goes down to the estuary and questions the drag-on. The king asks 
for three months' grace, wherein to prepare for the nuptials. His 
viziers advise him to offer his daughter's hand to wdiosoever can 
worst the dragon king. The king sends missives accordingly to 
the neighbouring princess and all accept the offer. He puts his 
daughter on a raft in an iron chest and all the princes who have 
accepted the challenge on other rafts and sends them down to the 
estuary where the dragon waits. Leaving the hawk and the white 
rat to look after his mother, our hero takes his magic ring and 
knife and goes aboard the princess' raft where he is allowed to 
stay. At the estuary the waiting dragon scatters the rafts of the 
princes with his breath and bids our hero leave the raft of the 
princess. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



HIKAYAT PARANG PUTING. G5 

The princess promises him her hand if he can worst the 
dragon suitor. He bids his magic knife decapitate the dragons 
who approach the raft. The princess and her maids are hungry. 
The hero's magic ring provides food. He invokes his young hawk 
and all the hawk tribe fly off with the raft back to the shore, peck- 
ing the eyes of all dragons that approach. The king of the 
dragons sends a huge warrior dragon who swallows the raft with 
all its crew. The hero by means of his magic ring provides food 
.and lamps. The hawk flys and tells the white rat of his master's 
predicament. The white rat seeks Mambang Indra Segara who 
comes with his forces. A great battle follows. The dragons kills 
the fairy warriors with the blasts and fires of their nostrils. The 
fairies slay the dragons with arrows. Mambang Indra Segara bids 
the young hawk enter the dragon's belly and see if his grandson 
and the princess are alive. The young hawk protests that he is 
unable and- the white rat enters and finds them still alive. The 
hero bids him tell the fairies to attack the other dragons. He 
orders his knife to cut the heart of the dragon that has swallowed 
them and then to cut through the dragon's body and release them. 
Mambang Indra 'Segara sends Mambang Eatna Dewa to fetch his 
son whom he names Mambang Dewa Keindraan. 

Mambang Indra Segara creates a country and castle by means 
of a magic jewel. He provides food by means of a ring. Their 
army is put under four leaders, Mambang Eatna Dewa, Mambang 
Gangga Dewa, Mambang Beranta Dewa and Dewa Keindraan. But 
when a great dragon (Naga Gen-tala) arrives they are so hard 
pressed that the hero hugging his body invokes his whilom dragon 
playmate, ^aga Eatna Gempita, to their aid. Xaga Gentala can- 
not prevail and returning to the dragon king, Eaja Gangga Indra, 
advises him to make peace. Eaja Gangga Indra and all his war- 
riors enter the fray. Eatna Gempita attacks him. The rival 
'dragons turn themselves into crow and hawk, ape, (her ok) and 
tusked monster (gergasi), harpy and roe. Eatna Gempita bites 
the neck of the harpy and so Eaja Gangga Indra dies. t Eatna 
Gempita becomes king of all the dragons. He tows the raft of 
the princess up-stream. The hero's father retires to fairy-land, 
leaving him the magic stone which can make cities and bidding his 
son call him at need. The hero leaves the princess' raft when it 
approaches the royal settlement. All the princely suitors for her 
hand seeing her raft drifting on the tide rush and welcome her. 
They pretend they have saved her from the dragon. Her father 
builds a dais on a plain where the princess shall sit and choose the 
prince she favours (di-buat silambara di-tengah padang, p. 110) by 
throwing him a posy of golden flowers. All the princes, all the 
chiefs and people of the country, even the halt and blind pass be- 
fore the princess but she does not throw the posy. At last the 
hero is told to pass before her. He passes carrying his magic knife, 
the hawk flying above his head,, the white rat following him. The 
princess throws the golden flowers on him. The 99 princes de- 
mand that the marriage shall take place after a procession to the 

E. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



66 HIKAYAT PARANG PUTING. 

palace (bertandang), hoping to kill the bride-groom on the way. 
By means of his father's magic stone the hero creates a city and 
palace and castle. The white rat, who is really Eaja Indra Bayu 
in animal shape, goes to fairy-land and invites Mambang Indra 
Segara and his younger son Mambang Eatna Dewa to the wedding. 
The harbour-master comes and with limbs and beard' trembling 
and face as " white as a pealed mushroom." sees the city and palace 
the hero has created, understands he is a fairy prince and does 
obeisance. The princess' father hears music and sends viziers to 
see what it portends. They are fed by means of the magic ring 
and return and tell their master of the city and palace and its 
furniture. The king sends his future son-in-law word that the 
99 princes will attack him during the wedding procession. The 
hero begs him not to prevent them. Mambang Indra Segara des- 
cends to earth on a magic carpet (hamparan Icesaktian). The 
hero's mother sorrows over her mortal form. The young hawk who 

is really a fairy Darkasila (J— >\$ ji) hies to fairy-land and 

pleads for her with Dewa Laksana Dewa, who with his consort 
descends to earth for his grand-child's wedding after begging 
Dewa Betara Brahma to restore to his daughter her fairy shape. 
On a moonlight night Betara Brahma descends and sprinkling 
Princess Langkam Chahaya with golden flowers and rainbow water 
(ayer pancha rona dari heyangan) restores her fairy beauty, ad- 
dressing her as " Blue Lotus." The hero goes to the wedding on 
the flying carpet. Darkasila and his hawks fight the followers of 
the 99 princes. After the wedding Dewa Laksana Dewa and his 
fairy followers fly up to fairy-land on a magic carpet. A marriage 
is arranged at last between the hero's npther and Mambang Indra 
Segara. The hero picks up his magic stone. City and castle 
vanish. He and his bride and her father set out for home. The 
99 princes waylay them but let the father pass. By his magic 
stone the hero creates a pleasance. His magic knife fights the 
princess. Fifty of them surrender and later fight the remaining 
49 but fail to worst them whereupon the hero calls his dragon 
friend Eatna Gempita to capture them: — the magic knife would 
kill them and the hawks blind them. All the princes who escape 
death acknowledge the hero's suzerainty. The hero releases the 
hawk and the white rat to return to fairy-land, whence they visit 
him often. He rules the kingdom of Indra Mahadewa happily 
with his consort. 



Penang Malay 



By A. W. Hamilton. 

To any one whose knowledge of Malay has been acquired from 
the various text books on the subject, with their correct orthogra- 
phy, it comes as rather a shock to find, on arrival in Penang, that 
he is unable to follow even the simplest conversation between two 
natives of the place, and that his own Malay, although understood, 
is not the colloquial of the Northern Settlement. 

Before long, however, the stranger begins to observe that his 
difficulties lie in well defined directions; and that the body of the 
language remains much the same as that to which he has been 
accustomed, so that after a few months the newcomer should have 
little trouble in conversing in the same strain as his hearers. The 
differences between the so-called " Penang Malay," which is really 
the Malay of Kedah altered slightly to suit the needs of a cos- 
mopolitan town population with a large element of Southern 
Indians from the Madras Presidency, and " Singapore Malay," 
which is a similar corruption of the speech of Johore to meet the 
requirements of a busy mart dealing with many races and much in- 
fluenced by its proximity to Java, come mainly under six heads: — 

1. Harshness in pronunciation. 

2. The alteration of a final " I " into " i ". 

3. The clipping of certain common words. 

4. The use of peculiar idioms and idiomatic constructions. 

5. The use of words not in common use elsewhere, or con- 
fined in use to Kedah. 

6. The inclusion of words of Indian origin sometimes to the 
exclusion of native Malay words. 

1. Dealing with the above seriatim, in Johore Malay the pro- 
nunciation is always soft, especially that of a final syllable, so 
much so indeed that a final a is never pronounced as the long a in 
father but dies away as the sound of the er in the same word, so 
that father could be transcribed as fa ilia to a reader of romanised 
Malay in Johore. In Penang speech on the other hand the letter 
a is always given its fall sound of a long a or ah even at the end of 
a word, so that apa (a pa) " what " with its mute final a in Johore, 
becomes a pa; ma na, " where " becomes ma na; di a "he " becomes 
di a; ra ja " a king " becomes ra ja. In Johore the letter r though 
pronounced distinctly is never rolled as in Javanese and when 
appearing as a final is pronounced ever so slightly, so that Jcotor 
" dirty " could almost be written as Jco taw, and akar " a root " a lea 

Jour. Straits Branch R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



68 PENANG MALAY. 

both a'& being long. In Penang the letter r though not rolled is 
pronounced in a peculiar gurgling manner at the back of the throat 
except it be a final when it is pronounced with a steely ring which 
often makes it difficult to distinguish from a final k which as else- 
where is always enclitic. 

Aijer "Water" is thus pronounced as if it were ayak "a sieve ;" 
nyior " a coconut " as if it were spelt nyiok; bochor " leaky " as if 
it were spelt bochok; dengar " to hear" as if it had been dengak; 
ajar " to teach " as if it were spelt ajalc "to invite." Apa khabarf 
" What's the news ? How are you? " is often heard as Apa habaJc 
the initial kh being changed to h for assonance in conjunction with 
the alteration of the sound of the final r to k. Words ending in 
the letter r but having i as the penultimate letter on the other 
hand are pronounced as if the final syllable were idk and not ir. 



Pikir, "to think" 


becomes 


pikiak. 


Pasir, "sand" 


>> 


pasiak. 


Kikir, " a file " 


a 


kikiak. 


Hampir, " near " 


^^ 


hampiak. 


Gambir, " ganibier ' 




gambiak. 



Another peculiarity of Penang pronunciation is the indis- 
tinct utterance of ultimate syllables ending in s which are 
shortened and articulated quickly, resulting in the letter s being 
sounded as if it were Hi, so that beras "rice" sounds like beraili; 
pedas," pungent " as pedaih; lekas, "quickly" as lekaih and atas, 
" above " as ataih. Similarly bagus, " fine " is pronounced baguih; 
bungkus, " a bundle "as bungkuili and mampus, " to die " as 
mampuih : whilst words ending in is merely change the s- into h; 
tulis, "to write" being pronounced as tulih; baris, " a line" as 
barih : keris, " a dagger " as klriln : and climgis, " crosslooking " 
as chengih. 

2. The alteration of a final I into i. 

One of the most puzzling features of the Penang dialect is the 
substitution of an i for a final I, whereby even common words 
appear strange under their new guise, and in a few instances have 
to be recognised from the context as being different to the words 
similarly pronounced but spelt differently; instances in point being 
bantal, " a pillow" which is pronounced bantai and is liable to be 
mistaken for bantai, " to thrash, to slaughter " and tangkal, " a 
charm" pronounced tangkai and liable to be confused with tangkai, 
" a stem." In those cases where the penultimate letter is i the 
sound of the final I does not become i as usual but is elided and the 
sound of the penultimate i is changed to e so that katil, " a bed- 
stead " is pronounced kate. 

The following list gives the majority of common words ending 
in I and their pronunciation. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



PENANG MALAY. 



69 



Ajal 


allotted span of life 


ajai 


Akal 


intelligence 


akai 


Aral 


hindrance 


arai 


A sal 


origin 


asai 


Awal 


early 


awai 


Bachul 


vspiritless 


bachoi 


Batal 


to repeal 


batai 


Bahul 


a basket 


bakui 


Baxval 


a pomfret 


baivai 


Basal 


a jaundiced swelling 


basai 


Bangsal 


a shed 


bangsai 


Betui 


correct 


betui 


Bebal 


stupid 


bebai 


Bisul 


a boil 


bisui 


Bilal 


a muezzin 


bilai 


Bogil 


naked 


boge 


Bo'tol 


a bottle 


botoi 


Cheng al 


the name of a wood 


chengai 


Changkol 


a mattock, a hoe 


changkoi 


Chunghil 


to pick out with a pointed instrument chungke 


Dajal 


wicked, mischievous 


dajai 


Dodol 


a kind of sweetmeat 


dodoi 


Dogol 


hornless 


dogoi 


Endul 


a hammock 


endui 


Gatal 


itchiness 


gatai 


Gasal 


odd 


gasai 


Gempal 


stout 


gempai 


Gomol 


to strive as in wrestling 


gomoi 


Ealal 


legitimate 


halai 


Hemul 


officious intrusion 


liemui 


Ikal 


curly 


ikai 


Janggal 


discordant 


janggai 


Jambul 


a fruit 


jambui 


Jejal 


to cram into a hole 


jejai 


Jeremal 


a fishing stake 


jeremai 


Jengkal 


a span 


jengkai 


Jual 


to sell 


juai 


Kapal 


a ship 


kapai 


Katil 


a bed 


kate 


Kekal 


lasting 


kekai 


Kedal 


a black discolouration of the skin 


kedai 


Kepul 


1/16 gantang 


kepui 


Kenal 


to know a person 


kenai 


Kidal 


left handed 


kidai 


Mahal 


'expensive 


mahai 


Mengkal 


half ripe 


mengkai 


Naked, 


mischievous 


nakai 


Pangkal 


beginning 


pangkai 


Basal 


reason 


pasai 


Panggil 


to call 


pangge 



R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



70 



PENANG- MALAY. 



Pedal 


the gizzard 


pedai 


Pejal 


firm of flesh 


pejai 


Pikul 


to carry on the shoulder 


pikui 


Pukul 


to hit 


pukui 


Rugul 


to rape 


rugui 


Sambal 


condiments 


sambai 


Sakal 


to knock against 


sakai 


Sangkal 


to deny 


sangkai 


Sesal 


to regret 


sesai 


Sendal 


to wedge 


sendai 


Simpul 


to tie 


simpui 


Sial 


ill omened 


siai 


Takal 


a pulley 


takai 


Tampal 


to patch 


iampai 


Tang gal 


loosening 


tanggai 


Tangkal 


a talisman 


tangkai 


Tangkul 


a net lifted by a lever 


tangkui 


Tetal 


thick (compressed) 


tetai 


Telal 


thick 


tebai 


Timbul 


to float 


timbui 


Tinggal 


to leave behind 


tinggai 


Tumpul 


blunt 


tumpui 


Tunjal 


to thrust downwards 


tunjai 


Wakil 


an attorney 


wake 



3. The clipping of certain common words. 

The number of words clipped is small but as several are words 
in everyday use, it is as well to master them straight away. 

The most important of these words are, 
mari " to come," which is shortened, to mat 

pergi " to go " which is shortened to pi 

Saya baru mai " I have just come " 
Hang pi-lah " Go away ! " 

Similarly ini " this " and itu " that " are usually contracted 
to ni and tu which also serve as contractions for sini " here " and 
situ " there,'' the last named being also sometimes represented by 
nu. 



" There he is " 

" Do you want this or that ? 

" Here it is. " 

"That chairs 

" Like this// 

"Like that." 

" About this matter." 

" Ee that." 

"Who is that?" 



nu d%a. 

hang malm yang ni-kah gang tu ? 

ni dia. 

kerosi tu. 

macJiam ni. 

macham tu. 

pasai ni. 

pasai tu. 

sapa tuf 

The contractions ni, nu, and tu with the addition of the word 
dia, "he" or "she," contracted to "de" form the new combina- 
tions of deni, " this person or party " i.e. dia ini, detu, "that person 
or party "'i.e. dia itu and the vaguer denu, "those people." 

Jour. Straits Branch 



PENANG MALAY. 71 

" This party would like to come to a settlement but the others 
don't want to." Deni suka nak buat selesai, derm ta malm* 
" Why did you strike him ? " Awat hang pukui detu ? 

The word tentang " facing," when contracted to tang is com- 
bined with ni " this " and tu " that " to mean " in this or that spot 
or place" : — 

I am in pain about this spot. Saya sakit tang ni 

Go and put it over there. Rang pi taroh tang tu. 

I don't know where it has got lost. Tang mana dia pi hilang pun 

ta' tahu-lah. 
He was sitting at the table Dia dudok tang rneja. 

That portion is alright but this is defective Tang tu bagus dah, 

tapi tang ni-lah nampak chachat. 
The word ikut " to follow " when used in the sense of "along" 
or " through " is usually contracted to kut (hot), thus: — 
"By which road did you come?" Hang mai kot jalan mana? 
" The thief came through by the back " Penchuri tu masok kot 

belakang. 

The verb dudok " to sit, to dwell," is frequently shortened 
to dok : — 

"Where do you live, sir?" Tuan dok di-mana? 

"Pray remain seated. I am going." Dok-lah. Saya nak pulang. 

Dok-lah is a common substitute for our " good-bye." 

The final h in the intensifying article lah is not pronounced 
in Penang, the word being enunciated as la with a long a sound. 

Sudah " to finish," naturally becomes dah : — 
"He has gone." Dia dah pi. 

"He has finished doing it." Dia buat, dah or dia dah buat. 

The more usual query in Singapore of mengapa " why," or 
apa sebab " for what reason," is almost invariably expressed in 
Penang by the one word awat, a contraction of apa buat " what's 
to do " etc., though pasal apa " for what reason," pronounced as 
pasai apa, is also frequently heard. 

"Why were you dismissed? " Awat hang kena buang kerja? 
u Why is the train late?" Awat kereta api ni lambat? 

" Why did you not do it? " Awat ta' buat? 

" What do you want? What is the matter? " Awat? 

The usual abbreviations of to-' for tidak, nak fQr hendak and 
ta'andak for ta' hendak hold good in Penang as elsewhere : — 
"I don't want it" Saya ta mahu or Saya ta'ndak. 

" Where are you going? " Nak pi mana or ka-mana? Nak ka-mana? 
is a common greeting to a person met on the road, usually 
replied to by ta' pi mana " I am not going anywhere in 
particular; " or saja aku ber jalan, "just out for a walk/* 
or some definite statement of fact as, nak pi kedai, " am 
going shopping." 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



72 PENANG MALAY. 

Dak is used for tidak as a negation. 
"Did you do it? No." flan# kah-buat? Dak. Oe! 

Oe is more or less a meaningless exclamation like Oh! usually 
denoting grief or pain as in the phrase Adoi mak oe!, "Alas mother 
oh ! " but in hailing or in reply to a hail merely means " ahoy " 
or " yes." 

Boat ahoy ! sampan oe ! 

Oh brother Mat! " 0, bang Mat! (answer) Oe, " Yes." 

In connection with dak is a little phrase buat dak meaning " to 

do " i.e. " to act (as if) nothing (had happened) "; " to appear quite 

unconscious of what" is afoot (buat ta' taliu). 

" When I passed he was gambling at the side of the road but I 

acted as if I had not noticed anything." Waktu saya lalu 

dia dok main judi di-tepi jalan tetapi saya buat dak. 

The usual abbreviations of the terms for kindred are in use as 
bang for abang 

kak „ kakak 

pak „ bapa 

tok „ datok 

die' „ enche' 

and the less common 

nek for nenek 

dele „ adek 

nak „ anak 

which are used only in certain phrases. 

Bang is used in conjunction with a name as bang Tarn = abang Itam. 

" brother Itam, " the brother not being a sign of relationship but 

of respect. 

" Which one do you want brother Din ? This or that ? Yang mana 

bang Din mahuf Yang ini-kah, yang tuf 

It is also sometimes used in addressing a stranger as 
Bang oe, saya nak tumpang bertanya di-mana rwnah si-awu? 
" Oh ! brother might I ask you where is so and so's house ? " 

It should not be forgotten that in Malay, titles of relationship 
are used to express not only actual relationship but the relative 
rank of the persons addressed or spoken about as compared with 
the speaker. So that kak Jah does not mean "my sister Khadijah" 
but u Jah who is of the relative rank of kakak or elder sister to 
me." Further, abang, adek, kak and tok are used as polite forms 
of address to strangers according to their age and sex to avoid 
using the pronoun " you " which is considered rude. 

There are also a few words which are shortened to the extent 
of a syllable. 

tuala a towel tola also tuala 

kuala an estuary kola „ kuala 

biasa accustomed besa „ biasa 

kuasa power: authority kosa „ kuasa 

Jour. Straits Branch 



PENANG MALAY. 



73 



sennyap 
biawdk 


" to be or become silent " 
" monitor lizard " 


sengap 
bewak 


sentul 


"an edible fruit" 


setul 


aniaya 
buaya 


" to do an injustice " 
" a crocodile " 


naya 
boy a 


suara 


" a voice " 


sora 


smpa 
tiarap 
pelihara 
chendana 


" who " 

" face downwards " 

" to nurture, bring up " 

" sandalwood " 


sapa 
terap 
pier a 
chenana 


membachang 


" the horse mango " 


machang 


pendar 
tembelok 


" phosphorescence " 

" a boring marine worm " 


penar 
temelok 


pijat-pijat 


" a bug " 


pejat 



4. The use of certain peculiar idioms and idiomatic construc- 
tions. 

One of the most common idiomatic constructions employed 
in the sense of "in the middle of doing something" is the use of 
dok a contraction of dudok, "to sit." 

# Elsewhere the word dalam, " in," tengah, " in the middle of," 
or sedang, " whilst, " would be used to emphasise the fact that a 
person was in the act of doing something; or else the sentence 
would be introduced by such a word as masa, " at the time when" ; 
or the state of action would be understood from the context, or 
even expressed by ada in the sense of " was." 

In Penang a sentence such as 
" I was in the house at the time, " would be, Ketika tu saya dok 
ada di-rumah i.e. Ketika tu " at the time," saya " I," dok ada " was 
in the act or state of being," di-rumah " in the house." 

" I was (in the middle of) eating when he arrived." Bila dia 
sampai, saya dok makan nasi. 

" The ship is (in the act of) coming." Kapai dok max. 

" As I was (in the act of) going he was coming." Saya dok pi dia 
dok mai. 

"A policeman was standing up at the cross roads." Mata-mata 

dok terpacliak di-kepala sempang. 

" I have been ill for a long time." Saya dok sakit berapa lama: — 
dok sakit " have been in a state of illness." 

" He is always playing." Dia dok main siang malam : — 
dok main "in the midst of play." 

Another unusual construction is the use of the prefix pe to 
indicate an active sense instead of the more usual suffix kan 

larikan or melarikan, "to run off with," becomes in Penang 
pelari. 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



74 PENANG MALAY. 

" He has run off with a man's daughter." Dia sudali pelari anak 
orang. 

Pelari also means "to be taken off by" i.e. "to be washed away by/' 
"The soil was all washed away by the rain." Tanah itu habis di- 
pelari hujan. 

The prefix pe is used with baik, "'good," to form pebailc, "to 
make good i.e. to mend." 

Rumali belum lagi di-pebaik. " The house is not yet repaired." 

The same prefix when attached to kechi' " small, " rendah 
"low," nail- " to rise," rapat "'close together," and hangat "hot" 
forms pekecliv "to make smaller," perendah "to make lower," 
penaik " to raise or tune up," perapat " to bring close together " 
and peril an gat " to heat up." 

" Turn down the lamp."* Pekechi pelita. 

"The ground should be lowered still further." Tanah tu mahu di- 

perendah lagi. 

" He is tuning up the violin." Dia dok penaik biola. 

" He is a little bit on." Dia sudali penaik. 

From lekat " to stick " is formed pelekat " to set fire to fuel." 

" Every morning early I have to get up and light the fire." Selalu 
pagi-pagi saya kena bangkit pelekat api. 

" The cold rice should be warmed up again." Nasi sejuk tu mahu 
perliangat. 

" The floor boards should be closer together." Papan lantai mahu 
perapat lagi. 

Pe when prefixed to a word commencing with the letter h 
becomes per so that hambat "to chase" becomes perhambat "to 
chase out " and habis " to finish " becomes perhabis " to finish ab- 
solutely," the letter h being elided in pronunciation. 

" Chased out of the- house " Di-perambat keluar dari rumah 

"Drink up!" Minum perabis! 

5. Balek "on the other side of" is used in Penang for sa- 
belah "on the side of " as 

" Two doors on this side " Balek sini dua pintu. 

" There are two witnesses on this side, but only one on that." 
Balek sini ada dua saksi, balek sana choma satu. 

Dan in Penang is the counterpart of sempat "to have time 
to," so that ta } dan means " no time to." 

" I could not get back in time." Saya ta' dan nak balek. 

" Will we catch the train? Yes." Dan-kah kereta api? Dan. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



PENANG MALAY. 75 

u No time to eat with so much work." Kerja banyak ta' dan 

Dial' an nasi. . 

" No sooner had I sat down than he come." Ta' dan dudok dia 

mai. 

Dan when duplicated on the other hand means, " straight- 
away there and then." 

" A Chinese came to the station and reported that robbers had 
entered his hou^e. Straight away I went out to enquire into the 
matter." Sa-orang China mai repot di-balai kata-nya rumaJi dia 
di-masok penyamun dan-dan juga saya keluar pi pereksa. 

" He returned as soon as he got the telegram. " Bila dia dapat 
taligeram dan-dan juga dia pulang. 

La is used for sckarang " now " : — 

" Nowadays it exists no longer/' La n% tada lagi. 

"I want it this very minute." Saya malm la ni juga. 

Sat a contraction of srfat, " a moment." is in very general use. 
" Come and sit down for a moment." Hang mai-lah dudok sat. 
" Wait a moment." Isanti sat. 

"He will be here in a minute." Sat lagi dia mai. 
"He is always coming (i.e. every minute)." Sat-sat mai. 

Sat can also be duplicated when it means, "just this very 
minute, a moment ago." 

"He has just this second gone out." Baru sat-sat dia keluar. 

Dekat " near " is frequently used for kapada " to " and takes 
the place of sama in Singapore. 

" How many times have I not told you? " Berapa kali saya sudali 

bilang dekat Jiang. 
" Go and ask your master for money." Hang pi minta duit dekat 

tuan hang 
"He came and abused my wife in filthy terms." Dia mai maki 

dekat bini saya kotor-kotor. 
" He was fisted and kicked until nearly half dead." Di-pukoi di- 

i en dang dekat dia sa-tengah nyawa. 
Buang " to throw away " is often used idiomatically with the 
implied sense of, " to get rid of." 
" Tear that up." Eoyak buang. 

" He has left his family and gone to Siam." Dia sudah tinggai 
buang anak bini pi negeri Siam. 

"Who knows where he has gone to live." Sntah ka-mana dia pi 

dudok buang. 
" Go and have your food first." Hang pi makan buang dulu. 
" A banishee." . Orang buang negeri. 

K A Soc. No. 85, 1922. 



76 PENANG MALAY. 

Pakat " agreement by conference/' is sometimes used in com- 
bination with other words to mean, " in a body/' — 

u The thieves went off in a body." Penchuri itu pun sudah pakat 
lari. 

" Five men assaulted me in a body." Lima orang pakat pukoi dekat 
say a. 

u The women cursed him in a body." Perempuan sudah pakat maki 
dekat dia. 

The pliirative suffix pa (in Kedah apa) is used in conjunction 
with the personal pronouns to form the plural number : — 

Saya I Sepa We (Saya pa) 

Hang You Hangpa You all (Hang pa) 

Dia He or she Depa They (Dia pa). 

You people are always like this. Hang pa ni macliam tu-lah selalu. 
We will not forget them. Sepa ta lupa ka-depa. 

Kut " perhaps," used interrogatively at the end of a sentence 
but does not do away with hairing kali: — 

" I hope he has not fallen down by any chance." Jang an dia pi 
jatoli kut. 

" Perhaps he is already married." (answer) " May be." Barang- 
kali dia sudah kawin. (answer) Kut-lah. 

Join, "Come on!" is frequently used alone as an interjec- 
tion : — 

46 Come along." (answer) " Come on then." Mari-lah. (answer) Jom. 

" Aren't you coming? " (answer) " Alright, let us be off." Tuan ta' 
man pi? (answer) Jom-lah. 

Lagn " a tune " with the addition of ni " this " and tu " that " 
takes the place of macliam ini and macham itu "like this or like 
that " and has the meaning of " manner " or " way " : — 

" Do it in this manner." Hang ouat lagu ni. 

" He wears a Chinese style of dress." Dia pakai lagu China. 

" I don't like people carrying on in that manner." Saya ta' suka 
orang ouat lagu tu. 

" This is not the right way to carry on." Lagu ni ta 9 kena-lah. 

Soli u will you ! " etc. is used interrogatively at the end of a 
sentence : — 

" Don't forget, will you ? " Jangan hang lupa noh f 

" Youre going aren't you ? " Hang nak pi noh ? 

"" You love me, don't you? " Hang sayang noh? 

Jour. Straits Branch 



PENANG MALAY. 77 

This word should be distinguished from nah " here/' which 
is used at the beginning of a sentence when giving things to a 
person : — ■ 

"Here's the money." Nah, duit! 

" Here come and take this book." Nah, ainbek buk. 

Takat " as far as, up to " or had (sometimes pronounced hat) 
which has the same meaning and is derived from the Arabic hadd 
" a boundary a limit," are used in conjunction with ni and tu to 
express meanings elsewhere obtained by the use of sampai or sa- 
■banyak : — 

" As much as that " (sa-banyak itu) had tu. 
" He can't do even as much as this." had ni pun ta 9 buleh buat. 
" Water up to the waist." ayer takat ping gang. 

"The road ended at that point." sa-takat tu jalan pun mati. 

Had is sometimes combined with hingga to mean " limit." 
"" Work without limit (unending)." kerja dengan tiada had hingga. 

Ha n (nasal) " yes," which may be derived from the Hindus- 
tani word of the same sound and meaning is much used colloquially 
in reply to a query : — 

" Did you go there ? Yes." llang-kah pi situ? Ha n . 

" Do you want this one? Yes." Hang malm gang ni-kahf Ha n . 

A word rather similar in sound but omitting the a is n (nasal) 
which is used as an interjection at intervals by the listener to 
denote that he is paying attention to what is being said and under- 
stands it. 

Entah an interrogative, " perhaps; I don't know/ 1 ' is frequent- 
ly shortened to, tali : — 

" I don't know where he has gone/' Tali kamana-kah dia pi. 

■"Perhaps he is dead." Tah-kah dia mati. 

u What are you doing? " Apa-tah hang buat? 

6. The inclusion of words of Indian origin sometimes to the 
•exclusion of native Malay words. 

Penang Singapore 

Aria Ulor To lower, to pay out rope. 

Achi Respectful designation of an el- 

der sister. 

A uta Pa' Kasa Auta Seleman Bluff. 

Auto Temberang „ 

Bajau Gasak To strike up or perform on an 

instrument. 

Bel A tree with an astringent fruit 

(Aegle marmelos). 

Beriani A dish of rice and meat cooked 



together. 



H. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



73 



PENANG MALAY, 



Chamcha 


Sendok 


A spoon. 


Gha 


Teh 


Tea. 


Chapras 




A badge plate: clasp. 


Cliandi (shandi) 


Stubborn of a horse. 


Chota 


Tongkat 


A police baton. 


Choi-era 




A Tamil youngster (servant). 


Dapra 




A fender (on a ship). 


Dol 




An Indian drum. 


Dal 




Split peas. 


Gadi 


Kereta tang an 


A handcart. 


Gabra 




To be alarmed, agitated. 


Hargari 


Pasong 


Handcuff. 


Raman 




A police term meaning special 
duty not regular beat work. 


Kacliera 




Low worthless people. 


Korma 




A rich stew of meat. 


Laicak 


Kelakar 


Joking; jesting. 


Lucha 




Obscene, profligate. 


La dam 


Sepatu kuda 


Horse shoe. 


Mampele (mapele) — Pengantin jantan — Bridegroom. 


Mampelam 


Mangga 


A manggo. 


Male 




A. garland. 


Mam ah 




Uncle, a designation for one's fa- 
ther-in-law or the husband 
of one's aunt. 


Mami 




Aunt, a designation for one's nio- 
, ther-in-law or the wife of 
one's uncle. 


Mandom 




Worthless, a broken down horse. 


Machan 




The husband of an elder sister 
(abang ipar) . 


Maini 




The wife of an elder brother 
(kakak ipar). 


Mambu 




The nim tree. 


Mitai 




A kind of sweetmeat. 


Mertabak 




A meat omelette. 


Sana 




Respectful designation of an el- 
der brother. 


Pet eras 




Pride; arrogance. 


I 'one ii 


Kedi 


Impotent. 


Pokeri 




A profligate, a blackguard. 


P era I a 




Unleavened bread. 


Ponu P 


eugantin perempuan 


A bride. 


Poni 


Gay on g 


A small tin vessel. 


Pili 




A water tap. 


Para 


Jaga 


Sentry go. 


Peril 


Buat main : giat 


To tease; to deceive. 


Pirn 




A guinea fowl. 


Pariah 




A lowcaste person. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



PENANG MALAY. 79 



Eemunggai 


Kelor 


Horse radish. 


Rang (j i 
Saul' i l 


S oleic : kencliang 
Cliaboh 


Fine, gaudy. 
A whip. 


Stan 


Hathir 


Reserve duty. 


Side 


An gin 


A rheumatic swelling in t 


Slianan 




joints. 
A Hindu coconut tree climber. 


TaJ (tai) 




A tall palm with edible fruit. 


Talr a 


Lad eh 


(Borassus flabelliformis) 
Curds. 


Tan 


Setal 


A stable. 



the 



Tala Gepoh (kunchi mangga) A padlock. 

Proper names are now taken almost wholly from the 
Arabic, native Malay names being reduced to a mere handful 
■of common designations as Awang, and Put eh, Sulong and 
Bongsu. Penang Malays bear several names which at once denote 
the Indian extraction of their bearers. Prominent amongst 
Jawi Pel'an names are such, as Che Em Bi (where Che is not 
derived from the Malay honorific enche but forms part of the 
proper name) : Marikan; Maidin; Pawan, Pa Wan, Pa Wan Chile, 
Pa Wan Teh: and amongst women Ma Wan: 21 a Wan Chik; 
Ma Wan Bi : Bibi: Kelsom; Kelsom Bi; Habibah; Nachar, etc. 
Arabic names many of which are long and harsh to Malay ears if 
pronounced orthographic-ally are all shortened to a monosyllable, 
which is invariably the last syllable of the words, slightly altered 
in some cases to soften the sound. This custom is prevalent all 
over the peninsula, with but slight variations in different places for 
some of the abbreviations. The abbreviated names are the ones in 
general use when speaking familiarly and in the homes but not 
even then to the entire exclusion of the fuller forms. 

In Penang, 
Ismail is abbreviated to or Me' or Mail 



Jaafar 


Par 


Abu BaJcar 


Ear or Bakar 


Abdul-Rali man 


Man or Draman 


Abdullah 


Lah or Dollah 


Varus 


Ros 


Ghaus 


Ros 


Hashim 


Chem 


Hassan 


Chan 


Hussain 


Chen 


Ibrahim 


Em or A' em or Brahim 


Isa 


Cha 


■Tun us 


Xos 


Jusoh 


Choh 


Kassim 


Chim 


Arsliad 


Chat 


Mali mud 


Mod 



JR. A. Soc. So. 85, 1922. 



80 



PENANG MALAY. 



Muhammad 


Mat 




All mad 


Mai or Am at 


11 am id 


Mid 




Mansur 


Clwh 




Osmcm 


Man or S' 


man 


Sharif 


Yib 




Sa'ad 


Ad 




Sa'id 


Id 




Saud 


Od 




Salhh 


Leh 




Isahah 


Ak 




Usop 


Sop 




Khadijah 


Jah 


• 


Fatimah 


Mali 




Asiyah 


Yah 




Saudali 


Bah 




Mariam 


Yam 




Minah 


Nah 




Kalsom 


Som 




Habibah 


Bah 




Nahchar 


Char 




Esah 


Cliah 




Bibi 


Bi. 




Penang. 


Singapore. 




Abang 


abang 


elder male cousin. 


Abang ipar 


ipar 


brother-in-law; husband of elder 
sister. 


Achar 


limbali 


a cess-pool. 


Achi lor 


tut up itu 


hide and seek. 


Adek 


adek 


younger male or female cousin. 


Adek ipar 


ipar 


brother or sister-in-law, husband 
or wife of younger sister or 
brother. 


Angkit 


angkat 


to lift, to raise. 


Anjak 




slight alteration of position. 


Aram 


den dam 


threats of vengeance, to harbour a 
feeling of vengeance: den dam 
in Penang only means longing. 


Asin-asin 


rhekok manis 


a small leaved vegetable, eaten as 
spinach. 


Awal 


siang-siang 


early. 


Awas 


• • 


a culinary mixture of various pre- 
pared vegetables with their ap- 
propriate spices etc. 


Awat 


kenapa 


why. 


Ayakan 


ayah 


a sieve : pengayak in Penang is a 


pen gay ak 




large sieve for gravel etc. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



PENANG MALAY. 



81 



Pexaxg. Singapore. 

Badak tenok 

tampong 



a tapir. 



Bagan 


penghald' 


n 


a landing stage. 


Bagi 


Jcasi 




to give. 


Bairup 


bo yci 




a fat person (vulgar = from a har- 
bour buoy). 


Bakir 


berbeku 1 


basi 


sour milk. 


Balai 


rumah pasonq 


a police station. 


Balun 


. . 


. . 


to thrash. 


Balut 


bunglcus 




to wrap up. 


Bandarsah 


surau 




a private mosque. 


Bangkit 


ban gun 




to get up. 


Bebai 


perengus 




cross-grained. 


Bededam 


. . 




to crowd together. 


Belachak 






hopping mudfish. 


Belah 


• • 




to butt; di-belah kambing, to be 
butted by a goat. 


Belahak 


sedawa 




to belch. 


Belalang 


sibor-sibor 


a dragonfl}*: patong clxabai, a red 


patong or 






variety: patong rimau etc. 


patong 








Belangkas 






a foursided teetotum for garn^ 
bling with representations of 
bunga udang ketam and ikan 
(Chinese si bin four face). 


Bendang 


sawah 




a stretch of paddy field. 


Bengkak 


berok am 


\ar 


mumps. 


chantek 




hasil 




Bengkang 


bingka p 


id eh 


a sweetmeat. 


Bengkang 


bingka merah 


JS >> 


gula merah 








Bentara 


pel ay an 




one who brings in the dishes at a. 
feast. 


Berangas 






tiny sharp shells adhering to 


(sip ut) 






wood. 


Berchalar 


bergaris 




scratched. 


Berkapok 


berpelok 




to enfold in the arm-s. 


Bertaki 


berjanji 




to agree. 


Bertanya 


bertanya 


tepat 


to ask exactly: a direct question. 


pepat 








Bertoh 


Janqqar 




to collide. 


Biji asam 


toan (Ch 


inese) 


fantan. 


(main)kacha 






kerat 








Bok 


joran 




a fishing rod. 


Bontot kapal 


belakang 


kapal 


the stern. 


R. A. Soc, No. 85, ] 


L922. 







82 



PENANG MALAY. 



PeXAjSTG. 


Singapore. 


Buah sagalat 
Buah sawa 


buah mantega 
buah sank 


Buat kambu 




Buat som 
Buboh 


taroh 


Bunga ayer 


bills 


Burong 
kenek-kenek 




Burong segan 





Chabai 

Chak • 
Chak Bengala 

Chak burong 
Chak pipet 
or chak tuli 



lada 

pipit 
jelatek 

pipit rumah 
pipit tuli 



butter fruit (Diospyros discolor). 

the chiku. 

to take in : to swindle. 

to look sulky. 

to place. 

white bait. 

a well known tune with extempore 

numerous verses introducing 

pesan datok nenek i.e. grandpa 

and grandma's instructions, 
the night-jar, on account of its 

lazy habit of laying its eggs on 

a road without a nest, 
chilis, lada hidup-lxesh; 

lada kering = dried. 
a sparrow, 
the Java sparrow, a bird of the 

finch tribe, 
the house sparrow, 
a small speckled finch, which is 

fond of pacli and takes a lot of 



Chak ray a 

Chak tanah 
Chak uban 
Chakok 
Chalak 
Chamdek 

Chamor 

Champin 

Changkat 

Changkis 

Chapek 

Chapul 

Chapui 

(= chabul) 



Chas 
Chedas 

Chekam 



burong 



tempua 



pipit uban 
changkok 

sindir 

sepah 

tolior, clietek 
cliantis 
tern pang 



getek, keletah 
cliengkam 



the weaver bird. 

the ground lark. 

the white-headed muni a. 

a crook, a hook. 

affection. 

innuendo, sarcasm : to get at a 

reason indirectly, 
scattered about, 
a slight now. 

shallow. 

a scrawl (of handwriting). 

lame. 

indiscreet chatter and remarks on 
strange subjeete in times or 
places of danger, regarded as 
liable to bring down some mis- 
fortune : a loose tongue, mulut 
chapui. 

forward of a girl ; fast. 

lively, strong, recovered as from 
an illness. 

to compress as a flat object 
between finger and thumb. 



Jour. Straits Branch 



PENANG MALAY. 



83 



Penang. 


Singapore. 


Chekang 


tegang 


Chekap 




Chelepa 


kepok 


Chelaru 





Chelus 


lulus , muat 


Chempa 


chempaka 


Chempaka 


hung a hub or 




bunga kemoja 


Chempedak 


nangka bub or 


mambong 




Chempera 


templar 


C hem us 


jelak 


Chenchodak 


todak 


Chenderus 




Chengkok 




Chengkol 





Chenohom 


besom 


(daun) 




Chenonot 


tulang tongkeng 


Chenuram 


churam 


Cherah 


terang 



Chetera cherita 

Chop 

Chor badar clinch or badar 

Chor kodak jemput-jemput 

Chor pisang goreng pisang 

Chuak 

Chuchor penganan 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



taut. 

able, skilful, competent 

a small tin receptacle for tobacco 
or cigarettes. 

in confusion, in disorder, scat- 
tered around. 

ability to pass through an aper- 
ture, lulus in Penan o- only 
means to succeed, to come off. 

the champak tree (Michelia 
champaca). 

the franjipanni. 

a large pithy jack fruit, with 
little or no contents, a fat 
woman. 

broken up, scattered in all direct- 
ions as frightened chickens. 

nausea, from overeating. 

a sea fish with long projecting 
jaws. 

the refining of rancid oil. 

bent, chengkok beledok, bent and 
twisted, twisting and turning. 

twisted, bent up of a diseased 
arm or shrivelled hand. 

a small shrub with fragrant edi- 
ble leaf. 

the extremity of the backbone, 
chenonot ayam, the pope's nose. 

sloping. 

clear, in Penang kulit cherah is 
a fair skin i.e. not dark, mata- 
mata cherah is an ordinary P. 
C. as opposed to a mata-mata 
gelap, or detective. 

a tale, a story. 

a spade. 

a cake of flour, currystuffs and 
prawns (irada Tamil). 

small round balls of banana and 
flour. 

a banana fritter. 

nervous, frightened, afraid (hati 
chuak from the Chinese choah) 

cake.-. 



84 



PENANG MALAY. 



Pexaxg. 


Singapore. 


Dakap 


pelok 


Darai 


mandul 


Daun pejat 


liar o da 


Dogeng 


dogel 


Domol 


moncliong 


Duit 


sen 


Duku 


sekeh 


Egeh 


egah 


Ekor kuda 




(rumput) 




Elok 


molek 


Enau 


kabong 


Galah panjang 


main galah 


or tui 




Gamak 


agak 


Garok 


garau 


Gasal 


ganjil 


Gebang 


berbual 


(bergebang) 




Gebu 





Gedegar 


. . • • • • 


Gedubil 


selamba 


Gelak 


keiawa 


Gelam 




Gelebat 


belebat 


Geloh leher 


. . 


Gempar 




Gendang raya 


bedok 


Genjak 





Gen jut 





Gerai 





to embrace. 

sexual impotence of the female. 

rue. 

unfledged, featherl'ess, as some 

young chickens with a few 

strong feathers on back and 

wings, clothes etc. 
snout, 
one cent. 

to rap with the knuckles, 
to walk with an unsteady gait as 

an old woman, jalan teregah- 

egali. 
a grass with a tufted head like 

horse tails, 
pretty. 

the suger plant, 
a game like prisoner's, base. 

to guess. 

rough voiced, raucous, rasping. 

odd of numbers. 

to yearn. 

soft, white as sand or a woman's 
hand. 

very coarse, of a fabric. 

unmoved, brazen. 

to laugh. 

a light brown heron the size of a 
bangau, found in padi fields 
and swamps. 

a double bladed paddle. 

to slit a person's throat. 

to threaten, to scare (in Singa- 
pore gempar only means to 
bruit abroad). 

the big drum in a mosque for 
beating the hours of prayer. 

slight alteration of position, to 
move. 

to edge towards (genjut in Singa- 
pore is out of the straight as 
the fold of a sarong etc). 

a platform on which newly con- 
fined women lie to be warmed 
(salai). 

Jour. Straits Branch 



PENANG MALAY. 



85 



Penang. 


Singapore. 




<jeremit 


gerodi 


an anger. 


Geti 


turi (say or turi) 


the edible leaf of a small tree. 


Ginchar 


leinchar 


to cleanse, to wash clothes etc. by 
swishino- about. 


Godarn 




to hammer, to chastize. 


Golok 


parang 


a Malay chopper. 


Gonjak 


giat 


to tease, ' to annoy, to pull a per- 
son's leg. 


Goris api 


korek api 


matches. 


Gosok 


g'os'ok 


to rub, to scrub. 


Gula gerek 


gula Malaka 


brown coconut sugar. 


Gula puteh 


gala pasir 


white fine sugar. 


Gun 




rising ground. 


Gunds 


guni 


a sack. 


Guri 


. . 


an earthenware pot. 


Gut-gut 


hubut (burong) 


a bird, a variety of Coucal, a 


or gu'gut 




ground cuckoo. 


Habuan 


unto'k, bagian 


a share. 


Hailan 


hal-nya 


plight; position; circumstances; 
affairs. 


Hambat 


he jar 


to chase. 


Hangat 


panas 


hot. 


Hindu 


Keling Hindu 


a Tamil; a Hindu. 


Hingar 


bising 


noisy. 


Ipar lamai 


ipar duai 


brother and sister-in-law of 
various degrees. 


Jajat 


ajolc 


to mock, to tease. 


Jalang 


sundal 


a prostitute. 


Jalor 




striped. 


Jambang 


cliambang 


whiskers. 


Jamong 


an dang 


a torch of palm leaves. 


Janggus 


gajus 


the cashew nut. 


Jangkit 


kait 


to bait a hook by piercing. 


Jelabas 


chelupar 


talkative, garrulous, especially of 
a person who parses remarks 
on everything he notices. 


Jelaga 


xulang asap 


lamp-black. 


Jelapang 


. . 


a raised granary. 


Jenehak 


ikan merah 


a fine red sea fish. 


Jerap 


serap 


to soak, nlteratdon, in Penang 
serap means to sponge on. 


Jerumal 


kelong 


a deep water fishing stake. 



R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



86 



PENANG MALAY. 



Penang. 
Jerumun 



Singapore. 



Joreng 



ch oreng 



a mound of grass: a wild pig's 
lair: a hut of grass used as a 
cover by hunters in decoying 
gamebird-, in this last context, 
bumbun is the. word employed 
in Singapore, whereas bumbun 
in Penang means heaped up, 
as a. very full measure of grain 
called in Singapore penoh me- 
rombong. 

striped (in Singapore joreng is 
a small strip of fish etc). 



Jurai 


joreng 


a strip of fish, etc., sa- jurai ikan. 


Jurus 


dirus 


to water. 


Kachang 


k "ihang bo lor 


the flanged bean (edible). 


kelisa 






Kain rawa 


~kain pelangi 


a cloth usually silk blotched with 
all the colours of the rainbow, 
worn by women. 


Kakak ipar 


ipar 


sister-in-law, wife of elder bro- 
ther. 


Kaleh 


aleh 


change of posture. 


Kalut 


membolot 


busy, bustling about. 


Kambi 




a plain metal earring. 


Kambus 


timbus 


to fill in. 


Katak 


kodok 


a frog. 


Katok 


ketok 


to rap, to knock, to hit. 


Katup 


iutup 


to close. 


Kawat (ka- 


berbaris 




waid) 




drill. 


Kedera 


anafv belanak 


a seafish like a small belanak. 


Kediri 


sindiri 


oneself. 


Kedudok 


senudoh 


a common pink flowered shrub 
like a wild rhododendron. 


Ke'abong 


bersepah 


mixed up, higgledy piggledy. 


Kelang 


cnjin 


a mill. 


Kelarah 


. . . . 


a maggot which bores the branch- 
es of the mango trees in par- 
ticular. 


Keleh 


liliat, nampalc 


to notice. 


Kelian 


galian 


a mine. 


Keling 


Keling Islam 


a Mohamedan Tamil. 


Kelip-kelip 


Tcunang-hunang 


a firefly. 


Kelmarin 


sa-malam 


Yesterday (in Singapore kelmarin 
can be used indefinitely for any 
previous date or occasion. 


Kelochak 


gelancJiali 


choppy, broken of water. 



Jour. Straits Branch 



PENANG MALAY. 



87 



Penang. 


Singapore. 




Kelola 


jaga 


to man age, to look after, ta kelola. 


Keloloh 




casual. 


Kelumbong 


(kain) tudong 


a sarong worn as a mantle by 




kepala 


Malay women. 


Kemaman 


' ' 


a small shrub with short pods 
which are made into a pickle 
(jerok). 


Keman 


si-malu 


the sensitive plant. 


Kematu 


. . 


a corn, a callosity. 


Kemeling 


. . 


the blue water hyacinth. 


telor 






Kemukus 


tembelang 


addled, of an e^. 


Kemurok 


telor busok 


a rotten e^. 


Kendi 





a small grey curlew found on 
tidal flats. 


Kenduri 


. . . . . . 


an intensitive of kenduri, feasts 


kendara 




of all sorts. 


Kepak 


. . 


to break off by bending. 


Kepala besar 


. . 


a plover. 


(burong) 






Kepul 


. . 


one fourth of a chupak. 


Kerabat 




to swarm up, to climb up. 


Kera duka 


kongkang 


the slow loris. 


Kerak nasi 


<i-kudangan 


the small white scented flower of 
a climber much used by the 
Chinese ladies in their hair. 


Kerap 


sslahi 


frequently : kain kerap = close wo- 
ven clotn. 


Keredak 


kelodak 


dregs, refuse left at the bottom 


Kerelap 


. . 


or on the sides of a vessel. 


terkerelap 




to snooze. 


Kerenah 




secrets, scandal, go-sip, private 
affairs. 


Keresau' 


kereteng 


frizzy of hair. 


Keresul 


keresai 


dry and wiry of hair. 


KeriangAcheh 


kai/u kelat 


a large tree with reddish-black 
edible berries the size of dam- 


Keriang lada 


kaijii kelat 


sons, 
another variety with edible ber- 
ries (tiny). 


Keriau 


pekek 


to call out aloud. 


Kerja ter- 


kerja 


work that is being continually 


togah-togah 


i teragah-agali left off. 


Kerosi sandar 


1 kerosi malas 


an easy chair. 


Kertas pedap 


kertas kembang blotting paper. 


Kerunas 





. to pick to pieces, to exhaust by 
taking bits at a time. 



R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



PENANG MALAY 



Pexang. 

Kerutop 

Kesangka 

Kesemak 

Ketayap 

Keteki 

KetuI 

Ketumbit 

Kira 

Kong 

Kongkiak 



Singapore. 
palcat pukol 

buah samak* 
songkok haji 
teka-teki 

tembel* 

hitong 

gading-gading' 

chengkiak* 



Kopiah songkok 

Kosta (sakit) \taiko (Chinese) 
Kotek mamak 



Kuchai 
Kudil (e) 
Kuja 
Kulat 
Kutip 
Lada 
Lahar 
Laki ayer 

Lambong 

ling 
Langgas 

Lan 

Langcha 

Langut 

Lapek 

Larap 

Lau 

Lechas 

Lekang 
Lekeh 

Lemang 



Ke- 



kudis 

chendawan 
pun gut 
lada hitam 



termengkelan 

liati 
becha 

(Chinese) 
dangok 
alas 
terok 
reban 



longkah 



to assault in a gang, 
a large earthenware cooking-pot. 
a persimmon. 
a white skull cap. 
a riddle. 

a lump, a clot, a piece. 
a stye in the eye. 
to count. 

the ribs of a boat (in Singapore 
kong is a particular shaped rib.) 
a bulldog-ant with large black 
head and mandibles which 
bites fiercely, 
a Malay cap. 
leprosy. 
, a tree with long pods used 
medicinally, the pink acasia 
(Acasia horrida). 
to disturb, 
scurf. 

au earthen jug. 
a mushroom, 
to collect, to pick up. 
pepper, 
a mere. 
a daddy-long-legs found on the 

surface of pools of water, 
a form of the game seremban 

played with one hand, 
free, unrestrained, without ties or 

impediments, 
a feeling - of repulsion, as when 

eating dirty food, revolting, 
a ricksha. 

to look up lougingly. 

a lining, pedestal, etc. 

serious, painful of illness. 

a fowl house. 

sweet (manis melechas extremely 

sweet) . 
to peel off, easily shelled, of fruit, 
dirty, despicable, wretched as a 

loafer. 
sny sausage like body sometimes 

used coarsely of the penis. 



Jour. Straits Branch 



PENANG MALAY. 



89 



Penang. 


Singapore. 




Lemba 




low of stature, ay am lemba a 
short low-bodied fowl. 


Lena 


lelap, lennyak 


fast asleep. 


Lenchong 




to go off at a tangent. 


(melenchon 


g)t 




Lendit 


tertib 


neat as a phrase. 


Lenga 


bijan 


a small seed (Sesamun indicum) 
from which an oil is expressed, 
much used by Tamils for 
anointing their persons. 


Lewat 


lamb at 


late. 


Likat 


pekat 


thick of liquids. 


Linchin 


lichin 


smooth. 


Lingkup 




to blazes with it, let it go to pot, 


(pi-Iah) 


pe set an 


from lingkup = spent, destroyed. 


Lodoh 


bony or 


ripe to rottenness, pulpy. 


Longkang 


• • • • • * 


the breadth of a sarong round the 
waist longkang-nya besar full 
in the waist. 


Loklek 


terkedek-kedek 


an affected mincing walk. 


Machang 


membachang 


horse mango. 


Machang 


mangga (sakit) 


a bubo. 


(sakit) 




• 


Madah (from 


jemput 


to invite, as to dinner. 


padah) 






Main saji 




the playing of Hindustani airs 
with a harmonium and dol. 


Mala 


layu 

malam sekarang 
or malam ini 


faded. 


Malam sat ni 


i or malam kar 


tonight. 


or malam ni 


rang 




Mampai 




blunt, not cut to a point or edge, 



Manisan ayer madu 

lebah 

Mata ikan 

Mawa ungka 

Melayah melemang (men- 

jilat duit) 

Melachar bergarut 

Melong 

Membuang menebar jala 

serekap ja- rambang* 

rang 

iR. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



the end of a pole or back of a 

parang, 
honey, ayer madu in Penang only 

means the sweet juice of fruits, 
a corn. 

a wahwah monkey. 
to bend over backwards and pick 

up article with one's mouth (a 

joget's trick), 
to be abrased, an abrasion, 
over-developed, as a child, 
to throw a wide net, to cast 

around for information. 



90 



PEXANG MALAY. 



PeXAIsG. 


Singapore. 


Menahagu 


. . 


Menari 
Mengebat 
Mengeroh 
Menguet 


bertandak 
law a 
dengkoli 


Menyebai 
Merapus 


.. 



Meratap 

Mereloh 

Merepet 
Merjan 



me nth ut a 



fit ere pet or me- 
re pek 



Minyak gas minyak tanah 



Mok-mit 

Monel 
Montel 
Mopeng 
Muka peran 

Muka tebal 
Murai gila 
Nirai 
Nyior f 
Ochok 
Ochok-ochok 



Otak tulang 
Pachak 



I' o mali kamek 



hopeng 
to pen g 

muka papan 
mural gila 
bar is 
kelapa 
clvochok 
peng ochok 

( cherochok) 



to importune, to be always bor- 
rowing articles. 

to dance. 

to show off. 

to snore. 

to move, ta' menguet not a kick 
left in him, motionless. 

to be in a pet, huffy. 

ro tie the four legs of an animal 

together for killing etc. 
to have one's fingers loaded with 

rings, jari-nya meratap dengan 

diinchin. 
to be fast asleep, (in Singapore 

mereloh is only used in its pro. 

per sense of to be blind.) 
to drivel, to talk nonsense. 

large beads of gold etc. fretted 
or otherwise worn round the 
neck, the smaller beads being 
termed manek koral or manek 
Arab. In Singapore manek 
merjan means a coral bead. 

kerosene oil: minyak tanah in 
Penang is the thick reddish 
oil used for putting on wood- 
work, boats etc., i.e. crude oil. 

mouthing, the movements of the 
mouth in speaking. 

pretty and white of a child. 

well nourished, of a child. 

pock-marked. 

a wooden mask used in a ma- 
gong. 

unashamed, brazen. 

the fantailed flycatcher. 

a line. 

a coconut. 

to incite. 

a. forked stick with bits of coco- 
nut shell attached loosely for 
frightening fish. 



som : lemak in- marrow. 

Jang 
chachak 



to stick into. 



Jour. Straits Branch 



PENANG MALAY. 



92 



Pexang. Singapore. 

Pajak ikan pasar 



Pajak lelap 


pajak gantong 


Paket (Eng.) 

Palong 

Panching f 

Panchor 

Pandak 

Panggil 


saku, kochek 
jongkong 
m engail 
paip ayer 
pendek 
teriak 


Panggu 

Pangkeng 

Parau 


hahagian 

pentas 

serak 


Parit f 


longkang* 



Pa'saut 

Pasembor rojak parut 

Pebin 



Pechah empat kembang pukul 
(bunga) empat 



Pedukang 



Pejam 

Pekaka 

Pekin 



Pelau 



belukang* 



peragar 

ke~)am* 
raja udang* 



andar 



Pelantek 


belantek* 


Pelatok 


b el at ok 


Pelatut 


. . . . ... 


Peleta 


lampu 


Pelet 


pel at 


Penakan, 


paudara abang 


abang 





a market. 

shops where unredeemed pawn 
pledges are sold. 

a pocket. 

a smaller dugout. 

to fish with a line. 

a tap, a pipe. 

short: in short. 

to call, (in Penang teriak only 
means to weep.) 

a share. 

a sleeping bench. 

hoarse, to lose one's voice. 

a drain, a gutter (parit in 
Singapore means an earth 
drain.) 

father of scoops, i.e., a snatcher 
of goods, or a good man at 
picking up women. 

a mixed vegetable salad with a 
pungent sauce. 

an eight-sided teetotum for gam- 
bling at the Chinese game of 
Penbin, eight-faced. 

a common white flower with 
seeds like a pepper-corn con- 
taining a fine white powder. 

a mudfish, a man who always 
has an eve on the main-chance 
as regards women. 

a creeping herb with an edible 
leaf. 

to close one's eyes. 

a kingfisher. 

to think about saving, to eco- 
nomise, careful of expendi- 
ture. 

in vain : unsuccessful effort, 
bitat kerja pelau, to have toil- 
ed and got no reward. 

a spring gun. 

a woodpecker. 

an idler. 

a lamp. 

accent, brogue. 

elder male cousin. 



R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1925 



92 



PENANG MALAY. 



Penang. 
Penakan, 

adek 
Penakan, 

anak 
Penakan, 

bapa 
Penakan, 

kakak 
Penakan, 

mak 
Penoh bekat 
Pelontang 



Penyangak 
Pepait (siput) 



Singapore. 
saudarra adek younger male or female cousin. 

saudara anak nephew or niece. 

saudara bapa uncle. 

\saudara kakak elder female cousin. 

pupu 
saudara mak aunt. 

. . chock full. 
Pelampong floats (pelontang in Singapore 

is the single big float which 
marks the end of tlhe net). 
. . a thief, a filcher. 

a small shell found in paddy 

fields. 



a big boil. 



Perachut 

Perahu kolek a Malay canoe. 

Perak changak startled, as an animal; to cast 

startled glances. 
Perat tengek rancid. 

Perdu pangkal a base of a tree trunk. 

Pereh ikan peraih ikan a middleman who huys fish from 

(orang) the fisherman. 

Perenggan sempadan a boundary. 

Perengkat tengkat, graduation in rank or degree of 

pangkat relationship standard; level. 

Periap to stupefy. 

Permatang an island of rising ground in a 

plain. - 
Pejal kennyat hard and firm of flesh, batu 

pejal = batu ubin (Singapore) . 
Petola kUola a variety of edible pumkin. 

Pinang jerekat* unripe betel nut used for wiping 

kachat the teeth. 

Pinang betel nut edible, but not quite 

ram pang mature, being still slightly 

juicy. 
Pom pang . . . . . . a drift net. 

Puak pasok a troupe. 

Pudina mint. 

(daun) 
Pulut tetal pulut apit a sweetmeat of compressed pulut* 

Jour. Straits Branch 



PENANG MALAY. 



93 



Penang. 


Singapore. 


Punggai 




Pungkor 


punggong, 




bontot 


Radup 


jahit sembat 


Ragi 


chorale 


Rajut 


. . 



Ralip 



Rama-rama 


Jcupu-kupu 


Ram bu tan 


palasan 


kapri 




Rawa 


sondong 


Rebah 


roboh 


Relah 


. . 


Rembia 


gombia 


Rempong 




Remia 


r&menia 


Remudu 


bebudu 


Rendang 


goreng 


Rengkat 




Resdong 


restong 


Rimbok 


. . 


Rian 


roijan 



Rona 

Ronggeng f 
Rongkeng 
Roti sural or 

roti karai 
Ruseng 
Rusok 
Sa-barong 



warna 
joget* 
l-eronghong 
roti jala or 
roti jurai* 

sa-belah; tepi 



to throw down; to haul, 
the buttocks. 

a plain hemstitch. 

pattern. 

covering anything with succes- 
sive folds of string, as a basket 
to be sent on a long journey 
Rajut in Singapore is to knit 
this being expressed by Icait in 
Penang. 

habitual practice; custom; ralip 
den g an bermain given up to 
play. 

a butterfly (in Singapore rama- 
rama is a moth). 

a good variety of rambutan 
fruit with short hairs and 
deep red skin. 

a shrimping net. 

to fall down; of a house. 

torn, of a coat. 

the sago palm. 

a bunch, to make into a bunch. 

a small round yellow acid fruit 
with a mouse-coloured stone 

(Bouea macrophylla) warna biji 
reminia mouse-coloured. 

a tadpole. 

to fry. 

to limp, to walk unevenly as a 
man with a bad foot. 

syphilitic ulceration of the nose. 

a blow with the side of the fist. 

a protracted flow of blood after 
confinement. 

colour. 

a Malay dancing girl. 

throat. 

shredded wheatmeal bread for 
eating with curried meats. 

peevish, grumpy. 

at the side of (a house, etc.) 

to mix with, to associate with, 
dia suka sa-barong dengan 
Siam he likes associating with 
Siamese. 



R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922, 



94 



PENANG MALAY. 



Pexaxg. 


Singapore, 


Sabit 


sebab 


Sagi 


segi 


Sakal 


.. 


Sakan 


sasa 


Sa-kupang 


sarpuloh sen 


Sa-lulus 


. . 


Sanderom 


. . 



Sang Gedem- Sang Kelem- 

bai 
Sa-piak 

sireh 
Sa-tengah 

duit 
Sardu 

Sasau 

Satu shambu- 
kain(sambiv) 
Satu suku 
Segak 
Segan 

(penyegan) 



bai 
sa-kapor sireh 

dua duit or 
duit dua duit 



sasar 



pesolek hebat 



Segok 



janggal 



Selang 


lat 


Selaseh 


buah belewar 


(buah) 




Seling 


siling 


Selut 


lumpur 


Sembang 




Sembawa 


buang pelaiua 


Sembilang 


usat 


karang 




Senayan 


Isnen, Senen 


Sengkak 


. 



on account of, reason, cause. 

a side, a facet. 

to rap with the knuckles, to 
strike. 

big and sturdy. 

ten cents. 

alwa}'s, often. 

a necklace worn by married wo- 
men of Kling descent, with a 
pendant called puti mani. 

a mythical magician. 

a mouthful of sireh. 

a half cent piece. 

a gold neck ornament worn by 

Hindu women. • 
lightheaded. 
a double sarong as yet uncut. 

25 cents; lima suku is $1.25. 
dandified, fine-looking, 
reluctant (in Singapore segan on- 

lv bears the meaning of main, 

shy), 
a sluggard. 

awkward, out of place, not in 
'keeping with the surroundings, 
intervening, 
passion fruit. 

small silver change. 

mud. 

to sit round and chat. 

to invite in. 

a small striped sembilang fish. 

monday. 

nausea; the feeling of having 
eaten too much. In Singapore 
sengkak means to massage the 
stomach upwards by gripping 
it tightlv between thumb and 



forefinger. 



Jour. Straits Branch 



PENANG MALAY. 



95 



Penan g. 


Singapore, 


Serelum 




Seriak 


reda 


Seriau 


nilu, nyilu 


Seronok 


suka ria 


Setar 


hundangan 


Sigolak 


Teolah-holdk 


Silaf 


je input' 


Shelum (da- 




un selom) 




Siap 


sedia 


Simpan 


. . 


Siput beran- 


. . 


tai 




Sukat tanah 


uk or tanah 


Suku duit 


sa-duit 


Suku'-suku 


... 


depa 




Tabut 


rudu 


Tajin (te- 


I'anji 


pong) 




Takat 


senggat 


Taj»k da- 


tol* 


yong 




Ta !arat 


tad a- day a 



Tali 



pintar 



Tali kerang- 

an or tali 

kanjang 
Tambun timbun 

Tebeng 



Teku 

Tembun 
Tembu 
Temuchut 
Temukut 



tehun 

tembun 
beri hati 
ch erunchup 
melul'ut 



, to slip on over the head as 

clothes or a sarong, 
to abate, of rain, 
on edge, of teeth. 
gay, merry, interesting. 
a large tree with a small round 

acid fruit, edible. 
a gambling game with dice and 

squares numbered 1 to 6. 
to invite, please; in Penang jem- 

put only means to pinch, 
an edible leaf, often put into sa- 
lads (l-erabu). 
ready. 

to tidy up, to bury. 
a small bivalve found in clusters 

in salt-water and used as duck 

feed, 
to take measurements of land, 
a quarter cent, 
their crowd, amongst themselves. 

a Kling idol, 
starch. 

up to, as far as. 
thole pin. 

unable to do a thing from phy- 
sical weakness. 

wily, a clever rogue, a deceitful 
rascal. 

a specious person with a good ad- 
dress. 

to heap up. 

to persist in any course in spite 
of warnings, tebeng main lagi = 
to persist in playing after hav- 
ing been told not to. 

assiduous, berteku-tekat = most 
assiduous. 

plump. 

to encourage, to buck up, to assist. 

love grass. 

broken rice, rice dust. 



R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



96 



PENANG MALAY. 



Penang. 
Tenyeh 

Tenggak 



Tengglong 

Tergeliat 
Tibai 
Timun betek 

Tinas 

To'chan 

Tuas 



Tungap 
Ubi ikan 
Ular danu 

Wau 

Wayang ge- 

lap 
Yat 



Yue 



Singapore. 
geni/eh 



penang gal 
terkehel 



tin das 
china buta* 



bebulus 
pelangi 
layang-layang 

wayang gambar 



to rub with finger as in erasing 

writing, 
to essay; bearing; sure; tenggak 

anak raja = the fine bearing of 

a prince, choba tertenggak- 

tcnggak lagu itu try and essay 

that tune, 
an evil spirit consisting of a head 

and dependent viscera, 
to sprain, out of joint- 
to wallop, to thrash with a stick, 
a much relished variety of squash 

melon, 
to crack a flea, 
blind man's buff, 
bamboos moored in deep water 

with brush wood attached to 

collect fish, 
to die. 

a fish, like whiting, 
the rainbow. 
a paper kite; la gang only means 

a swallow in Penang. 
a cinematograph performance. 



. . a burrowing crustacean not un- 
like a beetle found in the sand 
at the water's edg'e; edible. 

. . matted marsh grass over water 
which will bear a person's 
weight if stepped over quickly, 
beryue-yue = to give as the 
above when walked on. 



Note : — Words under the heading Penang marked f are either 
understood in Singapore but not used, or at least not in such gene- 
ral use as the similar word given under Singapore. — Words marked 
with an asterisk under the beading Singapore are not understood 
in Penang. 



A Vocabulary of Pangan. 



By T. S. Adams. 
Malayan Civil Service. 

This list of words used by the Pangan of the Ulu Nenggiri 
below Knala Betis in Kelantan was "begun by me when I spent a 
day with the three chief Pangan and some forty of their followers 
in 1914. Circumstances prevented my remaining any time among 
them but I was able to induce one young man with some knowledge 
of Malay to come down to Kuala Krai in 1916 and during the 
three weeks in which he lived near my house I collected this voca- 
bulary. I had hoped to check the words through a further visit to 
the Ulu but ill health prevented it and now it seems to me better 
to publish it in spite of errors so that some one else, who may have 
an opportunity of getting to know these people, may use this voca- 
bulary ias a foundation for a more thorough one. These words are 
used by the river Pangan who trade with Malays in jungle produce 
and whose clearings are on the foothills near the river. Inevitably 
a certain number of Malay words are in use and I was informed 
that the Pangan of the higher ranges employed words not in 
ordinary use among those on the river. 

I would thank Dr. Winstedt for preparing my rough manu- 
scripts for publication and for making references to the words 
collected. 

Batu Gajah, 

October 18th, 1920. 



Jour. Straits Branch R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



Pangan Vocabulary 

from 
Sungai Neng'g'iri, Kelantan 



Note. References are given to the Vocabulary in Vol. II of 
Skeat and Blagdeirs "Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula." 

A. 

ABOVE (atas) m'bali. 

„ (di-atas) ta'el m'bali. 
„ (dari atas) m'bali te'erik. 
ABSCESS sel Sale., A. 14. 
ABUSE emarah, ngaroh. 
ACCUSE adu Mai 
ACCUSTOMED biasa Mai 
ACID beehuid. 
ACKNOWLEDGE aim Mai 
ACEID (kelat) terok kelad. 
ACROSS (sa-herang) melanti tin. 
ACT tinda'el, ■? D. 132. 
ADAM'S-APPLE kalar. 
ADDLED kemlang. 
ADZE {Uliong) jek Khmer, A. 33. 

„ (puting) puting Mai 
AFRAID ettu Sale, F. 48. 
AFTER, monyut. 
AGAIN peti lagi. 
AGE roak. 

AGILA WOOD gaharu Sk., Mai. 
AIGRETTE eehadog. 
ALIVE tigos Sem,, Sale., A. 57. 
ALL ti sekali Salt., A. 63. 
ALONE deri egagul, A. 70. 
ANKLE deldu, F. 220. 
ANOTHER senoi-i snku Sal:, M. 26. 

„ TIME nainong nainong. 

ANT (semut) kabed, ? Sak., A. 107. 

„ (kerengga) kasod Sent., A. 101. 
(anai-anai) garnsh, A. 110. 

„ ( jif'injrngat) semnd. 

„ BIG. kabed tampul. 

„ BLACK kaje. 

„ EED keted. 

„ SMALL seiufir. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



A VOCABULAKY OF PANGAN. 99 

ANT-EATER wajoud. 
APART langu war. 
APE (lotong) tabuk. 

„ (kekah) berkis Sal:. M. 137. 
„ (kera) jela-ow Sak., M. 142. 
.. (fcerofc) bawaidj #em., M. 131. 
(siamang) amanir J/'//.. M. 159. 
(mairali ) hawaai. 
AEECA l)l<">k, A. 125. 
ARGUS-PHEASANT kwok Sew., B. 215. 
AEM sapal. A. 135. 
ARMADILLO wajnoj. 
ARMLET kenelah Pang., R. 133. 
ARMPIT senok. 

ARRIVE (sampai) eloi. ©ngloi Pang., A. 145. 
ASCEND eorj Sem., A. 154 (b.) 
ASHES halm Mai 
ASIv. TO semoin Afow, A. 165. 

.. FOR, TO eudj. 
ASLANT na rdndong ? Mai. 
ASLEEP slug Sal:, S. 249. 
ASSEMBLE termali. 
ASTONISHED (Urkejut) ekejnd Mai 

(hairan ) yinim. 
ASTRAY rajarutfj. 
AT (di) Wei. 

ATAP (THATCH) k&idxob. Sak., R. 167 and 169. 
ATTACK tiimput. 
AUNT mo'ar. muar. 
AWAIT epod Sak:, W. 5 and 6. 
AWAKE epog Sera., A. 190. 
AXE kapak MaZ. 

B. 
BACK kerit, B. 4. 
BAD cfoelaka SI:, Mai, jahad ilfaZ. 
BAIT prat. 

„ , TO TAKE naeha prat, E. 27. 
BALI) nata. 
BAMBOO »awat Sak., B. 29. 

(akar) kiul, ? B. 22. 
„ (kisap) teming, B. 28. 

(?) tahel. 
BANANA lelmvi Sem., B. 42,. 

„ ja-i $em., Bahnar, B. 48. 
„ nianioh. 
BANK (of river) tebing Mai 
„ (fepi) mabek 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



100 A VOCABULAKY OF PANGAN. 

BAKE cheh. 

BAEK (of tree) katok. 

BARK, TO (of dog) najol Bern., B. 59. 

BASKET (raga) rajud Mai. 

., (galas) safud. 

BAT (? FRUIT-) lasar, B. 79. 

„ (red) gayek. 

„ (Jcelawar) lawar Mai. 
BATHE moh Bern., Sal'., B. 81. 
BAY (moh) gdl. 
BE mo Sem., Sale., B. 88. 
BEAD nemad, E. 83. 
BEAK balok. 

„ (of liornbill) kachak. 
BEAR (beruang) kawi Sem., B. 103. 

,. , TO (a child) bagerid, C. 106. 
BEARD sental jekah, H. 2 and C. 113 (a). 
BEAT epekik, S. 496. 

„ (do'nt beat) je a epeluk. 

„ (baric) ekoh. 
BEAUTIFUL mej, G. 66. 

WOMAN bab6, G. 63. 
BECKON (to come) nagajuaj, T. 85, G. 43. 
„ (to point) telek. 
„ (to wave) epiul. 

BEE (Mluhit) tebfil Sen., B. 136. 

;, (lebah) lui Sem., B. 137. 

„ (lebah lalat) langir. 
BEFORE (daliulu) ningneng 3 T. 51 (e). 

(in front) dada Mai, B. 380 (e). 
BEGIN saro. 

BEGINNING (pangkal) tero Sale., T. 210. 
BEHIND immynt (nyiit?) 
BELIEA 7 E pochaya Sic., Mai. 
BELOW kerop Sen., B. 165. 
BELT keodi (? Mai kendit). 
BEND (of river) tanynk Mai, C. 25. 

„ , TO jengog. 
BERTAM bettoh Sale., B. 784. 
BETEL blok, A. 125. 
BICEPS urad Mai, sapal, A. 1«35. 
BIG menng, mena, menu Pang., B. 203. 

„ TREE tabu, tebo Sem., B. 202. 

„ , VERY rava Mai. 
BIRD chep Sale., B. 216; (mid.) prot, reliereng, tengalak, baliek, 

ii je, hingkar. 
BITE (of snake) nakab Sem., B. 228. 

,, (of oiler animals) nekab Sem., B. 228. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



A VOCABULARY OF PANG AN. 101 

BITTEE kedeg Sem., B. 232 (>a). 
BLACK renga Sale., B. 236. 
BLOOD loot Sah., B. 248. 
BLOW tohol. 

BLOW-PIPE elso (cf. Sem. senlu and Kenaboi selau, B. 261). 
(ftorreZ o/) yo, ? B. 296. 
„ (thinner end) lok. 

„ (inner) ulab. 

„ (pictured ornament on) clinked. 

BLUNT seil. 
BLUSH sengmg. 
BODY olah, ? ta v B. 321. 
BOIL, A bisa, 

BOILING- (of water) na ? dideh i¥«L 
BOIL, TO terbnd, H. 142, 
BONE jaak Sale., B. 336. 
BOUG-H tabah Sah., B. 345. 

„ (tree-forh) chabak, champaiig, B. 345. 

BOUNDARY nehob. 
BOW (weapon) loot Sem., B. 354. 
BOWS (of boat) ked. 
BEACELET glak (Mai gelang). 
BRAINS 'mog: ? cf., H. 48. 
BREAK pelak Sem., B. 372. 

„ (string) getoid Sem., B. 374. 
BEEAST (chest) dada. 

„ (bosom) bot Stem.,' B. 386. 
„ (hollow of) cliemob. 

BEEATH bemhum Sah., B. 339. 
BREATHLESS gesboi. 
BRIDGE edur lug Sen., B. 391. 

„ (plank of) ednr papan. 

BEING kerop. 

FORTH niyos. 
BROTHER, ELDER kelii, B. 415 and 421. 

YOUNGER pii't, ? B. 420 and 413. 
-IN-LAW menai Sen., B. 419. 

ELDER k'nggoing, L. 21. 
BUILD, TO tad Sah., D. 132; b. a house tael dik. 
BURN nyo, B. 463. 

„ (a clearing) e olrur., B. 467. 
BURNT (terbahar) ako. 
„ (hangus) nagi. 

BURY tap. Sem., Mon., P. 132. 

„ (a person) kerup. 
BUTT brol; point of dog. 
BUTTERFLY tawag Sem., B. 481. 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



102 A VOCABULARY OF PANGAN. 

BUTTOCKS jamggab SaJc., B. 483a; tabrohked. 
BUY beli Mai. 

C. 
CALL, TO ko Bern* C. 8. 

„ (tiger-call) kwi. 
CAREY (wider arm) kilicl. 

„ (-m &of/i arms) kod na tik, H. 15. 

w (home) terma ni a dik. 

CATEEPILLAE kemor £o&., B. 143 (a). 
CATCH cliab Sem., Sal:, C. 49. 

„ (of tiger) rot $&fc v 0. 50; (o/ &ird) jantus. 

CAVE gogob (= .¥«/. gugup), H. 117a. 
CENSER ggbtf. eherios. 
CENTIPEDE ke'eb Sem., Khmer, C. 66. 
CENTRE sema pedik Sem., M. 100. 
CHAFF antah. 
CHANT '(of wizard) lamor. 
CHARCOAL ehengka Sdk., C. 77. 
CHASE ho, F. 210. 
CHEEK kapon Sem., C. 81. 
CHEVBOTIX pelandok Mai 
CHICKEN kuis pug, F. 255. 
CHIEF pengbulu Mai. 
CHILD kuis sendi, C. 102. 

JOS. 

CHIN jaka Sem., C. 113. 
CHOKED segshog Sem., C. 119. 
CIVET-CAT orar, jajo, k'nghut. 
CLAW chendros Sem., N. 7. 
CLAY peclii (Khmus pette), E. 12. 
CLEANSE sad, Sem., Sale., C. 142. 
„ (with water) git. 

„ (the teeth) e sig. 

CLEAE (a pato) chah fa, C. 296. 

„ „ harek. 

CLEARING selai. 
CLENCH kod. 
CLIMB (a hill) tengu. 

„ (pan j at) oidj A. 155. 
CLIMBING PLANTS tingtek. 
CLOSE chartu. 

„ (near) miyon, S. 198. 

CLOUD sagup Sem., D. 16 (c). 
COBRA taju sle< Sem., S. 311. 

„ , HOOD OF sle'. 
COCK pug iianoi Sale., Sen., F. 255. 

Jour. Straits Branch 






A VOCABULARY OF PANGAN. 103 

COCKROACH sor, gasrar. 
COCONUT (tree) trop, kubur. 
„ {milk) ok. 

„ (shell) hok. 

(beat) talok. 
COIL lat, 

COLD dekad Sal-., C. 205 (c). 
OOLIC (kembonq perut) gos. 
COLLAR-BONE jWk jenlng. B. 336 (b). 
COLLECT (pile up) chatu. 
COMB (of cock) lenibiiig. 
COMB (honey) henglok. 
COME (give here) ok madoh, G. 29 and C. 221a. 

„ (here) chi. 
COMPANION chib ruab (= jalan kawan), G. 42, 
CONSCIOUSNESS sedar. 

, LOSS OF keidtut. 
CONSUMED (by fire) sako; house cd. by fire dik ako os. 
CONTENTS .(m) olah. 
CONTRACT janji Mai 
CONTRADICT bantah Mai. 
COOK (in bamboo) lemiang. 

(rice) berehet clmula, C ; 237, 238. 
„ „ subai. 

(toast) poi. 
,', (fry) lak. 

,, (poison) gap rok, C. 238. 

„ „ pol dog (i.e. turning a flat surface with poison 

over and over at a fire). 
COOKED hoicl diet, C. 236, 237. 
COOKING-POT periok Mai. 
COPULATE ngnoi. 
CORDS (for basket*) berenehor. 
CORPSE kebus Sem., D. 50. 
sa.ro' Sem., G. 16. 
COUGH kohol Sal-.. C. 253. 
COUSIN kimian. 

CRAB kaiitam Sem,, Mon, Mai, C. 258. 
CRACKED pelab. 

„ bekah Sem.. B. 375. 

CRAMP ? ji; serbah. 
CRAWL wot. 
CREVICE lor dor. 
CROSS {a stream) ris tin, W. 39. 
CROSS-ROADS chintag. 
CROAV, A egag. Sem., C. 276. 
tador pug, F. 255. 
pirot. 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



104 A VOCABULAEY OF PANGAN. 

CRY (weep) maiyab, C. 285. 
CURLY sog ha' rotan H. 1. 
CURVED kemiain 
CUT chok C. 296. 

„ ketus C. 2-97. 

„ (belah) pug. 

D. 

DAM nyor 
DAMAR got R. 72. 
„ segar tebol. 
„ (lutang) got chali. 

DANCE krejer. 
DARK rengah Sale, B. 236. 
DART siped. 

(butt of) brol Bern, B. 301. 
* „ (point of) la jar. 
DAUGHTER menalih. 

„ -IN-LAW nensab. 

DAWN" mad is E. 83 & D. 35. 
DAY (siang) hoidy ess is D. 35. 

„ (two days hence) maiya Sale, D. 42 (b). 
„ (lusa) nar (=dua) T. 272. . 
DEAD kebus, hoig kabus. V. Corpse. 
DEAF tnli Mai 

DECAYED (burok) hoidy soh, 292 (b). 
DEER (rusa) kasing D. 68 (a) & 81. 
DEEP siiidrok D. 66. 

„ (of sleep) dat kenyang. 
DELIRIOUS sasiau Mai 

DELIVERY (sudah beranak) hoidj moh hnis. 
DESCEND rik Sale, D. 96. 

„ (tejun) ta, D. 93. 

DEW teiugmehg Sak, D. 102, 
DIG pus D. 107 (b). 
DIGGING-STICK ad, D. 109. 
DIP (hand in water) rog :-e rog. 
„ ma tin. 
„ (clothes) e ried. 
DIRT (on teeth) ejed mioing. T. 170. 

„ (under nails) ejed chendros. N. 1. 
DISAPPEAR senyab Mai. 
DISEASE (of skin) tani. 

„ (kurap) gas Sem. I. 46. 

„ (kudis) manghi ? I. 51. 

„ (panau) panu. Mai 

DISLIKE na leglug Sem. L.17. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



A VOCABULARY OF BANGAK 105 

DISTANT jero F. 29 (a). 

DIVE slap. 

DIVORCE prak: — foabo hoidt na prak a woman gets a divorce. 

DIZZY tnitoh. 

DO tael Sale, D. 132 :— ye toit tael = ye wud = lazy. 

DOG cliuiak Sem., Sak, D. 143. 

„ WILD chelok Sem. D. 148. 
DONE, FINISHED hoidj, juil. A. 63. 

DONT jet; don't go je achit : d. sleep je aslog; d. do it je at tael. 
DOOR prengkal Sen., Sak. L. 1. 
DORSAL FIX chedel. 
DOWN kroli D. 96, 165. 

STREAM e halab Sem., Sak. D. 158. 
DREAM e pok Sem,, Sak, D. 168. 
DRESS, TO end. E. 76 (c). 

„ (to don clothes) eni abat. Sak. C. 173. 

DRIFTING e kwid. Sak. D. 163. 
DRINK ok. D. 165. 
DRIZZLE amis. Sem, R, 7 (a). 
DROP (of river) kelnt endre-endre. 

„ (of liquid) pimes-pimes. R. 7 (a). 
DROUGHT (season) penpik. 
DROWNED na senag. 
DRUG nbat Mai. 
DRUM batak. 

„ (to beat) e pad batak. 
DRUNK e kok ?D. 165. 
DRY karich; dry fish ka karich. 

„ (of padi) salai. 
DUKU chendruk. 

DURIAN sempa Sem., Sak. D. 189. 
DYE oid. 

E. 

EACH nache nana. 

EAR gintok Sem,, Sak. E.-6 (a). 

„ PENDANT snntik (Mai. sxmting). 
EARLY chinchnk. 
EARTH (bumi) balik. 

„ (tanali) te Sem., Sak. E. 12. 
EARTHWORM chachik (Mai. chaching). 
EAST bengkah mat is D. 45, D. 35 & E. 83. 
EAT chak, en ehak E. 27. 
EBONY chengka Sak. C 77. - 
ECLIPSE ghana. (Mai.). 
EDGE (of knife) gerri. 
EELbelndMaZ. 
EGG tab Sem,, Sak. E. 36. 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



106 A YOCABULABY OF PANGAN. 

EGG-SHELL siiigkor, senhur S. 234. 

chegod ? S. 234. 
ELBOW keiiong Bern., Sak. E. 42. 

„ kenii. 
ELEPHANT chi'g Sak. E. 49. 
ELEPHANTIASIS taiiig. 
EMBEES renghong Bern:, Sak. C. 77 (b). 
EMBEACE e 'owe. 
END (ujong) soi. 
ENOUGH hoid chukub. 

ENTER (a house) moij medik Sale., E. 77. 
ERECT e tud. 
ESCAPE hoidj na dadok. 
EVENING laak Sak. D. 18. 
EXTRACT (chdbut) roid. 
EXTINGUISH pud Pang., Sale. B. 256. 
EYE mad E. 83 (a). 

„ -BEOW chinch/uig Sem., B. 431. 
„ -LASH sempoi Sak. E. 85. 
„ FLY grimolu. 

F. 
FACE mad ( =eyes). 

FADED layu Mai. 

FAINT (pengsan) kerlib Sem, D. 119. 

FALL keliik F. 13 (b). 

(of tree) kul F. 13 (a). 

FAE jexo F. 29 (a). 

FAST deras Mai. 

FASTEN, TIE (tambat) e bug Sem., Sak. B. 213. 

FAT bach-ok Sem. F. 34. 

FATHEE blir Sak. F. 40. 

-IN-LAW blo ? Sak. L. 22. 

FEAE tn Sak. F. 48. 

FEATHER sentol Sak. H. 2, 

FEED ugna cna. 

FEEL, GEOPE epiid. 

FEEL, GEOPE (rasa) ji. 

FELL, (tebas) e i'6. 

„ (tebang) gii F. 20. 

FEMALE babok Sem. Sak. F. 61. 

FENCE erded F. 79. 

FEVER ji Sem. S. 187; dekad S. 185. 

FICUS sog. 

FIN (of fish) chingke. 

FIN (caudal) poid sentar. 

FINISHED (habis) hoidj yiil F. 115. 

FINGER (little) ki'yit. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



A VOCABULARY OF PANGAN. 107 



FIRE '6s 'Sem. F. 124. 
FIREBACK-PHEASANT pegor Mai. 
FIREFLY jalicl. 

FIRE-PLACE owal (oal) SaJc. F. 129. 
FIRST (dahulu) nengneng anin. 
FISH (angle with rod) kail Mai. 

„ (with line) sendrai F. 144 A. 
FISH a ka F. 138. 
FISHES ikan telan ka nalig. 

„ hfijar ka keju. 

„ helah pel ah. 

„ rong ruk. 

„ selinang selimang. • 

„ ouang bank. 

„ aruan ka man. 
FISHING-ROD bawor. 

-TRAPS buhxL, tuar, slapii Mai. 
FISH-WEIR marek. 

FLAY (take shin) kord kato S. 236 (c). 
FLESH sig Sem. F. 170. 
FLINT batu kawit. 



rug S. 462. 



FLOAT lumpong Mai. F. 175. 
FLOOD tin ba'ag F. 178 & W. 30. 
FLOOR nis Sem., Sah. M. 62. 
FLOWER buiiga Mai. 

„ (white) bnuga emping. 

FLUTE sens 'oi F. 195. 

„ (small) bangsi. Mai. 

FLY, TO mahek. 
FLY, A laled Mai. 
FLYING LEMUR (hubong) kayo. 
FOAM bubah Sem. W. 42. 
FOETUS (in womb) mako (=egg) E. 34. 
FOLLOW berchii G. 34. 
FOOT jnk Sah. F. 220. 
FORBID jet D. 123. 
FORE-ARM chendrek Sale. F. 134 (b). 
FORE-HEAD petuk Sem. F. 228. 

FOREST (1) sengrok Sah., F. 231 (b), to the f. ma sengrok 
A. 176. 
(2) serak Sah. F. 231 (b). 
„ (3) (semah) leiiiug Sah. B. 442. 

FORGET wil ? D. 120. 
FORKED cliampaiig. 
FOWL pug Sah. F. 255. 
FRESH (of water) herek Pang., Sem. N. 49. 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



108 A VOCABULAKY OF PANGAN. 

FROG (tuli) sendrai. 

(deman) tebeg Sale. F. 268., karog F. 272, 
„ lingkong Pang. F. 270. 
FROND (coco) selah Sem., Sah. L. 32. 
FRONT, IN dada, 

FRONT (TOOTH) (moing) nus T. 170 & 168. 
FRUIT bernk. 
FRUITS :— 

(unid) raro. 
' (tampu'i) tampa, tabeng Sem. T. 19. 

(kabang) kabak ?R. 28. 

(rambutan) slmsliog H. 1. 

(mejptar) mestar. 

(gomoh) hu. 

(pisang) teluwil B. 42. 

(aboh mas) brikleg. 

(jinteli) ranik. 

(rambai) rambi Mai. 

(duhu) chendrok. 

(pulasan) grak, pallid R, 25, P. 225. 

(tebedo) dekoli. 
FRUIT-BAT keluek. B. 78. 
FULL tebik Sah. F. 290 (b). 
FUNGUS (tall) berbut. 
„ (tree) berpog. 

G. 

GAPE ^o hoi Sem. M. 199 (a). 
GAROTTE cbekeg Mai. 
GASP (pant) selud. 
GAZE (tengoh) ene S. 75 (a). 
GET (dapat) evii; na bti. 

„ (fruit, joloh) yok. 

,. (pic& wp) cliod £&&. P. 68. 
„ UP, ASCEND devod. 
„ „ , ARISE wog Pan#. A. 156 (a). 
GHOST saro Sem. G. 16. 
GHOST jani kimort Sem. G. 18. 
GILLS kenyar Sem. G. 23. 
GINGER kayar. 
GIVE 6g Sem., Sah. G. 29. 
GLUE (for shaft butt) kedred. 
GNAT (agas) kebo fa. ; Sah. M. 180 (b). 
GO jib to v £afc. G. 42, 

„ THERE jib mana. 
„ UPSTREAM galah Mai U. 26 (a). 

,. OUT hoidj howal. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



A VOCABULAEY OF PANGAN. 109 

GONG gok. 

GOOD meg Sale. G. 66. 

„ (halus) momiis (e.g. bangsa). 
o-OHE (with horn) timpah. 
„ (with tusks) nakab. 
GOURD snmbang. 

„ (for water) labu Mai. 

„ (kundor) serdag. 

., (petulah) mengkai. 
GRAND-CHILD chiichor Mai 

-FATHER yak Sem., Sale. G. 87; dato' Mai 
-MOTHER jaja batu, Sak., Sem. 0. 20, F. 61. 
ya Sem., Sale. G. 87. 
GRASP pegak. 

„ (stretching for) kord. 
GRASS rnmpnd Mai 

„ (akar batu) temtop. 
GRASSHOPPER bilalang Mai. 
GRATE hnhnr. 

GRAVE saro' G. 16; he digs a g. e pug saro'. 
GREAT-GRANDSON" chinchit Mai. 
GREEN" belalir Sem., Sak. W. 98 (c). 
•3-REY (uban) sakol. 
GRIND (giling) gerlid. 
GRIPES jam kabkiid Sem. B. 160 (a). 
GROPE paid pom. 

„ (pass- hand over) slu. 
GROUND te Sem., Sak. E. 12 (a). 

„ (rising) te Int. 

GROW (of hair) lot. 

„ (of plants) ehnai. 

., (of child) hit. 
GROWL kni ab; hirr. 

„ (of tiger, elephant) krik Sale. G. 124. 

„ (bark of dog) jul Sem., Bes. B. 59. 
GRUEL (rice) mengm. 
GUITAR (stringed instrument) jurik. 
GUMS lengchit Sale. G. 128. 
GUATTA chebo Sak. S. 31. 
„ (ara) chebo sog. 

H. 

HAIR sog Sem. H. 1. 

(of body) sentol #&&• H. 2. 
(of Ze#s) sentol kemong C. 5. 
(?) sentu mtir. 
„ (of armpits) sentol senok. 

iR. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



110 A VOCABULARY OF PANG AX. 

HALT toalek. 
HAMMER penluk. 
HAM) tik Sale. H. 15. 

(bach of) tapak tik (cf. tapai ting H. 15). 
HANDSOME meg Sale. G. 66." 
HANG jol Sen. H. 25 (a). 

„ (o/ frees' swarm) tabak; #7iey h. m swarms na gul en tabak. 
HARD ehegod Sem. H. 31. 
HASTILY (leleas) kenyang Sem. Q. 6. 
HATCH cheli ^em. B. 373. 
HEART (liati) e bud. 
HAWK (Mr3) klak flafc. E. 4. 

„ (tw spitting) sladik. 

HATE (ada) mok Stem;, Sale. B. 38. 
HE nana Sale. T. 51 (e). 
HEAD kui Sem. H. 46. 
HEAD-BAND tingtek. 
HEAD-DRESS tempo'. 
HEAD-MAN batin Jale. 
HEAP (to, earth into grave) diit; h. wood on fire kod tama 

diit pah'os. 
HEAR ki'ok Sale. H. 60 (c). 

„ (distinctly) ta' lalah. 
HEAVY nyoh Sem. H. 88. 
HEEL deldul Sem. H. 69. 

„ (bad- of) katik. 
HELP toluk Sale. H. 73. 
HERE anoh. 
HERON denak. 
HICCOUGH segdug. 
HIDE kerdut, kerdu. 
HIDEOUS la 'tis U. 7. 
HIGH jerok Sak. D. 66. 
HILL jelma Sem., Sale. H. 87. 
HILLOCK tangkol. 
HIP janggab Sale. B. 483 A. 
HITHER chi maduh. 
HOARSE gagab (? = Mal gagab). 
HOLE (of snakes) sendrok. 
HOME (to go li.) ma dik Sak. A. 176, H. 153. 
HONEY lek Sem. II. 119. 

-COMB sorp. 
HOOK (for fish) mad kail E. 83. + Mai 
HORN palok II. 126 (a). 

-BILL naheg; terip : (rhinoceros) tukub Sem, H. 133". 
HORNET (panali Hang) hug, hong, Sem. H. 135. 
„ (tebuan) eng-wang. 

„ (kerawai) kerawai Mai. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



A VOCABULARY OF PANG AN. Ill 

HORSEFLY (pikat) chapud Pang. H. 138. 
(small) galul ?F. 200. 
(smaller) sebik M. 180 (c). 
HOT buid Sem. H. 142. 
HOUSE dik Sale. H. 153. 
HOW relok Sale. W. 77 (b). 
HUM (of flying bees) hek, chenghek. 
HUXGEY 'clierok Sah. H. 169. 
HURT (i^wne*) pok W. 142 A. 

„ (burn) siek. 

„ (smart) pajkl. 

HUSBAXD to Sah. M. 16. 

I. 

I ha I. 3. 

IBOL Aral (Mai). 

ILL jf flem., S. 187 (a) : — f/?<? man is ill semoi na ji\ 

ILL (seriously) brap. 

IX keloid >V,Z : . I. 27. 

EXCISE s'6r. 

IXSIPID (of food) belap. 

„ (&«.s'0 nasi uk. 

IXTESTIXES eb hik B. 161. 
INTOXICATED ko> fa. V. 22. 
IXYULXEEABLE to' lab. 
IPOH (poison) jelok ?P. 175. 
( „ ) rok. 

„ (a creeper) berill. 
ITCH (hudis) menghing. 

„ (Jcurap) gaas fi'em. I. 46. 

„ (puni) choid #em. I. 45. 
ITCHY beheteh. 

J. 

JELUTOXG trok badok fa. J. 4. 
JESTING chaehor. 
JOIX (ubong) cherod J. 9. 
JOIST (gelegar) chenaro. 
JUGULAR YEIX na ted (?). 
JUXGLE (big) te rya E. 12. 

„ (medium) te amis. 

„ (belukar) lemog /S'aA-. I. 442. 

K. 

KAMPOXG sepiiah. ?H. 159. 
KELEMBAI Kelembai. 
KICK (backwards) tut Sem. K. 25. 
„ (sepak) sip ah. 

R. A. Soc, Xo. 85, 1922. 



!]2 A VOCABULAEY OF PANGAN". 

KILL pliliik ?H. 126 or B. 257. 
„ (self) e phluk olah hari. 
KITCHEN wal Sak. F. 129. 
KNAPSACK (small) ranoh. 

(big) raiah. 
KNEE karol Sale. K. 41. 

„ sip. 
KNEE-CAP ho karol Pang. K. 40 (a). 
KNEEL kelkrol ?B. 176. 
KNIFE landab. 

., (edge of) gem. 

(blade of) paheng C. 126. 
„ (handle) rempagi. 

„ (pisau raut) rand Mai. 
„ (parang) kengnm. 
KNOT, TO kual. 
KNOW, TO lek Sak. C. 160. 
KNUCKLES tolak tenlek. 



LADDEE rengkang Sak. L. 1. 

„ (sigai) ehuad. 

LARGE raiya Mai., Sk. 
LATHE sisak. 

LAY (eggs) tab. Sem. E. 36. 
LEAVES siela Sem. L. 32, 
LEAK bochor Mai. 
LEAN (^w) snak ?T. 68. 
, , ( in c lin e ) chnn dut . 
? , ( „ against) dudau. 
LEAN, TO daoigor Mai. 
LEAP (down) nata. 

., (as monkey) lompad Mai. 
LEARN tSning lek C. 160. 
LEARNED hoidj e lek. 
LEAVE prah ?A. 65. 
LEAVINGS sisak Mai. 
LEECH (lintah) jetu L. 4.6. 

,. (pachat) kantag. 

LEFT-HAND (side) ma' vil L. 48. 
LEG (calf) kemong Sak. C. 5. 
LET balai. 
LICK boid Sem. L. 64. 
LIE (to) go ?F. 20. 
„ (down on arm) nam selog Sak. S. 249; chening. 
(on back) na berpah. 
• * 2 ce : 7 cv;n) kemkup. 



Jour. Straits Branch- 



A VOCABULAEY OF PANGAN. 113 



LIGHT (in weight) haiyo' Sem. L. 79. 

„ (a fire) nvor 6s Sem. F. 124. 

LIGHTNING kilad Mai. 
LIKE (suha) na hod £ero. W. 14 .(b). 
LIME (for birds) ehebur. 
LINE sondxai. 

LINED (wrinkled) karud Mai 
LIPS sentor Sofc., H. 2. 
LISTEN kivok Soft., H. 60. (c). 
LITTLE amis Sak., S. 281. 
LIVE(<ZweW) gul flafc., S. 222 (a). 
LIVEE hup Sak., B. 380 (a). 
LIZARD to' keh, cheag. 

„ (mengkarong) tarog. 

„ (flying) dialog Sem., L. 115. 

LOFTY jerok Sale., D. 66. 
LOIN-CLOTH lat ?E. 76 (b). 
LONELY seng'6. 
LONG (since) liu Sak., 0. 21. 

„ (in space) jeirok #&&.,, D. 66. 
LOOK (af) ne Sak.', S. 75 (b). 

„ (aside) pad; chenleg. 

„ (down) ne mate <=Sak., D. 96. 

„ («■'') n ^ habalik. 
LOOSE (long gar) kalok. 
„ (Upas) terhual. 

LOEIS tampil. 
LOSE alah Mai 
LOSS (rugi) pimah. 
LOST e rejeruj Sen., L. 140. 
LOUSE che Pang., Sem., F. 169. 
LOWente' Bes., E. 12 (c). 

„ (country) legup. 
LOWEE jat. 
LUMINOUS (of cats' eyes) chera' nglang. 

M. 

MAGGOT kemor Sak., B. 143 (a). 
MUEAI berai. 

HUT AN eliem tap B. 216. 
MAIDEN meiialeh Sak., G. 28. 

„ kedhud. 

MAKE, TO ta'el Sak:. D. 132. 
MALE (young) leoto Sak., M. 16. 

(old) teta M. 16. 
MAN seinoi Sate., M. 26. 
„ (very old) kral. 

H, A. Soc, No. So, 1922. 



114 A VOCABULARY OF PANGAN. 

MANGO manchang, Mai 
MANGOSTEEN sqmiesta', mesta M. 36. 
MAW kembir. 

(how?) rop senoi W. 80 (b). 
MARK (/tainted on face) 'nggep. 

(tattoo) chemod. 
MARRY na terma. 
MASSAGE e 9egi ? . 

MAT (tikar) apil Sem., Sak., M. 63 (a). 
MATCHES slab. 
MEASURE sukad Mai. 
MEAT sag Sera., E. 170 (a). 
MEDICINE ubad Mai. 
MEET bu £era., M. 80. 
MELT banchur Mai. 
MEMBRANE (of egg) peher. 
MEMPELAS (leaf) pasug. 
MENGKUANG seke' ?P. 28 kajak. 

., (pandan) panat. 

MERANTI (tree) bodag. 
MERB AH ( bird) diacliar. 
MIDDAY bekud Pang., H. 141. 
MIDNIGHT laiyeg Sale.) .D 18. 
MIDST (sama) pedik #era v #a&., M. 100. 
MIDWIFE (old woman.) jajar. 
MILK bot Sem., Sal., B. 386. 
MILLIPEDE (black) taluk ta v B. 141. 
(Ved) tilong ?B. 141. 
(red luminous) kejej. 
MILLET jenlai Mai 
MINE ri: it is m. ri ye. 

,. ria ap. 
MIST sagub Sak., D. 16 (c). 
MOLAR nioing tengip Sak., T. 170. 
MOMENT IN A (instantly) selab. 
MONITOR-LIZARD (biawak) baget Sem., L. 119. 

■„ „ (geriang) geriek. 

MONKEY (lotong) tain 5 £em.. M. 147. 
(kera) jilao fi'em.j M. 142. 
„ (berok) bawaj Sem., M. 134. 

(/in id) kakok berkas ?M. 130. 
MOON livcbek Sem.. Stofc., M. 161: there is no m. hoid da gechek; 

new moon gecihek pai; rise of m. huwal, set kenchog. 
MORNING cbencbuk, 
MORTAR giil Sak., M. 179 B. 
MOSQUITO kiibuk Sem., M. 180 (b). 
.MOSS samnil; lerbur. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



A VOCABULARY OF PANGAX. 115 

MOTH jere,o-acl. 
MOTHEE nvoh M. 193. 

-IN-LAW bl'ok Sak., 22, 
MOUNTAIN jelmol Sem., H. 87. 
MOUSE-DEEB (napoh) napoh Mai 
„ (kandiil) bechok. 

„ (pelandoh) pelandok Mai. 

MOUTH nvang Sah./M. 199 (b). 

„ (of river) bok. 

„ (to put in mouth, snap) e lift. 

MOUTH PIECE (of blow pipe) teboh Sat, B. 272. 
MOVE (pindah) jog Sem., G. 43. 
MUCUS lehiek S. 391. 
MUD lebak Sal:. M. 214, 
MUSH (straw) hada. 
MY (father) ri haba bu. 

N. 

NAIL cheneros Sem., X. 1. 

XAME kesrii' flew. X. 8: what is his nf viols, iiama kenir? 

XAREOW nged. 

XAVEL panik ,»/?<.. X". 17. 

XEAE dekad 1/Y//. 

NECK (nape of) tang'ii. >Y'/.\, N. 27. 

NECKLACE gaj noij. 

XECK charuag. 

„ (valley) loag. 
NEPHEW kmuan N. 41. 
XEST (o/ free, bird) sop: ford's /?. sop chep. 
XEW pai Sale., N. 50. 
NIBONG nibong MaZ. 
NIGHT renga. 
NO hoi. 

NOISE (rioh) chitor. 
NOSE meng Safe., N. 98. 

(ridge of) kerdnk meng. 

(stud for) penlog. 
XOSEGAY chadog. 
„ sonteh. 

NOSTRIL lengiok meng. 
XOT to' Sale., N. 69. 
NOTCHED takeh Mai. 
XOW na kal Sale., N. 111. 

0. 

OPEN wog Sal-., 0. 40. 
„ (a clurian) eheg. 
„ (mangosteen) eheked. 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



116 A VOCABULARY OF PANG AN. 



ORDER or. 
ORPHAN kepug. 

(only survivor of family) na regrig Sale., 58 
OTHER me.moi. 
•OTTER kabok Sent., 0. 64. 
OUTSIDE na-bek. 
OUTSTRETCHED serjeh. 
OWE clos. 
OWL bakah. 

P. 

PAD delclol. 

PAIN" (in sivalloiving) galar. 
PANTHER ab renga. 
PAPAYA berk betek F. 280 Mai. 
PARE (raut) s'6r. 
•PATCHOULI nilim Mai. 
PECK choh Sem., Sal., C. 296. 
PEEL wog v. open. 
(durian) bleh. 
„ (rind) sinkor. 
„ (baric) cheg v. open. 
PENIS loah Sem., Sale., P. 53. 
PERCH clebiid Sem., C. 52. 
PERFORATED pechuk. 

„ (fruit) enk loij sendrok. 

PERHAPS bilbil. 

PERSPIRATION buked Sem., Sale., H. 141. 
PETAI tr'o betar. 
PHEASANT (fire-lack) chelnk. 

„ (merali mata) pegor Mai. 

PICK (flower) tois Sal., P. 149. 
PICK (banana) tid'ehok. ?P. 68. 
PIEBALD bertutual. 
PIERCE chelug. 

„ (cut) lab. 
PIG- clianggai Sak., P. 80 (a). 

„ (wild) cherar ?P. 82. 
PIGEON (per gam) beku. 

., (punai) menyut Pang., Sale., P. 93. 
„ „ tan ah chep te. 

PILLAR tnngnl Mai, 
PILLOW (use arm as) dhekol. 
PIMPLE bud chnd. 
PINCH pied P. 106. 
PINE- APPLE seke'. 
PINION k'ngyek. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



A VOCABULAEY OF PANGAjST. 117 

PIP (of durian) ne ulas. 
PIPE (bamboo) rembad. 
PLACE .(spot) te P. 118. 

dol Sak., Sem., H. 153 (a). 
PLAIT (hair) sanggul Mai. 

„ (rope) kental ( fMal. pintal) . 

„ (any am) ta ch; serengget. 
PLANT (seed)' tap Sale., P. 132. 
PLAY juah; juali prud. 

(a drum) pad ?S. 196 (c). 
PLUCK OUT roid. 
PLUG sol. 

PLUMAGE sentol Sak'., H. 2. 
PLUNDER amgfaid. 
POCKMAEKED nyong. 
POISON chebur. 
POISON (to top) p'ok. 
POKE tebug. 

PORCUPINE bus Sen. P. 185; tot; keleg. 
„ (quill) jalar kus #em., T. 94. 

POUND, TO si. 
PRAWN sembug. 
PREGNANT mako E. 34. 
PEESS (tehan) jug, ngeg. 

„ (up) terot. 

PEETTY neg G. 66. 
PEICK chol. 
PEOD chok. 
PROD (soYong) klat. 
PROSTRATE pada\ 
PRUNE parak. 
PULAI puli Mai. 
PULL (tareh) jeng £al\, P. 227. 

„ (cliabut) eroidj. 
PULSE nadir SM., Mai. 
PUNGENT (pedas) pejed. 
PURE giir. 
PURSUE h<6. 
PUSH (tolak) tolag iYaZ. 

„ (back) dos. 
PUT dol H. 153 (a). 

„ OFF (tanggok) rit. 

„ OUT (padam) pud #em., £a&., B. 256. 

,, ON (clothes) eni. 
PUTRID se/eg S. 292 (b). 

PYTHON relai Sen. S. 320 S£>p. relai padak, r. batu, r. te, r. 
tabak, r. tirok. 

R. A. Soc. No. 85, 1922. 



118 A VOCABULARY OF PANG AN. 

Q. 

QUARREL (of children) berchachor. 
QUESTION semam Q. 6. 
QUICK kenyang Bah., Q. 6. 
QUID (of betel) blok. 
QUIVER chukeg; 16k. 

(cover) chengkub, chiiigkup. 

(strings) chenois. 

(packing for) samui. 

R. 

RAFTER kaseo. 

RAIN hujat Bale., R. 12. 

(%/?i) hujat amis S. 281. 
RAINBOW nvibnvab. 
RAINY SEASON lesap Sak., R. 6. 
RAMBAI rambi Mai. 
RANK (hanyir) pe'i. 

(chengis) chengis iliaL 
RAP sentog. 
RAPID (/eram) jeruk Safc., R. 29. 

(die gar) chigar Mai. 
RATTAN tingtek Bah. R. 37 (c) ; spp. tek riau R. 41 D; tek 

lok; t. dahnan; t. daue: t. klau ehtiok; kerada ; hag; 

gertas ; gatek. 
RAVE tato ta'na lek. 
RAW aloi. 

REACH (arrive, tibo) eaigloi A. 146. 
READY simpat. 

„ bag ning wing. 
REAP (tuai) ketaman C. 295. 

„ (fcetam) tegnug. 
RECEIVE dawan. 
RECENTLY pai nai jeriid, N. 50. 
RED ebeluk Bah., R. 34. 
REDEEM Jul. 

REFUSE (ta'mahu) i je' Bern., D. 123. 
RELATIVE (younger) pii. 
„ (elde(r) kelo. 

REMAIN pra'. 
REMEMBER jelek. 
REMOVE chit. 
REQUEST (minfa) oid. 
RETIRE undur Mai. 
RETURN yima ?R. 83. 
RHINOCEROS nagab Bern., Sale, R, 90. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



A VOCABULAEY OF PANG AN. 119 



BIB cheros Sah., R. 102. 
EICE (nasi) chana E. 27 (b). 

„ (paste) blap. 

„ (sweet) belied. 

„ (bitter) bechuit. 

„ (beras) eheiidroi Serb., E. 112. 
EIDE ELEPHANT oid. 
EIGHT ? tok ?R. 128. 
RIPE jenip Sale., E. 137. 

„ (per am) ternip. 
EISE (s) nawal. 
geche'. 
„ (ban gun) wog. 

EIVEE tiu Sem., Sah., W. 30. 
ROAST serpad. 
EOLL balut Mai. 
ROLL (up sleeve) cliimpal. 
EOOF nai. 

,. (of mouth) kenog. 
EOOT (utnbi) trop. 
ROTTEN sasau. 
ROUGH siyak. 
ROUND keldul. 
RUB lebor. 

RUBBISH (sampah) sap. 
RUN dado Sem., Sah., G. 44. 



SA C K ( haro ng ) chenok. 
SAFFRON reined. 
SALIVA lekyek. 
SALT garam. 
SAND pantir S. 27. 
SATED beM Sem., G. 72, 
SAY lo'oh Sem., S. 359. 
SCAB clietok tem-o. 

„ (hudis) kenuitong. 
SCAR dil Sem., P. 118. 

„ (par ut) ehenod. 
SCARPE (hihis) kas. 
„ (rout) s'or. 

„ (huhur) kukud. 

SCRATCH (of fowl) Bap©. 
SCORPION mangai Sah., S. 46. 

„ (small) terlap. 

SEARCH ke Sale., S. 60. 
SEASON jaman (Mai. zaman) 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



120 A VOCABULARY OF PANGAN". 

SEE tenyor. 

SEND mad (=eyes) ; kirip : hanted. 

SENTITL so'ug. 

SET (of sun) peeling. 

SEW javid. 

SHADE wog- Sak., S. 127. 

SHADY semorig. 

SHAKE (e.g. fruit) jo. 

SHALLOW penyon. 

SHARP (tajam) pehing. 

„ (pent) pred. 

SHARPED sig Sal., S. 144. 
SHAVE 1'6 J sog. 
SHIN kemono-. 
SHINE remelah. 
SHIVER dekad. 
SHOOT seln. 
SHORT pende. 

SHOULDER poro-, S. 169 (6). 
SHOVE tolag. 
SHRIEK karan. 
SHUT cherto'. 
SICK ji Sem., S. 187. 
SIEVE jaman. 
SILENCE kednt. 
SILENT senge. 
SIMPLES selak. 
SIX berdos ( ? = berdosa Mai.) 
SING genabag Sem., S. 212. 
SIP tolmal. 
SISTER (elder) kelo' babo B. 415 & 419. 

„ (younger) pii' babo B. 414. 

-IN-LAAV nieneri B. 419. 
SIT gnl Sak., S. 222. 

„ (with legs and arms dangling) keluel tabag. 

„ (squat) jantek. 
SKIN kato' Sem., S. 236 (b). 
(of fruit) singkor. 

„ (disease; Ttudis) tenia t. 

„ ( „ ; hurap) gas. I. 46. 

„ ( „ ; puru) choid. 
SKULL kni Sem., S. 239. 
SKY balik. 
SLACK ledik. 
SLAP geter. 
SLAVE oho. 
SLEEP selog S. 249; on side kiton; legs crossed jnwas. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



A VOCABULARY OF PANGAN. 121 

SLEEPING-PLACE benule. 

SLENDER suen. 

SLIP selig. Sale., S. 262. 

SLIPPERY blaj. 

SLOPING lodau. 

SLOW hakui Sem., S. 272. 

SMALL amis Sale., S. 281. 

SMALL-POX chene; nyani tot. 

SMASHED pechuk. 

SMELL eseg. S. 292 (b). 

„ (to) oar. 

SMILE semieg. 
SMOKE psidiig. 

„ (to) emjod. 

SNjAKE sicilek; taju Sem., S. 311 ? nlar licli t. padi, striped s. 

t. pelache, cobra t. eg. 
SNAKE bakan. 
SNARL nanis. 
SNATCH ros. 
SNEEZE kohol. 
SNORE semangar Sale., S. 32-8. 
SOB segdug. 
SON kues babor. 

,, IN-LAW mensan Sem., L. 25. 
BOOT chengkah. 
SOOTH-SAYER tinang. 
SOOTHE seneg. 
SORE pejecl. 

SORROWFUL meriso (? = merisau Malay). 
SOUL roh (Mai, Ar.), 
SOUND kui. 

„ (of sleep) kenyang Mai. 

SOUR (masin) breg. 

,,■ (masam) bechut. 
SOURCE cheg. 
SOW rui. 
SPEAK tenur. 

SPIDER tawi, tawa, Safe., S. 378; nmnang; sok. 
SPIKE-TRAP cbempog. 
SPILL kako. 
SPINACH wiig. 

SPIRIT golawi; jani; chene; lepug; klab; ng"6i; ludo; pengho. 
SPIT getali Sale., S. 390. 

„ (sembor) prok. 
SPITTLE liek. 
SPLASH chichu. 
SPLINTER simpang. 

K A. JSoc. No. 85, 1922. 



122 A VOCABULARY OF PANGAN. 

SPRAIX alij. 
SPREAD dab. 
SPRIXG nuu tiii. 

-GUX rack 
SPRIXKLE koh. 
SPROUT tarol. 
SPUR (of cod-) pus. 
SQUIXT cliiilag. 
SQIRREL kecli; sekor; chade; 
STAB t-akoli. 
STALE nasog. 
STALK tangke. 
STAMMER gagah. 
STAMP (heel) temtam. 

(sole) jantet. 
STUD subak (Mai snbang). 

T. 

TAPIR barad Bern., T. 26. 
TESTICLES bako ?E. 34-. 

„ kiyois. 

TH I X ( nipis ) peher . 

THITHER (Ica-situ) na ana nong T. 51 (e). 
THROAT gelah Sak., X. 28. 
THUMB tabik. 

TOOTH (lack) tengnp T. 170. 
TURMERIC remeg. 

U. 

UPSTREAM (to go) e galak. 

W. 

WASP (naning) tengtok Sak., H. 135 A. 
(k&rawai) tajnd. 
„ (tebuari) engnang H. 135. 
WATCH ve'6. 

WATERFALL fan W. 30. 
WATER tin W. 30. 
WAX (in ear) ejeg. 

(lilin) snd Sem., W. 48. 
WEAR nt; lat Sdk., E. 76 (c). 
WEAVE ta ateh. 
WEED, TO memmpiid Mai 
WELL, A telaga Mai., Skt. 

(fit) bod named. 
WET ka'ayd Pang., W. 73. 
WHAT lok Sem., Sak., W. 77 (a). 
NEWS lok gabe. 



Jour. Straits Branch 



A VOCABULARY OF PANGAN. 123 

WHEN* bil ?W. 91. 
WHET seg Sal:, S. 1M. 
WHISPER bisig i¥aZ. 
WHISTLE chemer hau. 

(of man) ho'oid Semv, W. 97 (a). 
WHITE bieg. bnvog Sm., Safe., W. 98 (b). 
WHO na ch'6 : h;7io is ///'/f. ; na cho ana? 
WHY 16 kerja W. 77. 
WIDE (luas) legar (? J/«7., lega). 
WIDOW janda JfaZ. 
WIFE leh Sale., F. 60. 
WILD liar Mai. 

„ -CAT chigchog. 

., -DOG jelog D. 14.8: 

.. -PIG ciianggee SaA\, P. 80. 
WILL hod Sal-.. W. 14 (b). 
WIXD helhnl Safe., S. 478. 
WINDPIPE ganggan. 
WIXCt kenyeng Sem., Sen., W. 117. 
WIXK kanvieb.. 
WIXXOW jenloo-. 

„ (tampi) gep. 

WOMAX babo flew., F. 61. 
WOOD-PECKER teranik. 
WORLD te E. 12. 
WORM chachik Mai 
WORX-OUT saso\ 
WRESTLE kalud. 
WRIST cheriel ?A. 134 (c). 



YAWX kah'oi. 
A r ELLOW tuning Mai 
A^ES bur 'Sen.. Sal-.. Y. 27. 
YOU ha Sale., Y. 34. 

„ (polite) ar. 
YOUR ye. 

YOUTH (male) lauto. 
YOUNGEST tiale to' Sal:. M. 16. 



R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



Remarks upon Certain Currency Notes, Coins 

and Tokens Emanating from Malaya 

During and After the War. 



By Sir John A. S, Btjcknill^ m.a. 

The rise in the value of Silver (and, incidentally, of many other 
metals) was a very noticeable feature during the War. 

There were, no doubt, numerous reasons for its appreciation 
but it would be outside the scope of this paper to attempt to discuss 
them in any detail. 

II is suffieien: to point out here that there were continuous and 
serious political disturbances in Mexico which checked greatly 
the output of silver from that highly argentiferous region: that 
as is generally the case in the East when any universal feeling 
of apprehension or trouble is felt, there was much hoarding of 
coins and a corresponding withdrawal from circulation of a very 
large quantity of metallic currency : and that huge issues of notes 
by many of the belligerent States tended to enhance the intrinsic 
worth of almost every form of coinage. 

For about a year after the commencement of hostilities silver 
remained steady but in December, 1915 a progressive upward move- 
ment commenced which reached its culminating point about the end 
of 1919 : since that date there has been a sharp and continued de- 
cline. 

The sub-joined table shows roughly what took place : — 

Date. Value per ounce in Date. Value per ounce in 





London. 




Lon 


don. 




s. 


d. 




s. 


d. 


31. 3.14 


2 


2f 


30. 6.17 


3 


H 


30. 6.14 


2 


2t? 


30. 9.17 


4 


H 


30. 9.14 


2 





31.12.17 


3 


n 


31.12.14 


1 


lOf 


31. 3.18 


3 


9f 


31. 3.15 


1 


9f 


30. 6.18 


4 


01 


30. 6.15 


1 


10* 


30. 9.18 


4 


i* 


30. 9.15 


1 


n« 


31.12.18 


4 


0A 


31.12.15 


2 


2A 


31. 3.19 


4 


if 


31. 3.16 


2 


m 


30. 6.19 


4 


5| 


30. 6.16 


2 


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30. 9.19 


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30. 9.16 


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31.12.19 


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31.12.16 


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30. 3.20 


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31. 3.17 


3 


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21. 9.20 


4 

Jour 


iii 

, Straits B; 



inch 



CURKENCY NOTES, COINS AND TOKENS FROM MALAYA. 125 

It would be necessary to look back very many years to find 
silver at a value even approaching that which it attained in the 
year succeeding the War. 

In 1870 the price per ounce was about 5s. Od. ; in 1880, 4s. 4d. ; 
in 1890, 3s.- lid.; in 1900, 2s. 4td.; and in 1910 about 2s. Od. 

The result of the appreciation was, that, as soon as the silver 
coins current in British Malaya became, as to their silver contents, 
worth more than their face value, they were collected by adventurous 
individuals, sent out of the country and melted down for disposal as 
bullion : and, as these coins were of high silver fineness, this under- 
taking became a profitable one directly the price of silver touched 
about 3s. 0^. per ounce : and, although legislation against both export 
and hoarding was soon introduced, such measures were not, it is to be 
feared, of much practical effect. The dollar soon vanished and the 
50, 20, 10 and 5 cent pieces became rapidly scarce: in 1917 the 
shortage began to be very serious whilst the bronze coinage (1, J 
and J cents) commenced also to disappear. The Government was 
faced with a difficult situation in its endeavours to provide a suit- 
able substitute for the disappearing currency. The proposal to 
mint coins of intrinsically very low value could not be immediately 
carried out: the Indian Mints were extremely busy and, though an 
effort was made to obtain assistance from the Royal Siamese Mint 
at Bangkok, no aid could be, owing to technical causes, gained from 
that Institution: indeed it was not until nearly three years later 
that new coins appeared to replace those which had been removed 
from circulation. 

In the meantime something had to be done and the first step was 
the issue of a locally made 10 cent note. These notes were printed 
on rather thick coarse paper of open texture at the Government 
Printing Works, Singapore : they tore easily and quickly absorbed 
dirt and were consequently not very popular. 

They measured about 117 x 7(5 mm. and were coloured in yel- 
low, green and black on the front and in red on the back. 

The design was very simple : the face of the note has a yellow 
back ground about 87 x 59 mm. in size and consisting of a narrow 
border about 16 mm. in width and, within this, the words " Ten 
Cents " repeated in a series of horizontal lines in small letters. 

Overprinted on this background, in green, lies a narrow green 
border 14 mm. in width; within this in green appears a small 
representation of the Royal Arms at the top in the centre : under- 
neath there runs the phrasing : — 



R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



THE GOVERNMENT 
OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS. 



Promises to pay the bearer on demand at Singapore. 



TEX CEXTS. 

Local Currency for Value received. 

The above with the exception of the words "Ten Cents'' (which 
are in black) is in green. 

In the left hand top corner appears within a black circle "10 
Cents." In the left hand bottom corner "Ten edits'" in Chinese and. 
to the right of that the serial number of the note ; below the main 
inscription and to the right the signature of the Treasurer and the 
word "Treasurer" : in the right hand bottom corner "10 cents" in 
Tamil and in the right hand ton corner ''Ten cents" in Malay: all 
the above is in black. 

On the back of the note is a decorative design of scroll work : in 
the centre a representation of a ten cent Treasury Revenue embossed 
stamp cancellation : all in red. 

The first issue was made on October 8th, 19 IT and bore the 
signature of the Hon. Mr. Hayes Marriott then acting Treasurer 
[PI. I. figs. 1 and 2i.] : later, the issue starting on January 2nd, 
1919, the notes bore the signature of the Hon. Mr. A. M. Pountney, 
c.b.e., the Treasurer of the Straits Settlement-. [PI. II. fig. 3], 

Very large numbers of these notes were put into circulation and 
the value of those issued by September 22nd. 19'2'0 was $1,925,484. 
80 cents. 

On April 22nd, 1920 a new Ten Cent note made its appearance : 
they were on proper India paper and were engraved in London by 
the well known London firm of Messrs. Thomas de la Rue and Co., 
Ltd. They measured about 108 x 6'3 mm. and were of a handsome 
and artistic design. [PI. III. figs. 1 and 5]. 

A pale olive green border, containing the value in white in Eng- 
lish. Chinese. Tamil and Malay, surrounded a. handsome scroll work 
background of pale brown over which, in pink, stands a represen- 
tation of the Royal Arms and the words: — 

Jour. Straits Branch 



THE GOVERNMENT 
OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS. 



Promises to pay the bearer on demand at Singapore. 



TEN 10 CENTS. 

Local Currency for Value received. 

(Signature) 

Treasurer. 

The serial number appears in black at the two top corners of 
the note. 

On the back of the note appears the representation of a dragon 
in white and pale green and the value in English, Chinese. Tamil and 
Malay in the four corners. 

By September 22nd, 1920 the value of these notes issued was 
$6'8'0,0O0. The locally manufactured ten cent notes were exten- 
sively counterfeited and a great many of these forgeries circulated 
side by side with the genuine ones. 

On January 21st. 1918 an issue of Twenty-five cent notes com- 
menced. These were prepared at the Government Survey Office at 
Kuala Lumpur, Federated Malay States. (PI. IV. figs. 6 and ?). 
The value of these notes in circulation by September 22nd, 1920 was 
$39,825. I was recently informed that these twenty-five cent 
notes were being withdrawn, from circulation as occasion permitted. 

The twenty-five cent note was a better looking production than 
the local ten cent paper currency. They measured about 108 x 75 
mm. The material was a fairly thin white paper closely striped with 
narrow perpendicular pale pink lines. "On the face was first printed 
an elaborate ornamental design .(in orange) and outside this (in 
black) a border of heavy spandrels with the figures "25" in white 
in a black circle at the top corner and "Cts" in similar circles 
at the bottom corners : midway on the right, and left and at the bot- 
tom, in Tamil, Malay and Chinese respectively and in black on white 
scrolls "25 Cents." Over the orange pattern and printed in black: 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



THE GOVERNMENT 
OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS. 



Promises to pay the bearer on demand at Singapore. 



TWENTY FIVE CENTS. 

Local Currency for Value received. 

(H. Marriott) 

The Royal Arms. Ag. Treasurer. 

(Serial letters and number.) 

On the back of the note appears in black the representation of 
a tiger standing amongst long grass super-imposed upon a decor- 
ative orange coloured background in the upper corners of which are, 
in white, the figures "25" and in the lower corners also in white 
"Cts." 

The issue of notes undoubtedly saved the situation but, even 
so, small change was often a great difficulty and postage stamps 
and tramway tickets were sometimes offered. 

I heard of Chinese Towkays up-country utilizing notes and 
vouchers or " good-fors " of their own, and a number of tokens or 
tallies, (some of which are described in this Article) made their 
appearance in different localities. 

In 1919 a large quantity of debased 5, 10, and, I understand, 
some 20 cent silver pieces were issued for currency in British Malaya 
from the Indian Mints; in 1919 to the value of $9'50,00'0 and in 
1920, up to about the middle of March, $950,000 worth. I am in- 
formed that during this period no 50 cent or dollar pieces were re- 
ceived from the Indian Mints. Even of this debased coinage I be- 
lieve a considerable quantity found its way to the China coast being 
utilized there as currency in.place of that of higher intrinsic value 
which disappeared into the melting pot. I do not describe these, 
as, except for the fact that they were of very low silver fineness, 
they appeared to be similar to the former Georgian coins of like 
denomination. 

The following is a short account of some of the coins and tokens 
which have come under my notice: — 

Jour. Straits Branch 



CUEEENCY NOTES, COINS AND TOKENS FEOM MALAYA. 129 

STRAITS SETTLEMENTS. 

1. One cent: minted at the Calcutta Boyal Mint: made of 
bronze: a square shaped coin with rounded corners: size across 
21.3 mm. Tlain edge. 

Obv. Crowned head and bust of King George to left; a dot below: 
legend on left, above and right " George V King and 
Emperor oe India. 

Eev. Within an interior beaded circle the figure "1" over the word 
" Cent " : outside this circle and within another similar 
circle the legend " Straits Settlements (rosace) 1920 
(rosace)." [PI. II. figs. 8 and 9.] Up to the 22nd Sep- 
tember, 1920 there had been received in the Straits Settle- 
ments Treasury, cents of this type to the value of $576,650. 

2. Five cent? : made of nickel : circular diameter 20 mm. : 
plain edge. 

Obv. Crowned head and bust of King George to left. Legend 
around " George King and Emperor of India." [PI. II. 
figs. 10 and 11]. 

Eev. Within a beaded interior circle the figure " 5 " : around and 
outside the circle the legend " Straits Settlements/' 
above; and, below, "Five Cents 1920." 

I received specimens of this coin in January, 1921. These coins 
were struck at both the Calcutta and Bombay Mints : the coins first 
issued for circulation (and the one above described) emanated from 
the latter ; none having been despatched from the former Mint by 
January 24th, 1921. I am indebted for this information to the 
Authorities at His Majesty's Mint, Calcutta. 

SINGAPORE. 

In August, 1920, I heard that the Singapore Harbour Board 
had issued tokens for use within their very extensive premises cover- 
ing the long line of docks which serve the Port. The result of my 
enquiries was that the Chairman very kindly gave me specimens of 
the denominations then in use and in January, 1921 7 was good 
enough to let me have examples of a new issue. These may be des- 
cribed thus : — 

First issue. 

1. One cent: made of tin: diameter 34 mm.: a circular coin 
punched on one side only, the other side being plain. [PI. II. fig. 
12]. 

Obv. Within a small central circle the figure " 1 " ; outside and 
within another circle the letters " S H B." These letters 
are the initial letters of the Singapore Harbour Board. 

Rev. Plain. 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



130 CURRENCY NOTES, COINS AND TOKENS FROM MALAYA. 

2. Half-cent: made of tin: diameter 24 mm.: a circular coin 
punched on one side only, the other Side being plain. [PI. II. fig. 

Obv. Within a small central circle the figures " \ " • outside and 

within another circle the letters "SH B." 
Rev. Plain. 

Second issue. 

3. One cent : made of tin : diameter 28.5 mm. ; a circular coin 
punched on one side onlv, the other side being plain. [PI III. 
fig. 14]. 

Obv. Within a garter, the arms of the Singapore Harbour Board 
consisting of a lion " passant " to left standing on a castle, 
the whole surmounting a diamond shaped lozenge enclosing 
a three-armed ornament each arm containing a crown. On 
the left is a large figure " 1 " and on the right the word in 
small lettering " cent/' Around and within the riband of 
the garter the legend " The Singapore Harbour Board." 

Bev. Plain. 

4. Half-cent: similar to the One cent but smaller: diameter 
26 mm. The onlv difference is that the figures "{" replace the 
figure "1." [Pl/IIL fig. 15], 

5. Quarter cent: similar to the half-cent but smaller: dia- 
meter 22.5 mm. The figures " J " replace the figures " A." [PI. 
III. fig. 16]. 

I am informed that the punches from which the first issue was 
struck were made locally at Singapore and the tokens struck locally. 
They are somewhat rough productions. 

For the second issue, however, the dies or punches were manu- 
factured at the Royal Mint at Bangkok, Siam, and are of a high 
standard of excellence : the tokens for current use were, I under- 
stand, struck locally at Singapore and, whether from the use of in- 
sufficient pressure, hasty work or other cause, the impression pro- 
duced does not bring out all the detail of the design in those which 
I have examined : for example, the impression of the diamond-shaped 
lozenge is very faint; whilst of the three armed ornament and the 
three crowns there is hardly any trace. On the other hand I have 
seen proofs of Xo. 3 in copper and in some white metal which, care- 
fully and properly struck, show every detail perfectly. I therefore 
add these proofs to the list. 

6. Proof in copper of Xo. 3 : fine work. 

7. Proof in hard white metal of Xo. 3 : fine work. 

These tokens can hardly be regarded as currency even in a re- 
stricted area as they are strictly only intended to be used for the 
purpose of immediate payment to coolies (by way of tallies really) 
for services such as carrying baskets of coal or parcels of merchan- 
dise to and from ships: the tokens are redeemable at depots on the 

Jour. Straits Branch 



CUEEENCY NOTES, COINS AND TOKENS FEOM MALAYA. 131 

premises of the Singapore Harbour Board for ordinar} r coinage or 
notes current in British Malaya. I was informed that the} r were 
not issued under any Government authority. 

PULAU BIJKOM. 

In August, 1920 I was asked by the world-wide known numis- 
matist Mr. J. P. Moquette if I had heard of an issue of tokens from 
this place : a small island lying about seven miles from Singapore. 
It is British territory and there is situated an important oil depot 
of the Asiatic Petroleum Company. 

I made enquiries from the Manager of the Company who very 
courteously sent me specimens of the tokens which the Company 
had issued for Island use. I subsequently had the opportunity of 
seeing several more examples. The following is a description. 

1. One cent: made of tin: diameter 29 mm.; a circular coin 
punched on one side only; the other side being plain. [PI. V. 
fig. 17]. 

Obv. Within a small central circle the figure " 1 " : outside and 
within another another circle the letters " P. Bukom." The 
letter " P " stands for the word " Pulau " which is Malay 
for " Island." 

Eev. Plain. 

2. Half cent: made of tin: diameter 19 mm.: a circular coin 
punched on one side only; the other side being plain. [PI. V. 
fig. 18]. 

Obv. Within a small central circle the figures " -J " : outside and 
within another circle the letters " P. Bukom." 

Eev. Plain. 

I was informed that these tokens were not issued under any 
Government authority. 

PULAU SAMBOE. 

In the early part of 1920 my attention was drawn to some 
tokens apparently emanating from this Island which is a Dutch 
possession situated about ten miles from Singapore. Large oil de- 
pots are maintained at this place. I accordingly wrote in April of 
that year to the Official in charge of the Island asking for informa- 
tion about the issue. I received an obliging reply the interesting 
portion of which reads : — 

" Owing to the shortage of copper coins, I was compelled to 
introduce tokens at this place because a lot of work done by coolies 
here is paid cash on the spot. 

"The token has therefore no value as "currency" but a token 
represents the value of one Straits Settlements cent; and these 
tokens can only be used on the Island of Pulo Samboe and then 
only for the Companies 7 business." 

R. A. Soc.. tfo. 85, 1922. 



132 CURRENCY NOTES, COINS AND TOKENS FROM MALAYA. 

Mr. Moquette kindly informed me in August, 1920 that the 
Dutch Government had already, by that date, forbidden the further 
use of these tokens. I had, however, the opportunity of examining 
about thirty : the following account gives a short description of 
them. 

1. One cent: made of tin: diameter 29 mm.: a circular coin 
punched on one side only, the other side being plain. [PL V. fig. 
19]. 

Obv. Within a small central circle the figure " 1 " ; outside and 
within another circle the letters " P. Samboe." The letter 
" P " stands for the word " Pulau " which is Malay for 
" Island." 

Eev. Plain. 

2. One cent: similar to No. 1, but the letter " 0" is stamped 
"9": this is not an uncommon variety and I think was the first 
issue; the punch being later perfected. [PI. V. fig. 20]. 

3. Half cent: made of tin: diameter 22.5 mm.: a circular 
coin punched on one side only, the other side being plain. [PL V. 
%. 21]- 

Obv. Within a thick raised circle the letter "S" which is the 
initial letter of " Samboe." 

Eev. Plain. 

TKENGGANU. 

The ordinary issue of ee white " or pewter cents by the State of 
Trengganu is well known. In September, 1920, however, a new 
issue appeared which is of considerable interest. They differ con- 
siderably from the earlier issues. The following is a description of 
the new coin of which, through the kindness of the British Adviser, 
I have received specimens. 

1. One cent : struck at Trengganu : made of pewter : circular : 
diameter 28.8 mm.: milled edge. [PL Y. figs. 22 and 23]. 
Obv. Within a diamond-shaped figure, the figure " 1 " flanked by 
a six-pointed star on each side : the whole within an in- 
terior beaded circle : around, and within an exterior beaded 
circle, a wreath of leaves. 

Piev. Within an interior beaded circle in Malay " Kerajaan Treng- 
ganu Sanah 1325 " (i.e. " State of Trengganu Year 1325 "). 
Outside, and within an exterior circle, in Malay character 
"S". Z. A." (i.e. the initial letters of Sultan Zenal Abidin) 
each letter separated from the other by a six-pointed star. 

The points of interest with regard to this coin are : — 

(a) Sultan Zenal Abidin died in 1918 and was succeeded by a 

so]] who abdicated in 1920 and in turn was succeeded by 

another son of the deceased Sultan. Owing to the great 

shortage of small currency in the State (where silver and 

Jour. Straits Branch 



CURRENCY NOTES, COINS AND TOKENS FROM MALAYA. 133 

copper coinage of the Straits Settlements are current as 
well as the local pewter coinage) a new issue of coinage 
became urgently necessary. There was no time to order a 
new " die " from Europe and the old die (modified slight- 
ly on the Obverse) was used. 

(b) The modification consists in the addition (cut into the old 
die) of the diamond shaped figure surrounding and the 
two stars flanking the figure " 1." The old Hegira date 
1325 (i.e. 1906-7) is retained though the coins were issued 
only in 1920 : so too are the initials of the Sultan who died 
in 1918. 

■(c) The main reason why any modification was really neces- 
sary was because owing to the high price of tin these 
" white " or pewter cents were issued as equal to Straits 
Settlements copper or " red " cents whereas 400 of the old 
Trengganu cents only equalled in value 300 Straits copper 
cents. 

(d) The alloy was prepared by the great Tin Smelting Com- 
pany of Singapore, the Straits Trading Coy., Ltd. and is 
noticeably harder than the mixture used for earlier issues. 
The " die " itself is rather worn and the sheath or instru- 
ment used for cutting the blanks from the sheet metal is 
getting blunt and could not be properly repaired by the 
local Trengganu metal-workers: with the result that the 
edging of the coin is very poor and the general impression 
not very clear : though specimens vary. 

(e) Ten thousand dollars worth of these coins were to be issued. 
The issue was authorized by the High Commissioner. 

NETHEKLANDS INDIES. 

Mr. Moquette of YVeltevreden, Java, informed me in 1920 that 
in j 914, in consequence of shortage in copper currency, an issue of 
Tin coins representing values of 5 and 10 cents was contemplated. 
Dies were prepared at the Opium Factory at Batavia but, as the 
scarcity of coinage was within a short time made good by a supply 
from Holland, the projected issue of coins was never made. 

The die for the 10 cent piece was destroyed and the specimens 
struck from it were, with the exception of one example produced 
•after the die had already been damaged and now in the Batavia 
Museum, melted down. The die for the 5 cent piece was however 
preserved and is in the same Museum together with a few specimens 
struck from it. The following is a short description of these ex- 
tremely rare proofs : — 

1. Ten cents : struck at Batavia, Java : made of tin with a 
little lead : circular : size 27 mm. Plain edge. Description from 
a plaster cast. [PI. Y. figs. 24 and 25]. 

U. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



134 CURRENCY NOTES, COINS AND TOKENS EROM MALAYA. 

Obv. A Crown surmounting " 10 Ct." : below, the words " Neder- 
landsch Indie" in two lines. There are two flaws in 
the die. 

Rev. In the centre, within a scroll work border, the date " 1914." 
Above in Javanese character and below in Malay " One-tentk 
part of a guilder." 

2. Five cents: struck at Batavia, Java: made of tin with a. 
little lead: circular: size 26.5 mm. Plain edge: a thick coin of 
3 mm. Description from a specimen given to me by Mr. Moquette. 
[Plate V. figs. 26 and 27]. 

Obv. Within a beaded circle a Crown surmounting " 5 Ct." Out- 
side and above, the word " Nederlandsch " and below 
"Indie/ 7 To left the mint-mark of a sea-horse (the con- 
ventional mark of the Dutch mint-master Dr. C. Hoitsema) ; 
to right a caduceus (the conventional marque d'atelier of 
Utrecht) . 

Eev. Within a beaded circle in Malay " One twentieth part of a. 
guilder " : outside and around, the same in Javanese charac- 
ter, and at foot " 1914." 




R\ 


400 

r- 




w 


i 

e 




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2 




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S 




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%ol 






( IX 






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/f 



i 



SKETCH MAP OF NORTHERN PAHANG 




Through an unknown Corner of Pahang with 
H. Clifford in 1897. 



By F. W. Douglas. 

A portion of the map on the border between the States of 
Pahang and Trengganu is still blank. It lies in a rough triangle, 
■of which Gunong Irong, the source of the Tekal and Tembeling 
rivers (both northern branches of the great Pahang river), is the 
western apex, with Gunong Tapis, the source of the Kuantan 
Eiver, the south-eastern point, and the mountainous range at the 
head of the Kemaman Eiver, which flows in an easterly direction 
through the southern end of Trengganu, as the north-eastern 
point. 

This area is still a terra incognita. It has occurred to me 
therefore that the following notes from an old diary may possibly 
be of interest and perhaps serve to stimulate some member of this 
Society to explore this region thoroughly. The triangle is marked 
on the accompanying map. 

In 1897, Hugh Clifford (now Governor of Nigeria), who was 
then Eesident of Pahang wanted to make a bridle-path connecting 
Kuantan, which lies on the east coast at the mouth of the Kuantan 
Eiver, with Kuala Lipis, which lies some 200 miles inland up the 
Pahang Eiver and which had then been selected as the temporary 
Capital for the State of Pahang. He and I accordingly set out 
from Kuantan on the 12th April, proceeding up the Kuantan 
Eiver to its source, across the terra incognita and down the Tekal 
Eiver and thence on down the great Pahang Eiver to Pekan at the 
mouth. 

We reached there on the 23rd April. Our journey therefore 
took 12 clays, during which we travelled some 300 miles almost 
'entirely by river. The following notes are taken from a diary kept 
during the trip. 

1st Apeil. Clifford wrote asking me to get guides for the 
journe}', as no one had ever done the trip from the Ulu Pahang 
side. The only men I could find were not exactly ideal for the 
purpose. One was an opium-smoking waster, Bakar Tekal by 
name, who had been in the Ulu Tekal with getah-huuting Dayaks, 
but who had not been down the river; the other was one Komeng 
Liar, half Sakai, who had been the guide for a party of raiders in 
1896 from Kemaman (Trengganu) into Pahang and had helped 
some of Bahman, the Orang Kaya Semantan's people, to escape. 
He was selected for our party simply as a useful man in the jungle. 

Jour. Straits Branch R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



136 THROUGH AN UNKNOWN CORNER OF PAHANG. 

8th Apeil. Clifford walked over from Pekan and we started 
up river, spending Sunday, the 11th, at the Paliang Corporations- 
mine. The old mill at Jeram Batang was running for the last time 
prior to being moved to Sungai Lembing, where all the stamps were 
being concentrated. Derrick, the superintendent, entertained 
us royally. He took Clifford over Nicholson's & Willink's lodes- 
and down the shaft. (Both these lodes are worked to this day). 

12th Apeil. We continued upstream in four dug-outs with 
20 men. Slept on the Cheras. Clifford's boat filled during the- 
night and he awoke in the water. 

13th Apeil. Stopped at a Sakai village, where we tried to 
get two men to join our party. Clifford fired off his best Senoi at 
them but they only bolted. Eventually, after an hour we caught 
two, named Chong and Bo'uk, whom we bribed with much tobacco 
to accompany us. These Kuantan Sakai have a peculiar way of 
making their blow-pipes. They split a piece of wood, bore out the 
half -sections and then bind the two pieces together with rotan and 
a covering of gutta-percha. The Patagonians of South America 
do the same, but I know of no other native tribes in this part of 
the world who make their blow-pipes in this way. Later they came- 
down to my house and gave a very good exhibition of shooting 
amongst my cook's fowls, and gave me a blow-pipe which is now in 
the British Museum. 

We camped at Kuala Lipas that night and distributed the 
loads preparatory to walking next day. The worst of a rice-eating 
race is that they eat practically as much as they can carry. We 
therefore had to arrange to drop some of the men at the end of the- 
second day's walk and most of the remainder as soon as we got 
far enough down the Tekal, or one of its tributaries, to raft. 

Clifford was a Spartan in his methods of travelling. He- 
arranged that we should live on curry and rice, tea and biscuits.. 
Four chickens were allowed for curry; when they were finished, 
salt fish brought for the men was to be the only appetiser for the 
rice. I smuggled in a small flask of brandy — as my mother had 
made me promise never to travel without it, — two tins of sardines 
and two of cocoa and milk. I may add that my Spartan companion 
was not above sharing these rare delicacies ! Perhaps the most 
trying part, until one grew accustomed to it, was that the rice was 
cooked overnight, so a meal of cold rice confronted one at 6 a.m. 
and another at noon. We indulged in a hot meal only at night.. 
However at the end of the trip we were all as fit as the proverbial 
flea. 

14th Apeil. Started walking up the valley of the Senandok^ 
our " path " being the bed of the stream. The leeches were fright- 
ful. 1 had torn my breeches above the knee, an accident of which 
these jungle pests took full advantage; I removed lo leeches from 

Jour. Straits Branch. 



THROUGH AN UNKNOWN CORNER OF PAHANG. 137 

my legs. After ten o'clock our route took us up a very sharp 
incline and we had to pull ourselves up by roots. Some hornets 
(penyengat) attacked us and caused a stampede. One found 
Clifford's nose and in a few minutes it was like a full-blown rose. 

At 11.30 we reached the summit of Bukit Lada, which forms 
the divide between the Pertang on the Pahang side and the ulu 
Kemaman of Trengganu. According to the aneroid the altitude 
was only 700 ft., but judging by our exertions I suggested that 
some correction was required. We then descended the other side 
to the Sungai Besar and on lower again to the Sungai Babi, which 
in turn brought us to the Sungai Pertang, where we camped for 
the night. It is a fair sized stream; but we were above the bamboo 
country and so could not make rafts. 

15th Apeil. The path became a game track about five feet 
high through the jungle, folloAving the course of the river down. 
We crossed and recrossed it no less than tw r enty-three times; by 
the afternoon the water was waist high; it was rather chilly work 
and still more so when it started to rain. We therefore stopped 
to camp. 

To get the palm leaf (bertan) collected and made into an atap 
as quickly as possible we had a competition, the Kuantan Malays 
.and the Sakai versus Clifford's servant from Pekan and mine, a 
Malay from Perak. The latter won easily. (I heard recently that 
this Perak Malay rose to be a District Officer under the Siamese in 
Ivelantan, where eventually he died). W r e were cold and wet until 
Clifford remembered that it was the anniversary of his wedding- 
day and we sampled the brandy. 

We found bamboos a little way below us, with which we made 
our rafts. Wan Ismail and all our men except six were then sent 
home early next morning by the way we had come. 

16th Apeil. Patting down the river was a very pleasant 
•change. The Pertang is a beautiful river with great deep pools, 
in which shafts of slate protrude, huge ngram trees overhanging 
the water. Our troubles however soon began. We struck a log- 
jam consisting of great trees piled twenty feet high and some 
hundred feet long, brought down by floods. Most of them seemed 
to have been there some time. The rock in the river here seemed 
to be granite (possibly Tembiling schist). The rafts had to.be 
•dragged over this; many bamboos were split in the process and 
had to be replaced. Just below we came to the Tekal Eiver and 
we camped for the night at the junction of the two rivers. 

17th Apeil. The Tekal was a fine stream here, made the 
more imposing by a big rapid known as the " Jeram Jerami.^ 
This gave me my first taste of shooting rapids, and an exciting 
game it is too, when no one with you knows the rapids! This 
particular rapid ended in a steepish drop, which tilted the rafts 
^almost upon end. However we negotiated it successfully. As we 

S. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



138 THROUGH AN UNKNOWN CORNER OF PAHANG. 

floated on down stream, we passed some sambhur (Rusa) drinking- 
at the water's edge ; they never moved as we went by — a sure sign 
that no human beings lived anywhere near. 

.We shot several rapids without mishap during the morning" 
and were becoming fairly confident of our skill (or luck) in this 
somewhat thrilling pastime. A bad rapid, known as Jeram Tahan 
Badak, however, proved our undoing. There appeared to be a 
kink in this as we could not see the end. Clifford led, each raft 
following at a few minutes' interval. The rush of water was terri- 
fic. As we swept round the corner, we saw Clifford and his raft 
high up on a rock; he and his party frantically gesticulated to us 
to keep, to the left; S'man my leader, drove his pole in hard in 
front of my raft, but to no purpose; the raft was on it at once and 
out he shot ; he came out bobbing in front of us, while we swept on 
towards Clifford. I just managed to haul him up as we crashed on 
to the rock. We could do nothing to stop the third raft from the 
same fate. When we took stock we found we could make two 
whole rafts out of our bamboos, but, worst luck of all, we had lost 
our only remaining fowl — a white one, which we had carefully kept 
for the last. 

18th Apeil. (Easter Day). — Floated on down stream all day. 
Lost our cooked food at a rapid. The rafts became so knocked 
about they would scarcely float. There were no bamboos avail- 
able for mendiiig them, but we managed to patch one with a small 
memnti tree. Slept the night at Kuala Som. 

19tit Apeil. We started early, getting along fairly well until 
we came to another bad rapid, Jeram Mena. Here Clifford came 
to grief. He and his raft upset; he lost everything except his cork 
mattress; all the rice was spoilt. W 7 e managed, however, to put 
together a small raft out of the wreck, on which we sent on two 
men to try and find the boat, which Owen, the District Officer at 
Kuala Tembiling, had undertaken to send up the river to meet us. 

The rest of us spent some time diving to try and recover Clif- 
ford's revolver etc., but a wonderful rainbow appeared, with one 
end touching the place where all the things were sunk; the Malays 
thereupon ceased their efforts as they said the spooks had taken 
the tilings. It rained hard and we remained there cold and 
miserable. 

20th Apeil. Three dug-outs turned up at 8 a.m. and we 
pushed off on the final stage of our journey, glad to think that the 
end was in sight, but at the first rapid we all upset. At Kuala 
Tekal, where the Tekal joins the Tembiling Eiver we found our 
boat. Further on down, at Kuala Tembiling, Duff and Owen were 
waiting for us at the house of Panglima Kakap, together with a 
huge curry. Scent had been sprinkled liberally over plate, spoon 
and fork, but our hunger made light of such trifles. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



THROUGH AN UNKNOWN CORNER OF PAHANG. 139 

We left at ten that night following the great Pahang River 
down to Pekan, the Government station and residence of the 
Sultan, near the mouth, arriving there at 3 a.m. on the 23rd April. 

All our time and compass survey records were lost and so far 
as I know, no one has been through that way since; that corner of 
the map therefore remains blank to this day. We established how- 
ever the fact that the Tekal and the Tembiling Rivers rise from 
the same hill, although the latter runs north and then bends west 
before it finally runs south parallel to the Tekal. 

We were particularly unlucky in finding the water in the 
Tekal at such a level as to make the rapids most difficult. It was 
my first real jungle trip. One learnt a great deal from Clifford, 
under whose guidance one realised what cheery companions Malays 
•can be under such circumstances. 



R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



A Contribution to the Psychology 
of " Latah. " 



David J. Galloway m.d., f.r.c.p. 

The attraction which attaches to an obscure subject and a 
long and close association with Malay races must jointly form the- 
reason, if not the excuse, for this paper. 

Whatever may be the etymological origin of the word " latah/ r 
it is now specialised to mean a peculiar form of nervous manifest- 
ation which occurs among many races and is common among 
Malays. 

This manifestation lends itself to a differentiation into several 
varieties, all having one symptom in common, a greatly enhanced 
susceptibility to suggestion from without, whether conveyed 
through visual, auditory or tactile channels. 

Eef erences to " latah " in the literature of Malaya are many 
and several special papers have been written on the subject in 
various journals. 

I propose to avail myself of some of the published matter,, 
more in the way of illustration than in any other, and to supple- 
ment my own cases. For that purpose I have selected those des- 
cribed by the late Mr. O'Brien and which were published in N"os. 11 
and 12 of this Journal, chiefly because they are described with a 
careful minuteness which could be achieved only by one who had 
had a long and close association, and was in close sympathy with 
the Malays of the Peninsula, and because with that accuracy of 
observation which characterised the man, he has portrayed one of 
each of the three great classes into which " latah " is susceptible of 
division from a psychological standpoint. -While availing myself 
of his description I am unable to adopt his classification. 

There are several preliminar} 1 - considerations to be dealt with 
such as the influence of race, age, sex, and heredity, but I shall dis- 
cuss them very briefly. 

Eace is an important factor, for, although I have seen in- 
stances of " latah " among Abyssinians and Portuguese half-castes, 
it is mostly found among the Malay races. I have not met an 
instance of true " latah "■ among Chinese, though the mimeses 
have been many and were usually the outcome of " la grande si- 
mulatrice " Hysteria. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE PSYCHOLOGY OF "LATAH." 141 

The student of ethnology will meet with some difficulty in 
the racial limits of " latah." Unfortunately, some 
writers on the subject have invested it with a semi-religious signi- 
ficance which has led to its being confused with conditions of 
religious ecstasy or others with the hysteria which seems to be in- 
separable from religious revivals in civilised countries. The only 
approach to anything of a "religious" nature is the Indian "fakir"' 
in whom the state of abstraction, which plays so large a part in the 
production of " latah " has passed beyond physiological limits and 
become an auto-hypnosis. 

If he excludes all such manifestations, he will still find that 
" latah " is to be found in quite a number of races and that these 
are all situated within the tropical or sub-tropical belt, and are all 
more or less in the infancy of civilisation. Eeduced to first causes, 
there would be nothing ridiculous in a theory that " latah " was 
the product of an environment in which constant warmth, absence 
of hurry, abundant leisure and an unoccupied mind were the com- 
ponents. 

Sex has also a bearing on the subject, in that two of the types 
of " latah " are more common in women than in men. It is also 
curious that " latah " in men seems to be of greater intensity, and 
has a greater tendency to pass into action, than in women. 

Age also plays its part, as " latah," being of gradual growth, 
is rarely seen before middle age excepting in one type, that which 
I describe as the " obsession of fear," which has its origin in 
childhood. 

It is undoubted that " latah " in some mysterious way clings 
around some families, and this is what has afforded some ground 
for the statement found in nearly every definition of the term, 
that " latah " is hereditary. One does not realise the difficulty 
there is in obtaining a clear family history among Malays until it 
has been tried. It would have been in the highest degree profitable 
to follow history into the next generation and its collaterals, but 
this I found impossible because of the rapidity and completeness 
with which the average Malay family of the common class breaks 
up, each going his own way. 

I append the histories of four families which may throw some 
light on this aspect of the question. 

Family I Malay: — 

Father, a shiftless individual, genial and effusive but totally 
unable to follow any continuous occupation — a typical degenerate. 

Mother, healthy 

Son, intensely " latah " 

Daughter, jumpy and hysterical. 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



142 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE PSYCHOLOGY OF "LATAH." 

Family II Malay: — 

Father, very " latali " 

Mother, healthy 

Eldest son, a " paroxysmal " drunkard, although a Moham- 
medan. 

Eldest daughter, distinctly although as yet slightly " latah " 
Second daughter, epileptic 

Other members of the family too young to decide. 
Family III Malacca Portuguese: — 
Father, healthy 
Mother, " latah " 

Family of three daughters and two sons. One of the daugh- 
ters is a somnambulist, the eldest son is " latah," the second son 
slightly so, the other members of the family healthy. 

Family IV Malay: — 

Father, slightly " latah " 

Father's sister (living with the family) intensely " latah " 

Mother, healthy 

A very large family of which one son, the eldest of the family, 
shews distinct signs of " latah," one daughter also, while the 
" Benjamin " of the family is a congenital idiot. 

I therefore do not feel that it is justifiable to say that " latali " 
begets, " latah," or, in other words, to dub it as being hereditary. 
What is inherited is the impress of a nervous defect, a disequili- 
briation, which may manifest itself as " latah " or some other 
neurosis, the early environmental associations and the unconscious 
mimicry of youth being of at least equal importance as etiological 
factors. 

While the Malay cannot justly be called a jungle dweller, in a 
crowded town he is an exotic. Of an eminently social disposition 
he never, of his own free will, chooses solitude but prefers the 
village life. The bounty of Xature is such that a few hours' work 
daily suffices to supply his wants and the unvarying and unfailing 
rotation of the seasons relieves him of the necessity of laying up 
any store against the future. There has thus been evolved a con- 
tented, happy, somewhat improvident individual, of abundant 
leisure, on the whole a loveable personality. In the company of 
his compeers he is a cheery conversationalist or raconteur, in the 
society of his superiors he, under a mask of deferential passivity, 
hides an acutely sentient nature, keen to appreciate humour, sen- 
sitive to praise or blame, responsive in a high degree to the moods 
of his visitor, is, in short, in perfect " rapport " with him. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE PSYCHOLOGY OF " LATAH.' ' 143 

But when alone, much of his leisure is spent in day-dreaming 
or abstraction, really a subconscious state. It is difficult to con- 
ceive more favourable conditions for such a state than in a quiet 
village, with its warmth, its stillness and the absence of any dis- 
turbing element. So long as these moods of abstraction are in- 
termittent and occasional, they are quite within the normal limit 
but when they are prolonged, as in the "fakir/ 7 they pass that limit 
and may then be looked on as an auto-hypnosis, or in any case, a 
hypnoidal state. 

The condition of abstraction is difficult of comprehension by 
the twentieth century mind which has little opportunity for any 
but conscious thought, but it is a well recognised state in psycho- 
logy. It is a temporary dissociation of conscious thought, during 
which we sink into the subconscious, and most people are aware of 
such a state, although they probably cannot define it. It is the 
" shadowy representation " of Kant, the " perceptions insensibles ,y 
of Liebnitz, the " subconscious " of Myer, the " unconscious " of 
Freud, the " subliminal " of Yung, and it has been defined as " the 
sum of all psychical processes which do not reach the level of con- 
sciousness." To illustrate my meaning is a little difficult. There 
are a considerable series of thoughts and memories which it is im- 
possible to recall by any effort of volition, but which are readily 
brought into consciousness when a suitable stimulus, usually in the 
form of a similar association, presents itself. Thus it is, possibly 
within the experience of most, that some train of events arises 
which causes us to remark, " I have been through all this before,, 
but when or where I do not recollect," the fact being that a similar 
train of events had been experienced and been registered in the 
subconscious, and it required the stimulus of a similar train to 
bring the recollection within the grasp of the conscious mind. 

The question arises " What has this to do with " latah " ? 

In the condition of abstraction (i.e. when the subconscious 
holds sway) so indulged in by the country Malay, the individual is 
readily influenced by suggestions or stimuli, and suggestions or 
stimuli which would be rejected by the conscious mind would exert 
their fnll influence, and, following the usual rule, their passage 
would, by repetition, become more rapid and easy. The subcons- 
cious, even in the educated, is but little removed from the reflex 
or automatic, and a further factor in the equation is that we are 
dealing with a primitive mind, in which many of the processes are 
reflex or instinctive and have not yet, or only recently, been sub- 
jected to the influence of education, the greater part of which 
consists in the development of the power of inhibition of our pri- 
mary instincts and their adjustment to the surroundings. So far, 
I have been dealing with the predisposing factors to the " latah " 
state but the determining factor, the " X " in the equation, is the 
neuropathic inheritance or, what I believe to be of equal potency, 
early neuropathic association. 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



144 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE PSYCHOLOGY OF "LATAH." 

From a study of the material at my disposal I have divided 
"" latah " into three types, all having one feature in common, a 
greatly enhanced susceptibility to suggestion from without, but 
the manner in which a suggestion may radiate differs in each. 

Type I Class I — A Malay gentleman, 40 years of age, " latah" 
for many years. He is a man of considerable attainments and can 
•discuss any contemporary subject with analytical keenness. I ex- 
perimented with him by his permission. Suddenly, in the midst 
of ordinary conversation, I shouted out the word " Strike," accom- 
panying it by a corresponding action. He immediately repeated 
the word and launched out at the nearest person, who happened 
to be a visitor like myself. The act of striking was immediately 
followed by another, a purposive act, as if to grasp and take back 
the previous action and this was accompanied by an apologetic 
expression of countenance and also of speech. 

After a time I repeat, unexpectedly, the order. Again he 
responds so far as repeating the word, but no action results. A 
third time I attempt to catch him but this time neither response 
to word or act is elicited. 

Another instructive example of this type is that of an Abyssin- 
ian who is the chief tracker to a well-known big game hunter. In 
his times of leisure, when it may be reasonably assumed that he is 
in a more or less abstracted mood, the slightest stimulus, either 
as a sudden noise or abrupt action, will send him into " latah " 
action, but while he is tracking, an elephant gun may be fired over 
his head without causing any disturbance of his equanimity. 

Class II — To this class belongs the well-known "latah mulut," 
recognised by the Malays themselves as one of the mildest types 
of " latah." The subject is, almost invariably, a woman at or over 
middle age. In the early days of the bicycle, while it was still 
more or less a novelty, it was a common occurrence to witness in- 
stances of this class in the street. A bicycle coming up noiselessly 
from behind would flash past a Malay woman, the subject of 
" latah." At once she would stand rigidly still and, after a brief 
pause, begin to pour out a stream of language. The catalepsy, 
although of brief duration, is complete and she has often to be 
pulled aside to avert an accident. Soon the catalepsy passes off 
and she resumes her journey, still talking. But the more usual 
•occurrence, and the more instructive in that it enables the observer 
to follow the course of events, is on entering a room in which the 
affected person is. At the moment of entry there is a brief inter- 
val of tense silence, the " latah " drops whatever she may have 
heen employed on, and the " language " begins. After a copious 
flow of speech, it is interrupted by an apologetic cough for a mo- 
ment, and then goes on again. Gradually these interruptions be- 
come more frequent, their duration longer and the periods of 
talking correspondingly briefer, until she entirely regains control. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE PSYCHOLOGY OF "LATAH." 145 

Class III — As illustrating this class I make use of O'Brien's 
-description (Xo. 11 Straits Branch, E. A. S. Journal p. 150). 

" A Malay woman of respectable position and exceedingly res- 
pectable age was introduced to me some time ago as a strong 
latah subject. I talked to her for at least ten minutes without 
perceiving anything abnormal in her conduct or conversation. 
Suddenly her introducer threw off his coat. To my horror, my 
venerable guest sprang to her feet and tore off her kabayah. My 
entreaties came too late to prevent her continuing the same course 
with the rest of her garments, and in thirty seconds from her 
seizure, the paroxysm seemed to be over. What struck me most 
in this unsavour}'' performance was the woman's wild rage against 
the perpetrator of this outrage. She kept on calling him an 
abandoned pig and imploring me to kill him, all the time she was 
reducing herself to a state of nudity." 

There are several points in this type to be elucidated and I 
shall. take the classes in order. Class I is very instructive and it 
gives the key to the explanation of all this type. Even in a state 
of expectation in which he undoubtedly was, as he had voluntarily 
submitted himself in the interests of science, he could be sur- 
prised into a " latah" act in its completeness. But note the action 
which followed. The arm was again rapidly extended with the 
hand open and the ringers in the prehensile position, as if to grasp 
and take something back, and this was accompanied by an 
apologetic expression, the picture of a delayed inhibition which 
had arrived too late to restrain the impulsion which generated the 
blow. This attempt established a condition of awareness which, 
•on a second attempt being made, called up the inhibitory act in 
time to arrest the blow, though not the spoken command, and, on 
the third attempt, was in time to annul the impulsion altogether. 

As to the " latah mulut," it is essentially similar. Each of 
the interruptions to the flow of speech is an attempt at inhibiting 
it, and it is interesting to watch them becoming more frequent and 
of longer duration, really to watch the controlling factors of the 
conscious mind gradually asserting themselves, until they assume 
•dominance of the automatic, reflex or subconscious, accepting 
those terms as being in this connection synonymous. This also is 
.an instance of delayed inhibition. 

There remains yet to be explained the " language." The 
Malay term " latah mulut " is really intended to convey the mean- 
ing of a lapse of the mouth from reason, in contra-distinction to 
other types of " latah," where the lapse from reason is in the acts, 
.and such an interpretation is justified, the language used being of 
such a nature as to deserve the term obscene, the one applied to it 
by almost every writer. We have to seek our explanation in the 
.subconscious. The science of Psycho-analysis, based chiefly on 
the work of Yung and Freud, has shewn us that the subconscious 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



146 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE PSYCHOLOGY OF " LATAH.' > 

is much more than merely a storehouse of memories of things 
which " we see but do not perceive/' One of its many other funct- 
ions is to receive material repressed from the conscious mind. In 
the course of our daily life we hear and see much which is utterly 
at variance with our sense of propriety or even decency but which, 
in any case, is not adjustable to the present standards of society. 
Our first and instinctive effort is to escape from the vicinity, but, 
if that is not possible, there is a second line of defence in that we 
can shut out from our minds the offending material or, to be strict- 
ly accurate, we can relegate it to the subconscious, where it would 
await an appropriate association or a sufficiently powerful impul- 
sion to let it loose. It would not be illogical to argue that the 
more decorous the individual, the greater the amount of material 
repressed, and thus the richer the subconscious repertory. 

In the present position of our knowledge of psychical pro- 
cesses there does not seem to be any other explanation of this 
contradictory complex possible. We have the initial shock which 
may be visual (the bicycle) or auditory (a command), followed by 
a momentary catalepsy which may be so brief as to escape notice, 
but which, being a hypnoidal state, suffices to let loose the subcon- 
scious. We see the repeated efforts to regain control gradually 
gaining power until, at length, the censorship of the conscious 
mind is re-established and the attack is at an end. Favre's des- 
cription of this type is particularly apropos — " elles disent tout ce 
qui leur vient a la boiiche." 

Again in Class III we must analyse the procedure. She has 
the " latah " susceptibility to suggestion, by way of the senses, 
greatly exaggerated but her speech is directed, and with point, 
against the experimenter. The insanity (although I dislike using 
the term in relation to " latah ") affects her acts only. A com- 
parison with the cases next to be described will shew that this is 
not hypnotism and the exact grounds for excluding hypnotism are, 
that there is no loss of consciousness, there is no illusion of the 
senses and the return to normal is easy and spontaneous, but there 
remains, after the event, a humiliating knowledge of the exhibition 
they have afforded, and a justifiable grudge against the operator. 
It is an example of the power of inhibiting an impulse being to- 
tally lost. 

Type II — I was introduced to a Malay woman of forty years 
of age "more or less," the mother of many children, who was stated 
to be very " latah." She was in a condition of intense nervous- 
ness which she was making obvious efforts to suppress, and which 
I attributed to her condition of expectation. Her pulse was very 
rapid and there was a fine muscular tremor. Xo initial stimulus 
was required, not even a raised tone of voice, and she began at once 
to repeat every word addressed to her in Malay as well as carrying- 
out the action suggested. Words spoken in English were fairly 
well repeated but no action resulted unless they were accompanied 

Jour. Straits liranch 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE PSYCHOLOGY OF "LATAH." 147 

by pantomime. A rolled-up handkerchief was presented to her 
as an orange, and .she at once went through the pantomime of 
peeling it. A wooden stethoscope was put into her hands as being 
a bottle, and she drank from the " bottle" with evident relish when 
ordered to do so. Not to be prolix, the response to verbal suggest- 
ion was sometimes a little slow, but suggestion by action was in- 
stantly responded to. The visual route was evidently much more 
permeable than the auditory. When it was all over, she was trem- 
bling violently, although any suggestion of an exciting nature had 
been carefully avoided. She remembered nothing of what had 
passed. 

I now avail myself of O'Brien's case (op. cit, p. 149) which he 
noticed at Kuala Jumpol, when crossing the Malay Peninsula in 
1875 — " met a young Malay who was of material assistance to our 
party in pulling our boat across a narrow watershed into the Thi 
Sureting, His comrades told me the man was latah but I could 
see nothing in his conduct or conversation which was not perfectly 
rational. Some twenty-four hours after making his acquaintance, 
one night we let off a signalling rocket for the amusement of those 
who had given us assistance (none of those present had ever seen a 
rocket before). I was preparing to fire a second rocket myself, 
when the latah pushed me violently aside, snatched the torch from 
my hand, fired the rocket, and fell down on his face making an 
unintelligible noise, to all appearance the expression of fear. I 
was somewhat startled, such rudeness and violence being quite 
foreign to the Malay character. When I sought an explanation 
from the bystanders, I was informed laconically " latah, tuan" 

" Next morning, when I met this man, I found him perfectly 
rational and perfectly respectful. I saw him standing alone on 
the bank as we put off down stream, and I waved my hand to him. 
To my surprise he began waving his hand frantically in return, 
and continued to do so till I lost him at the first bend of the 
stream. I had began to whistle an air. He also began whistling. 
His imitative faculty did not quite lead him to a reproduction of 
the tune, but the fact of an up-country Malay whistling at all is 
sufficiently remarkable. As I rounded the bend, I saw him still 
waving and heard him still whistling. The steersman to whom 
I turned, came out with the stereotyped formula " alia oanijah 
latah, tuan. I hope my poor friend's exertions ceased when their 
exciting cause passed out of sight." 

The difference between the instances just described and those 
of Type I must be evident to all, those of Type II being due to 
hypnotism pure and simple. There is nothing in the case of the 
woman calling for comment, but a review of O'Brien's case is very 
instructive. We have the appearance of a white man, of remark- 
able personality, in a locality where such visits were rare. His 
every act would be watched by the lad with absorbing interest and 
thus a condition of expectation aroused. Then comes the loud 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



148 A CONTKIBTJTION TO THE PSYCHOLOGY OF "LATAH." 

report of the firing of the rocket (a loud noise or a bright beam of 
light being a usual way of inducing a hypnosis) and the hypnosis 
was complete. If any doubt were possible, the whistling episode 
dispels it, the history of hypnotism being full of such examples 
(echolalia). There is one omission in O'Brien's narrative, he did 
not ascertain if the lad remembered anything of what had passed. 
I imagine he did not remember an}<thing. 

The intense nervousness which preceded the experiment in 
the case of the woman is present in all and has a threefold causa- 
tion. First, dread of the coming hypnosis, especially if, in previous 
hypnoses, suggestions of an exciting nature have been made, 
secondly, from the hypnosis being made against their will, and 
thirdl} r , from the suggestion never having been done away with or 
determined before waking the patient. Thus the liability to sug- 
gestion gains force and eventually this class of " latah " becomes 
" as clay in the hands of the potter." 

I pass now to the third type of " latah " to which I have given 
the name of the "obsession of f ear." In describing Type I, I men- 
tioned the case of a big game tracker and I used him then to illus- 
trate the marked inhibitory influence which a mental attitude of 
preparedness had on " latah " impulsion. But he was also the 
subject of the obsession now being described and, if the word for 
tiger was mentioned, would quietly slip away and lock himself in 
his room. While out in the jungle, at work, he would spend days 
and nights in close proximity to the wild beasts mentioned and 
know no fear. 

Again let me quote O'Brien's description (op. cit. p. 147) — 

" I have more than once met with river boatmen who, when 
the word ouaya (alligator) was mentioned, even in the course of 
casual conversation after camping for the night, would drop what- 
ever they might have in their hands and retire cowering to the 
cover of the nearest kajang. I have enquired into every case of 
this description which came under my notice, and in no case could 
I learn that the man had any special reason for his terror in the 
way of a personal experience. His friends explained that he was 
latah and that to them explained everything. On one occasion, 
after a curious exhibition of this description, I shot an alligator 
on the bank next morning. The latah was, to my surprise, the 
first to approach the saurian. Against my earnest entreaties he 
proceeded to pull the creature about, and finally forced its mouth 
open with a piece of firewood. His persecutors, his fellow-boatmen, 
stood at a respectful distance. An hour afterwards, as he was 
poling up the river, one of the crew called out to this man ouaya I 
He at once dropped his pole, gave vent to a most disgusting ex- 
clamation, and jumped into the river — an act which shewed that 
his morbid terror was quite unconnected with what might be sup- 
posed to be its exciting cause." 

Jour. Straits Branch 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE PSYCHOLOGY OF "LATAH." 149 

This type is peculiar in that it is found in early youth and is 
almost exclusively confined to males. It can, in fact, be traced 
back to school days. It is a curious fact that the names given by 
boys to boys hit off with absolute accuracy and brutal frankness 
some physical quality or mental trait which departs, it may be 
ever so little, from the norm. The point which I wish to em- 
phasise is that there seems to be almost uncanny intuition in boys 
which enables them to put their finger on the " weak spot." They 
are thus not long in finding some one of their number who labours 
under a neuropathic defect, some particularly ticklish or sensi- 
tive boy, and on him is expended their experimentation. As I 
have repeatedly seen, a favourite method is for the experimenter 
to begin fondling some object, usually a school bag or piece of 
rattan or indeed anything, while pointedly bringing it to the notice 
of his victim, calling it by the name of some loathsome or dreaded 
animal, gradually working up to a climax, and inducing a condi- 
tion of extreme terror. 

In two cf the instances which came under my notice I was- 
able to ascertain that the boys had an actual percept of the animal 
named. But this is unusual, and when this illusion does occur, it 
is only temporary, as, following the rule that repeated stimulation 
of a particular nervous tract enhances its permeability, causing it 
to react to weakened stimuli, eventually the mere mention of the 
name is sufficient to call up this condition of terror. There is no- 
concept of the animal formed but merely the image in the memory 
of a previous condition of intense fear. As on each occasion of 
the calling up of this mental state a strenuous effort was made to 
escape from the imaginary danger, the tendency in this type of 
" latah " is to pass at once into action. 

I do not think there can be much doubt that " latah " is dying 
out and in contributing to this, education plays an altogether sub- 
ordinate part. There is the obvious fact that little or nothing is be- 
ing done in the way of educating Malay girls, who would form the- 
mass of the sufferers in later life. Kot much can be expected from 
that side of education which provides for the acquisition of know- 
ledge, much more might be got from the disciplinary side of edu- 
cation in that it develops the powers of restraint, teaches the 
control of reflex or automatic acts, in short, develops the power 
of inhibition and creates a constant condition of preparedness. 

The chief influence in the extinction of " latah" is the gradual 
hardening of the conditions of life, the increasing struggle for 
existence from steadily advancing social states, which leaves no 
leisure for abstraction or introspection and which affects male and 
female alike. " Latah " in town dwellers is unknown and a com- 
parison of the country-bred Malay women and her self-possessed 
sister of the town shews the extent of the change which may be- 
wrought by a change of environment in an individual or a genera- 
tion. * 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



150 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE PSYCHOLOGY OF "LATAH." 

Medical Note. 

The examination of a number of persons, the subjects of 
■" latah," did not bring to light any single condition, pathological 
or otherwise which, by its frequency of occurrence, would entitle 
it to be ranked as an etiological factor. The cases examined 
ranged from those who were merely abnormally ticklish to those 
who responded to every suggestion however conveyed. 

In all there was a great acceleration of the pulse rate at the 
beginning of the examination. This was undoubtedly due to the 
condition of " expectation " and, after they were satisfied that no 
experiments were in eontempiatiom, rapidly subsided. There were 
two exceptions both middle-aged women who were goitrous and 
shewed the muscular tremors of that disease. 

The reflexes, superficial and deep were in excess and Babinski 
was normal. A confusing intrusion was the finding the results of 
a. peripheral neuritis shewn by a paraesthesia or anaesthesia of the 
hands and feet and a corresponding loss of the reflex. This con- 
dition was present in three of the women examined. Although 
the causes of a peripheral neuritis in this part of the world are 
many it was possible, from the fact that all three women were 
multiparae and from a careful analysis of their histories, to arrive 
at the conclusion that the neuritis was probably of puerperal 
origin, known to* natives as " taipo." 

There was a perceptible difference in the rapidity of the res- 
ponses according to the route chosen to convey the suggestion, the 
tactile being easily first, the visual next and the auditory last. 

Stigmata of Syphilis were surprisingly rare. 



New or Noteworthy Bornean Plants* 

(PAET I.) 



By Elmer D. Merrill 
Director, Bureau of Science, Manila. 



In January, 1918, I finished the manuscript of my "Biblio- 
graphic Enumeration of Bornean Plants" in wnich nearly 5000 
species of flowering plants are recorded from Borneo, and which 
was recently published by this Society. In the interim compara- 
tively little attention was given to the Bornean flora, merely such 
material being w r orked up as was submitted to me for identification 
by the Conservator of Forests at Sandakan. 

Previous to my departure for the United States in 1920. 
co-operative arrangements w r ere perfected between the Bureau of 
Science and the Forestry Sendee of British Xorth Borneo, whereby 
it became possible to send Mr. Maximo Ramos, botanical collector 
of the Bureau of Science, to Sandakan for the purpose of prose- 
cuting field work in botany in British Xorth Borneo. Mr. Eamos 
devoted approximately three and one-half months to field work in 
the immediate vicinity of Sandakan, from September to December 
1920. In this time he collected 827 numbers of flowering plants 
and ferns, for the most part with ample duplicate material. On my 
return to Manila in the early part of 1921, I commenced a study of 
this material, finding approximately 700 species 1 represented in the 
collection, of which nearly 100 have been found to represent previous- 
ly undescribed forms, including three new generic types. In ad- 
dition to these new species, numerous previously described ones not 
hitherto known from Borneo are also represented in the collection. 
Considering the fact that the entire collection was made at low 
altitudes and in the imtmediate vicinity of Sandakan, the percent- 
age of novelties is unusually high. It is merely an excellent illus- 
tration of how little we know regarding the Bornean flora. 

The present paper is largely based on the material secured by 
Mr. Eamos in 1920 in British Xorth Borneo, but various species are 
also described from material secured by other collectors both in 
British Xorth Borneo and in Sandakan. Small collections made by 
Major J.C.Moulton in Upper Baram in 1911: and 1920 have yielded 
interesting novelties. In the present paper 104 species are described 

* Joum. Straits Branch Roy. As. Soc. Special Number, pp. 1-637. 
September. 1921. 

Jour. Straits Branch R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922.. 



152 NEW OE NOTEWORTHY BORNE AN PLANTS. 

as new, while 58 previously described forms are recorded for the 
first time from Borneo. Three new genera are described, Fissipeta- 
lum of the Olaeaeeae, Juppiaoi the Menispermaceae, and ]Yoodiella 
•of the Anonaceae. The list of species common and confined to the 
Philippines and Borneo has been increased by Dinochloa pubira- 
mea Gamble, Mapania affinis Merr., Dioscorea flabelh 'folia Praiin & 
Burkilh Pliacelophrynium bracteosum K. Schum., Polyalthia cloli- 
choplujUa Merr., Dehaasia triandra Merr., Evodia uintoco Blanco, 
Santiria samarensis Merr., Dichapetalum liolo petal um Merr., Acte- 
pliila dispersa Merr., Cleistanthus megacarpus 0. B. Bob., Ompha- 
lea bracteata Merr., lodes philippinensis Merr., Eugenia palawan- 
ensis C. B. Eob., Strychnos ignatii Berg., and Solatium epipliyticwm 
Merr. In addition to the three genera described as new, mentioned 
above, the following genera are hitherto unrecorded from Borneo: 
'Pliacelophrynium, Illigera, Cnestis, Actepuila, lodes, Actinidia, 
Taraktogenos, and Clidemia. Including the species described as 
new and those previously described forms now credited to Borneo 
for the first time", the present contribution (published in two parts) 
adds a total of 162 species to the list of those known from Borneo. 

Bureau of Science Manila, P. I. 
Xovember 15, 1921. 

PANDANACEAE. 

Pandanus Linnaeus f. 
Pandanus sandakanensis sp. nov. § Rykia. 

Frutex circiter 3 m. altus; foliis coriaceis, circiter 1.75 m. 
longis, 3 cm. latis, tenuiter acuminatis, nitidis, margine acute ser- 
ratis, costa subtus in partibus superioribus serratis; syncarpiis 3 
ad 5, ovoideis vel ellipsoideis, confertis, in spica dispositis, 6 ad 8 
cm. longis; drupis numerosis, 1-locellatis, induratis, 2 cm. longis, 
circiter 1 cm. latis, angulatis, deorsum angustatis, alte connatis, 
.apice convexis, stylo abrupte terminatis; sty lis induratis, obiiquis, 
1 mm. longis et latis, nitidis, plerumque 2-dentatis. 

A shrub about 3 m. high. Leaves coriaceous, shining, smooth, 
about 1.75 m. long, 3 cm. wide, the midrib somewhat impressed on 
the upper surface, prominent on the lower surface, smooth except 
in the upper 2>art and beneath where it is finely toothed ; the lateral 
nerves slender, obscure, about 30 on each side of the midrib, the 
margins rather coarsely and sharply toothed in the lower part and 
with much more numerous, smaller, rather densely arranged teetii 
in the upper part, the apex very slenderly caudate-acuminate. Syn- 
carps crowded in erect, peduneled racemes from 3 to 5 in a head, 
ovoid to ellipsoid, 6 to 8 cm. long, 5 to 6 cm. in diameter, dark- 
brown when dry, the peduncles up to 20 cm. long, thickened up- 
ward, about 1 cm. in diameter, marked with conspicuous, indurated 
crests, the remnants of fallen sheaths. Drupes numerous, oblong- 
obovoid, 1-celled, about 2 cm. long, 1 cm. wide, angular, narrowed 
below, united for ^ of their length; the pericarp indurated, the 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 155 

hollow portion above the seed 4 to 5 mm. in diameter, the apical 
free portions convex, abruptly terminated by the somewhat oblique,, 
indurated, shining style which is about 4 mm. long and wide and 
usually with 2 conspicuous teeth. 

British Xorth Borneo, Sandakan, Bamos 1790, December, 
1920. In rather dry forests at low altitudes. A species belong- 
ing in the group with Pandanus labyrinthicus Kurz, but with fewer, 
much smaller syncarps and somewhat smaller drupes. 

Pandanus matthewsii sp. nov. § Astrostigma. 

Frutex, ramis ultimas 1.5 cm. diannetro; foliis numerosis, 
coriaceis, in siocitate paillidis, usque ad 1 m. longis, 1.5 cm. latis, 
tenuiter acuminatds, margine distanter serratis ; syncarpiis soli- 
tariis, ereetis, ellipsoideis, circiter 8 cm. longis, pedunculatis, drupis- 
numerosissimis, 1-loeellatis, confertis, lineari-oblanceolatis, 1.5 ad 
1.8 cm. longis; stigma in syncarpio imbricata, plana, 2.5 ad 
3 mm. diametro, margine perspieue dentata vel crenato-dentata. 

A shrub, the ultimate branches about 1.5 cm. in diameter. 
Leaves numerous, coriaceous, pale when dry, up to 1 m. long, about 

1.5 cm. wide, gradually narrowed upward to the slenderly acumin- 
ate apex, the margins rather distantly and sharply toothed, the 
midrib on the lower surface in the upper part with similar teeth,, 
the teeth slender, ascending, 1 to 1.5 mm. long, the midrib pro- 
minent on the lower surface, impressed on the upper surface, the 
lateral nerves slender, 25 to 30 on each side of the midrib, densely 
arranged. Staminate inflorescences club-shaped, about 7 cm. long, 

1.6 cm. in diameter, the peduncles about 6 cm. long, subtended by 
several, oblanceolate, sharply acuminate, chartaceous bracts about 

9 cm. in length. Syncarps terminal, solitary, erect, ellipsoid, 
about 8 cm. long, 4.5' to 5 cm. in diameter, their peduncles up to 

10 cm. long, about 6 mm. in diameter, brown, shining and long- 
itudinally sulcate when dry, the leaf-like bracts subtending the 
syncarps, up to 25 cm. in length. Drupes very numerous, crowded, 
linear-oblanceolate, 1.5 to 1.8 cm. long, about 2 mm. in diameter, 
1-celled, attenuate at the base, united throughout except for the 
2 mm. long stylar portion; the stigmas plane, subreniform, imbri- 
cate, 2.5 to 3 mm. in diameter, their margins distinctly and radi- 
ately dentate or crenate-dentate. 

British Xorth Borneo, Batu Lima, near Sandakan, Ramos 
1321, October, 1920. In flat forests along streams at low altitudes. 
A very characteristic species belonging in the group with Pandanus 
stelliger Eidl. and P. discostigma Martelli, for which Martelli has 
proposed the sectional name Astrostigma. It is most closely allied 
to the latter species, but differs radically in its longer leaves, larger 
ellipsoid syncarps, and distinctly toothed stigmas. The species is 
dedicated to Mr. D. M. Matthews, formerly Conservator of Forests 
in British Xorth Borneo. 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



154 NEW OE NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 

Pandanus obovoideus sp. now § Acrostigma. 

Frutex erectus, circiter 2 m. altus; foliis 2 ad 2.5 m. longis, 
•3.5 ad 4 cm. latis, coriaceis, abrupte acuminatis, margine denti- 
>culatis ; syncarpiis 4 vel 5, confertis, obovoideis, 8 ad TO cm. longis, 
T ad 9 cm. latis; drupis numerosissimis, confertis, 1-locellatis, 
circiter 3 cm. longis, usque ad 5 mm. diametro, apiee pyramidatis, 
scaberulis, brunneis, attenuatis; stylis rectis vel curvatis, rigidis, 
spiniformis', circiter 1 cm. longis. 

An erect shrub about 2 m. higlt. Leaves 2 to 2.5 m. long, 3.5 
to 4 em. wide, coriaceous, rather pale when dry and somewhat 
glaucous beneath, margins distantly and minutely toothed, the 
midrib beneath in the upper half sparingly denticulate, the two 
lateral nerves on the upper surface sparingly denticulate for the 
upper 20 to 30 cm., apex slightly acuminate, the acumen rigid, 
•slender, 2 to 3 cm. long. Syncarps usually 5, obovoid, crowded at 
the apex of the peduncle, 8 to 10 cm. long, 7 to 9 cm. in diameter. 
Drupes very numerous, crowded, about 3 cm. long, up to 5 mm. in 
diameter, base attenuate, narrowed into the rigid, very sharp, 
straight or curved style, the apical part 10 to 12 cm. long, brown 
when dry, minutely scabrid. Endocarp in the lower one-half, about 
1 cm. long, base acute, apex rounded. The hollow space in the 
mesocarp about 8 mm. long, less than 5 mm. wide. 

British North Borneo, Kudat, Castro 976, November 20, 1920. 
In the hills on the Pitas Estate, altitude about. 25 m. This species 
must be closely allied to Pandanus gibbsianus Martelli, which, how- 
ever, according to Miss Gibbs, quoted by Mairtellii, has leaves 10 to 
12 cm. Avide, while in the present species they do not exceed 4 cm. 
in width. The obovoid, rather than oblong or globose syncarps, 
-are rather smaller than in Martellr's species, but there are apparent- 
ly but slight differences in the drupes. 

Pandanus pachyphyllus sp. now § Acrostigma. 

Caulis 3 cm. diametro. 10 ad 15 cm. alta, simplex; foliis 
numerosis, confertis, crasse coriaceis, circiter 3.2 m. longis, 5 ad 6 
cm. latis, tenuiter acuminatis, margine acute dentatis, dentibus 
superioribus parvis confertis, inferioribus majoribus distantibus 
patulis; syncarpiis erectis. solitariis, globosis, 10 cm. diametro, 
drupis numerosissimis, confertis, 1-locellatis, circiter 4 cm. longis, 
5 mm. diametro, in dimidio inferiore connatis, in dimidio libero 
lane-eolatis perspicue 5-carinatis acuminatis brunneis 4 ad 5 mm. 
diametro, rectis vel leviter curvatis, stigmate spiniforme. 

Stemless or nearly stemless, the leaf -bearing portions of the 
stems above the surface of the ground 10 to 15 m. high, about 3 
cm. in diameter, unbranehed. Leaves numerous, crowded, thickly 
coriaceous, about 3.2 m. long, 5 to 6 cm. wide, narrowed upward to 
the sleiidieriy acuminate apex, pale when dry, somewhat shining, 
the midrib impressed on the upper surface, prominent on the lower 
surface, the lower part furnished with widely scattered, rather stout 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORXEAX PLANTS. 155 

teeth, the upper part finely and rather closely toothed on the lower 
surface, the 2 lateral nerves finely toothed on the upper surface near 
the apex, the margins with distant, stont. spreading teeth in the 
lower part, rather finely and closely toothed in the upper part. 
Synearps erect, terminal, globose, about 10 cm. in diameter, their 
peduncles about 8 mm. in diameter, obscurely angled, brown, 10 to 
15 cm. long. Drupes very numerous, crowded, 1-celled, including 
the stylar and stigmatic portions 4 cm. long, the lower 2 cm. 
entirely united, the individual drupes about 5 cm. in diameter, 
narrowed below, the pericarp rather thin, the seeds about 1 cm. 
long, the empty portion above the seeds about 4 mm. in length; free 
portions lanceolate, often somewhat curved, brown, prominently 
5-keeled, acuminate, 4 to 5 mm. in diameter, narrowed upward to 
the spiniform, somewhat curved stigma, the free portions equalling 
the drapes proper in length. 

British Xorth Borneo, Batu Lima., near Sandakan, Bamos 
lolfl. In forests along small streams at low altitudes. A species 
strongly characterized by being practically aeaulescent and un- 
brrancbed, as well as by its greatly elongated, thickly coriaceous 
leaves and its solitary, erect, globose synearps. The free, lanceolate, 
acuminate, somewhat curved, prominently 5-carinate portions equal 
the drupe proper in length, the drupes being wholly united. It 
apparently belongs in the group with Pandanus danchelmannianus 
K. Senium, of Xew Guinea. 



GRAMINEAE. 
Themeda Forskal. 

Themeda frondosa (E. Br.) Mierr. Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 

89. 

Anthistiria frondosa E. Br. Prodr. (1810) 200. 

Themeda arguens Hack. in. DC. Monong. Phan. 6 (1889) Qo^. 
non Stipa arguens Limn. 

British North Borneo, Sandakan, Bamos 1S6S. In open places 
at low altitudes. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago to tropical 
Australia. Themeda arguens Hack, is properly the name for the 
species currently known as T. ciliata Hack, of India. 

Panicum Linnaeus. 

Panicum carinatum Presl, Eel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 309. 

British North Borneo, Sandakan, Yates 8, Bamos 1305. In 
thickets at low altitudes. Throughout the Philippines, perhaps 
occuring in some other parts of Malaya; not always clearly dis- 
tinguishable from Panicum patens Linn. 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



156 NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 

Panicum distachyum Linn. Marut. 1 (1867) 138. 

British North Borneo, Sandakan, Ramos 1765. Along roads 
and in open places. Not previously recorded from Borneo. India 
"to China, through Malaya to tropical Australia. 

Dinochloa Buse. 

Dinochloa pubiramea Gamble in Phillip. Jonrn. Sci. 5 (1910) 

Bot. 279; Gaums Bamb. (1913) 171. 

British Ntarth Borneo, near Sandakan, Agama 1019, November, 
1920. Philippines (Basilan, Mindanao, Xegros, Samar, Leyte). 
This adds another species to the comparatively sanall list of those 
known only from Borneo and the Philippines. 



CYPERACEAE. 

Mapania Aublet. 

Mapania sessilis sp. nov. § Pandanopliyllum. 

Inflorescentiis * spiculiformibus, sessilibns, plerisque infra 
foliis. castaneis, compressis vel pins minnsve triquetris, numerosis, 
oblougis, 3 — 3.5 cm. longis; bracteis inferioribus 3 — 5 mm. 
longis. 6 vel 8 snprioribns imbrieatis, oblongo-ovatis, aeutis, leviter 
carinatis, 2.5 cm. longis, 1 cm. latis; acheniis eircrter 6, osseis, 
oblongo-ellipsoideis, 7 ad 8 mm. longis, 3.5 mm. diametro, tenuiter 
longissime rostrato-acnminatis; foliis numerosis, nsqne ad 1.3 m. 
longis, 1.5 cm. latis, deorsum leviter angustatis, basi 1 cm. latis, 
supra gradatim angustatis, tenuiter longissime caudato-acuminatis, 
margine serrulatis. 

Oaudex rather stout, castaneous, somewhat triquetrous, 1.5 
cm. in diameter, about 10 cm. high. Leaves numerous, up to 1.3 
m. long, about 1.5 cm. wide, gradually narrowed upward to the 
very slenderly long-acuminate apex, only slightly narrowed below, 
the basal portions about 1 cm. in width, margins serrulate through- 
out except near the base, the basal sheathimg portions of the leaves 
castaneons. Inflorescences numerous, sessile or subsessile, of single 
spikelet-like heads, axillary and along the caudex below the leaves, 
oblong, castaneons when dry, 3 to 3.5 cm. long. 8 to 10- mm.. wide, 
more or less compressed or somewhat triquetrous, the lower few 
bracts ovate-oblong to ovate, 3 to 5 mm. long, the succeeding six 
or eight bracts castaneons, imbricate, shdlning, somewhat keeled, 
acute, abont 2.5 cm. long, 1 cm. wide, generally oblong-ovate. 
Glumes white, membranaceous, crowded, scarcely extending beyond 
the upper bracts. Achenes about 6 in each head, hard, dry, terete 
or slightly compressed, dark-colored, oblong-ellipsoid, 7 to 8 mm. 
long, about 3.5 mm. in diameter, long-beaked, the beak and persis- 
tent portions of the style abont as long as the achenes. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNE AX PLANTS. 157 

British Xorth Borneo, near Saaadakaaa, Ramos 1856, December, 
1920. In damp forests along small streams at low altitudes. A 
remarkably distinct species well characterized by its sessile or sub- 
sessile, numerous, oblong, sample, spikelet-like heads and its un- 
usually large, imbricate bracts, the glumes membranaceous and 
scarcely extending beyond the uppermost bracts. It is the only 
species of the genus with which I am acquainted, in which the 
inflorescences are sessile or nearly so, while in this form they are, 
for the most part, confined to the caudex below the leaves, occurring 
singly am the axils of decayed leaves from the very base of the 
caudex. 

Mapania af finis sp. nov. § Halostemma. 

Caudex brevis, crassous, circiter 1.5 cm. diaoiaetro; foliis 
numerosis, perspicue 3-nerviis, usque ad 1.7 m. longis 3 vel 3.5 
cm. latiis, deorsum vix angustatis, apace subabrupte caudato-acumin- 
atis, acuaninis serrulatis teaaaiibns 3 ad 5 can. longis, margine et 
costa subtus in partibus superioribus noiaaute serrulatis; scapis 
paucis, glabris, sub aaathesiai circiter 5 can. longis, sub fnictu usque 
ad 11 cm. longis, partiibaas inferioribus (ca. 5 cm.) bracteis numerosis 
imbricatis instructis; capitulis sub anthesiaa circiter 2 cm. longis, 
bracteis capitnhuu aequaaatibias, sub fraactu 5 vel 6 cm. diametro; 
spicules circiter 18. ovoideis, 2.5 caaa. longis, liberis; acheaaiis aaigris, 
osseis, oblongo-ovoideis, 1 aaatna. loiagis, breviter aeuaaainatis. 

Ciaudex short, stout, about 1.5 caaa. 'in diaaaaeter. Leaves 
aauoaaerous, proaaaineaatly 3-nerved, up to 1.7 aaa. loaag, 3 to 3.5 ciaa. 
wide, scarcely aaiarrowed below, the basal portioaas folded and usually 
straw-colored, the apex subabruptly caudate-acuanrinare, the acuanen 
slender, serrulate, 3 to 5 cm. loaag, the margins and aaaidrib on the 
lower saarface iaa the upper part of the leaf aoaimitely seaTialate. 
Scapes few, glabrous, terete, in anthesis aboaat 5 caaa. long, in fruit aap 
to 11 cm. long, soaaaewhat thickened upward aaad 3 to 4 maaa. in dia- 
aaaeter, the basal 5 cm. supplied with numerous imbricate bracts, 
the lower oaaes close. broadly ovate, aboiat 1 caaa. loaag, the aapper ones 
gradually loaager, the aapperaaaost oblong-ovate, acute up to 3.5 caaa. 
long. Heads in aaathesis about 2 caaa. loaag, oblong-ovoid, the outer 
bracts as long as the head, about 12 aaaaaa. wide, elliptic-ovate, acute, 
soaaaewhat keeled, the apical portions sparingly appressed-p'ubesceaat ; 
liea ds iaa fruit 5 to 6 cm. in diaaaaeter,, coaaaposed of naaaaaerous (15 
to 18) ovoid, large, free spikes aip to 2.5 cm. long. Achenes 
aauaaaerous, black, bony, oblong-ovoid, terete or irregularly com- 
pressed, about 1 aama. long, shortly acuaaainate. 

British North Borneo, near Sanclakaaa, Ramos 1-596, Noveaaaber, 
In damp forests at low altitudes. The saaaae species is represeaated 
by Clemens 9 330, collected at Jolo, Sulu Archipelago, October 15, 
o-rowimg on forested slopes at an altitude of about 800 m. A species 
belonging iaa the geaaeral alliaaace with Mapania palustris ¥.- Vill., 
but dilferiaag radically in its aaaature fruiting heads which are aaanch 
larger thaaa in the latter species, the individual spikes or partial 

jR. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



158 NEW OK NOTEWOBTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 

inflorescences being also much longer, up to 2.5 em. in length. The 
peduncles are also shorter in the present species and are entirely 
glabrous. In all the Mialayan material representing M. palustris- 
that 1 have seen the peduncles are furfuraceous. 

Mapania gracilipes sp. nov. § Pandanophyllum. 

Caudex brevis, circiter 1 cm. crassus; foliis numerosis, circiter 
GO cm. longis, 1 cm. latis, deorsnm vix angustatis, partibus infer- 
ioribus plica tis, apice longe tenuiterque caudato-aeuminatis, miargine 
obscure serrulatis ; scap'is tenuibus,, 12 ad 20 cm. longis, vix 1 
mm. diametro, basi squamis paucis oblongis 5 ad 13 mm. longis 
instructis; capitulis solitariis, circiter 1 cm. longis, spicis propriis 
inter se vix distinctis, squamis exterioribus oblongo-ovatis, capitula 
aequantibus; capitulis fructiferis ovoideis, circiter 1.5 cm. diametro;. 
acheniis ovoideis, nigriis, osseis, 2.5 mlm. longis, breviter apdeulatis. 

Caudex short,, about 1 cm. in diameter. Leaves numerous,, 
about 60 cm. long, 1 cm. wide, 3-nerved, pale-grayish, when dry, the 
basal portions straw-colored, scarcely narrowed below, the apex 
gradually narrowed in a long, slender, caudate, denticulate acumen, 
the margins and the midrib beneath in the upper part obscurely 
serrulate. Scapes several, lateral, very slender, terete, 12 to 20 
cm. long, scarcely 1 mm. in diameter, subtended at the base by few,, 
oblong, 5 to 15 mm. long bracts, each scajpe bearing a solitary head 
about 1 cm. long, the head made up of several spikes which are 
scarcely distinct ; external scales oblong-ovate, about 1 cm. long, 
brownish, equalling the head in length ; fruiting heads ovoid, about 
1.5 cm. in diameter and 1 cm. in length. Achenes obovoid, lax, 
bony, 2.5 mm. long, shortly ap/iculate. 

British North Borneo, near Sandakan, Bamos 1855, December, 
1920. In damp forests at low altitudes. This species is well 
characterized by its narrow leaves ; its very slender elongated scapes ; 
and its small heads, the latter in anthesis about 1 cm. long, the 
outer bracts as long as the head. In fruit the heads appear as if 
they were made of three or more spikes, but these sipikes are scarcely 
distinct from each other. The bony achenes are but 2.5 mm. in 
length, and are very shortly apiculate. It is probably most closely 
allied to Mapania debilis C. B. Clarke. 

Mapania heterocephala sp. nov. § Pandanophyllum. 

Caudex brevis, circiter 1.5 cm. crassus; foliis numerosis,. 
pallidis, 1-nerviis, circiter 85 cm. longis, 2.5 ad 3 cm. latis, deorsum 
leviter angustatis, partibus inferioribus circiter 2 cm. latis, sursum 
gradatim angustatis, longe caudato-acuminatis, margine et costa 
subtus in partibus superioribus serru latis ; scapis paucis, usque ad 
9 cm. longis, 1.5 mm. diametro, partibus inferioribus (2 ad 3 cm.) 
bracteis numerosis imbricatis instructis; innorescentiis spiciformi- 
bus, solitariis vel trinis, cylindraceis, circiter 3 cm. longis, 8 mm. 
diametro; bracteis numerosis, imbricatis, circiter 13 mm. longis. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORXEAX PLANTS. 159 

6 mm latis, oblongo—ellipticis, obtusis et brevissime apiculatis, 
margine scariosis; acheniis anguste oblongo-obovoideis, teretibus, 
osseis, 5 mm. longis, a cutis vel brevissime apiculatis. 

Ca,udex short, stout, about 1.5 cm. in diameter. Leaves numer- 
ous, pale-grayish when dry, not very rigid, 1-nerved, about 85 cm. 
long, 2.5 to 3 caul wide, slightly narrowed below, the basal part 
about 2 cm. wide, gradually narrowed upward to the long and 
slenderly caudate-acuminate apex, the margins and the midrib on 
the lower surface in the upper part serrulate. Scapes few, lateral, 
from the eaudex below the leaves, up to 9 cm. long, 1.5 mm. in 
diameter, terete, the lower two to three cm. supplied with numerous 
imbricate bracts, the bracts ovate to oblong-ovate, 1 to 1.5 cm. long. 
Inflorescences consisting' of a single, solitary, spike-like head or 
sometimes of three separate, fascicled, similar heads, both types 
occuring on the same pliant, the individual heads terete, about 3 
cm. long, 8 mm. in diameter, composed of numerous imbricate 
bracts, the bracts oblong-elliptic about 13 mm. long, 6 mm. wide, 
obtuse and very shortly a.piculate, their margins scarious. Achenes 
bony, narrowly o-blong-ofoovoid, terete, grayish, about 5 mm. long, 
2 mm. in diameter, slightly narrowed below, the apex acute or very 
slightly apiculate. 

British North Borneo, Sandakan, Bamos 1S54. December, 1920. 
In damp forests along simail streams at low altitudes. This species 
is remarkable in the inflorescences. When the scape bears a single 
head, the head very strongly resembles that of Mapania humilis 
F.- Till., but the same plant other scapes occur which bear three 
fascienlately arranged spikes at their apices. In leaf characters, 
however, the species is remote from 37. humilis. It is probably 
most closely allied to Mapania Tonga C. B. Clarke, but has much 
shorter scapes and broader leaves. 

Cyperus Linnaeus. 

Cyperus procerus Eottb. Descr. Nov. PI. (1773) 29. 

British North. Borneo, Batu Lima, near Sandakan, Bamos 
1681. In open swampy places. India to southern China, Indo- 
China and Java. 



ARACEAE. 
Schismatoglottis Zollinger & Moritzi. 

Schismatoglottis ferruginea sp. nov. 

Caudiiculus abbreviatus vel paullo elongatus, usque ad 6 mm. 
'Crassus, hypogaeus ; petiolis et pedunculis et subtus f oliis ad costam 
nervosque perspicue f errugineo-ciliatis ; f oliis membranaceis, ellip- 
ticis vel obovato-ellipticis, 12 ad 22 cm. longis, breviter acuminatis, 
basi rotundatis et perspicue cordatis; nervis primariis utrinque 
circiter 20; petiolo 5 ad 17 cm. longo; inflorescentiis paucis, pedun- 

Jt. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



160 NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 

culatis (pedunculo 3 ad 4 cm. longo) ; spathis subcylindraceis, hand 
constrictis, 4 ad 7 cm. longis, 6 mm. diametro,deorsum plus miunsve 
ciiliatis, snrsum glabris. Species 8. barbatae Engl, afnnis. 

Petioles, exposed portions of the short oaudex, peduncles, and 
the lower surface of the leaves, especiallly along tfliie Unidriih, 
conspicuosly ferrugmeously ciliate with elongated spreading hairs. 
Leaves membranaceous when dry, elliptic to obovate-eHiptic, 12 
to 22 cm. long, 6 to 10 cm. wide, the apex shortly acuminate, the 
base rounded and distinctly cordate, the basal lobes more or less 
overlapping, the sinus 8 to 15 mm. deep, the margins slightly 
revolute, the upper surface olivaceous, glabrous, somewhat shining,, 
the lower surface paler than the upper; the indumentum largely 
confined to the midrib, primary and secondary nerves; primary 
nerves spreading, curved, ultimately ascending, about 20 on each 
side of the midrib, not very much more prominent than the second- 
ary ones; petioles 5 to 17 cm. long, up to 5 mm. in diameter, 
sheathing in the lower 3 to 4 cm. Inflorescences few, the peduncles- 
3 to 4 cm. long. Spath.es subcyllindric, 4 to 7 cm. long, about 6 
mm. in diameter, the basal portion more or less ciliate, the deciduous 
limb glabrous. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima near Sandakan, Ramos 1657 r 
(type), 11 '53, November, 1920. On boulders in forests at low 
altitudes. A species strongly characterized by its indumentum, 
in this character approaching Schismato glottis barb at a Engl., but 
differing radically in its much larger size and m its leaves being 
conspicuously cordate at the base. 



COMMELINACEAE. 
Forrestia Lesson. 

Forrestia glabrata Hassk. in Flora 47 (1864) 630: C. B. Clarke 
in DC. Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 238. 

British North Borneo, near Sandakan, Wood 932 ; Mount 
Kinabalu, Kian, Clemens 9950, 9997: Sarawak, Native collector 
Bur. Sci. Bengal, Sumatra, Java. 



LILIACEAE. 
Pleomele Salisbury. 

Pleomele borneensis sp. nov. 

Frutex vel arbor parva, ramosus, glaber, ramulis 1.2 ad 1.5 
cm. di a metro; foliis numerosis, confertis, lineari-laneeolatis, coria- 
ceis, 45 ad 5o cm. longis, 1.5 ad 2.5 cm. latis, acuminatis, deorsum 
hand angnstatis; paniculis terminalibus, erectis, multifloris, ramis 
usque ad 40 cm. longis; floribns fasciculatis, 2 cm. longis, tubo 
1 cm. longo, loblis linearis, 1 mm. latis, obtusis; fructibus subglo- 
ttis, brunneis, leviter inaequilateralibus, apiieulatis, 1-, rariter 
2- locellatis, 8 ad 10 mm. diametro. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW OE NOTEWORTHY BOENEAN PLANTS. 161 

A branched shrub or small tree entirely glabrous, the ultimate 
branches 12 to 15 mm. in dliiameter. Leaves nurnierous., crowded 
■at the tips of the bran chiefs, linear-lanceolate, coriaceous, 45 to 55 
•em., long, 1.5 to 2.5 cm. wide, rather slenderly acuminate, not or 
bait slightly narrowed below, the base sheathing. Panicles terminal, 
erect, 50 to 60 cm. long, the branches ascending, brownish or 
olivaceous when dry, up to 40 cm. long, the lower ones subtended 
by reduced leaves, the upper ones by oblong-lanceolate bracts 1.5 
to 2 cm. in length, or the uppermost bracts less than 1 cm. in 
length. Flowers 2 cm, long, in fascicles of 3 to 5 along the primary 
brandies, their pedicels up to 6 mm. long, the subtending bracts 
broadly ovate to oblong, obtuse, 2 to 4 mm. long, the bracteoles 
smaller. Perianth-tube 1 cm. long, the linear lobes 1 mm. wide, 
-obtuse. Anthers 2 mm. long. Ovary oblong, glabrous, 2 mm. 
long. Fruits dark-brown, fleshy, subglobose, somewhat inequila- 
teral, apdculate by the persistent styles, when dry 8 to 10 mm. in 
'diameter, 1-, rarely 2-celled. 

British North Borneo, near Sandakan, Ramos Uf-lJ/. (type), 
Wood 7^5, October and February, 1920, Castillo 60S, February, 
1918. In forests and along small streams at low altitudes. A 
species belonging in the group with PJeomele angustifolia 
X. E. Br., but with much larger' leaves than that species. 

S mi lax Tournefort. 

Smilax gigantea sp. nov. § Eusmilax. 

Frutex scandens. ramis teretibus, striatis, 8 ad 10 mm. 
•diametro, aculeatis; foliis late ovatis, chartaeeis, circiter 35 cm. 
longis latisque, breviter abrupteque acuminatis, basi latissime 
Totundatis, perspicue cordatis, 9-neryiis, supra glabris, subtus 
pubeseentibus ; infructescentiis circiter 30 cm. longis, umbellulis 
numerosis, 5 vel 6 cm. diametro, longe pedunculatis, fasciculatis, 
rhachibus compressis, circiter 20 cm. longis; fructibus globosis, 
tenuiter pedicel! atis, circiter 1 cm. diametro. 

A large, coarse, woody vine, the inflorescence-bearing branches 
terete, brown, striate, 8 to 10 mm. in diameter, armed with scattered, 
very stout, narrowly pyramidal spines about 2 mm. in length. 
Leaves broadly ovate, chartaceous to subcoriaceous, about 35 cm. 
long and wide, the apex very shortly and abruptly acuminate, the 
base broadly rounded and deeply cordate, the upper surface smooth, 
glabrous, shining, brownish-olivaceous, the lower surface brownish, 
rather softly and densely pubescent, the indumentum short, not 
at all stellate; petioles stout, about 7 cm. long, the sheathing basal 
portion about 3 cm. in length ; nerves about 9, all basal, prominent, 
the reticulations rather lax. Infrueteseences about 30 cm. long, 
the umbels racemosely disposed, from 3 to 6 in the axil of each bract, 
their peduncles 7 to 10 cm. long, the rachis usually about 20 cm. 
in length, 4 to 6 mm. wide, strongly flattened, the umbels up to 

K. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



162 NEW OB NOTEWORTHY BORNE AN PLANTS. 

25 in each infrnetescence. Fruits globose, shining when dry, about 
1 cm. in diameter,, 12 to 25 in each umbel, their pedicels slender,. 
1.5 to 1.8 cm. in length. 

British North Borneo, Sebuga near Sandakan, Ramos 1850 r 
November, 1920. On damp forested slopes at low altitudes; locally 
known to the Malays as Kababu. A remarkably distinct species- 
on account of its very large, broadly ovate, cordate leaves which are 
rather densely pubescent on the lower surface ; and its ample infruct- 
escences which arc nearly as long as the leaves. It is allied to 
Smilax borneensis C. DC, but differs radically in its vegetative 
characters and in the indumentum on the lower surface of the leaves 
bein£ of simple not stellate hairs. 



Smilax woodii sp. nov. § Coilanthus. 

Species S. In/poglaucae affinis ; ramis ramnlisque laevibus, in- 
ermibus, teretibu.-. tenuibus; fo'liis coriaceis vel subcoriaeeis, lanceo- 
latis vel elliptico-lanceolatis, 6 ad 9 cm. longis, acuminatis, basi 
a cutis vel subrotundatis, 3- vel 5-neryiis, subtus glaucis ; pedun- 
culis tenuibus, quam petiolo longioribus; floribus $ umbellatis : 
sepalis glauceseentibus, 2 mm. longis ; pedicellis 3 vel 5 mm. longis. 

A scandent, glabrous, unarmed, somewhat woody vine, the 
branches and branchlets slender, brown, terete. Leaves coriaceous 
to subcoriaceous, lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate, 6 to 9 cm. long, 
2 to 3.5 cm. wide, acuminate, base acute to subrounded, 3- or 5- 
nerved, nerves slender, reticulations very obscure, the upper surface 
brownish, shining, the lower very glaucous; petioles 5 to 10 mm. 
long, those of the older leaves sometimes tendriliferous. Umbels 
axillary, solitary, each about 15-flowered, the peduncles up to 10 
mm. long, the pedicels 3 to 5 mm. long. Male flowers somewhat 
glaucous, the sepals ovate, 2 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide; petals oblong, 
obtuse, 1.5 mm. long, 0.6 mm. wide; stamens 6. 

British North Borneo, Sandakan, ]Yood 1097 (type), October 
2s, 1920, on slopes, altitude about 18 m. Sarawak, Native Collector 
SSo Bur. Sci. August, 1912. A species manifestly closely allied 
to Smilax hypoglauca Benth., and 8. peguana A. DC, but distinct 
from both. 

AMARYLLIDACEAE. 

Curculigo G a ertn er . 

Curculigo borneensis sp. nov. 

Foliis chartaceis. anguste lanceolatis, 35 ad 50 cm. longis, 5 ad 
6 cm. latis, utrinqne snbaequaliter angustatis, basi cuneatis, apice 
temiiter filiformibus, acuminatis, supra glabris, subtus parcissime 
pubeseentibus, nervis utrinqne 5 vel 8; petiolo 20 ad 27> cm. longo ; 
inrlorescentiis erectis. brevissime peduheulatis, densis, subglobosis 
vel ovoideis, circiter 4 cm. diametro, bracteis exterioribus ovatis 
oblongo-ovatis ; 2 ve] 3 cm. longis, tenuiter acuminatis, junioribus 
plus minusve ciliatis; petalis anguste oblongis, 10 mm. longis, tuba 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNE AN PLANTS. 163 

'dense villoso; fructibus ovoideis, hirsutis, 8 mm. longis, rostratis, 
rostro 8 ad 10 mm. longo, hirsute. 

A tufted, plant from a rather stout, short rootstock. Leaves 
chartaceous, narrowly 'lanceolate, 35 to 5'0 em. long, 5 to 6 cm. wide, 
subequally narrowed at both ends, the base cuneate, the apex very 
slenderly acuminate, the tip filiform, the upper surface glabrous, 
the lower surface with very few scattered hairs ; lateral nerves 
distinct, 5 to 6 on each side of the midrib; petioles 20 to 25 cm. 
long, rather slender, glabrous or with few scattered hairs, their 
bases inflated, sheathing. Inflorescences erect or subereet, dense, 
short-peduncled, subglobose or ovoid, about 1 cm. in diameter, the 
bracts chartaceous, ovate to oblong-ovate, 2 to 3 cm. long, the outer 
ones about 1 cm. wide, slenderly long-acuminate', when young more 
or less ciliate, in age glabrous or nearly so; peduncles more or less 
hirsute, about 2 cm. long. Flowers numerous, crowded, but few 
developing at one time, yellow, the perianth-tube extended at least 
6 mm. above the ovary, villous, the segments narrowly oblong, 
.about 10 mm. long, 2.5 mm. wide, slightly pubescent, ultimately 
nearly glabrous. Stamens as long as the perianth-segments, the 
anthers 3.5 to 1 mm. long, linear. Fruits ovoid, somewhat hirsute, 
about 8 mm. long, black when dry, tipped with a s.uout, 8 to 10 
num. long, hirsute beak. 

British Xorth Borneo, at Batu Lima and Sebuga near Sandak- 
-an, Ramos 1SS7 (type), 1112, November and December, 1920. 
In damp forests at low altitudes. A species belonging in the group 
with Cucurligo lalifolia Dry. and most closely allied to C. brevi- 
pedunculata Elm. of Palawan and Balabac, differing from the latter 
especially in its longer perianth-segments and in its smaller fruits 
which have shorter beaks than in the Philippine species. 

Curculigo glabrescens (liidl.) comb. nov. 

Curculigo lalifolia Drv. var. glabrescens Eidl. Mat. Fl. Malay 
Peuin. (Monocot.) 2 (1907) 67. 

British Xorth Borneo, Kudat, Castro 9S2 : Sarawak, Native 
Collector 435, 637, 1497, 21+32, 2701 Bar. Sci. Malay Peninsula, 
Sumatra. 



DIOSCOREACEAE. . 

Dioscorea Linnaeus. 
Dioscorea flabeliifolia Prain & Burkill in Elmer, Leafl. Philip. 
Bot. 5 (1913) 1593, and in Journ. As. Soc. Bengal II 10 
(1914) 12. 

British Xorth Borneo, Sibyguey, near Sandakan, Ramos 1625. 
In thickets and forests along streams at low altitudes. Previously 
known only from the Philippines, Laguna and Sorsogon Provinces, 
Luzon, Mindoro, and- Catanduanes Island. 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



164 NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 

MARANTACEAE. 

Phrynlutn Willdenow. 
Phrynium inflatum sp. nov. 

Species P. capital o similis, differt bracteis exterioribus multo- 
majoribus, oblongo-ovatis, acuminatis, T vel 8 cm. longis, extus 
fulvo-villosis, vaginis supra capitulis vallde inflatis, villosis: flori- 
bus lonigoiribus 'usque ad 2.5 cm. longis, sepalis 1.5 cm. longis, 
tenuiter acuminatis, fructibus ovoideis-trigonis, leviter villosis, in 
valvis tribus fissis, baud castaneis. 

A species with the habit of Phrynium capitatum, exceeding 1 m; 
in height. Petioles glabrous except above the inflorescences. Leaves 
oblong, up to 50 cm. long and 10 cm. wide, firmly chartaceous, 
glabrous on both 'Surfaces, the petioles produced about 14 cm. above 
the inflorescences, the lower half conspicuously inflated and fulvous- 
villous, about 3 cm. wide (spread) below. Heads in fruit about 
5 cm. in diameter. Lower bract subtending the head], oblong-ovate^ 
acuminate, coriaceous, long fulvous-villous outside, the others' ovate 
acuminate, 3 to 3.5 em. long, ultimately fibrillose. Pairs of flowers 
2, the pedicels stout, about 1 mm. long, the bracteoles narrowly 
lanceolate, caudate-acuminate, 2.5 cm. long, 3 mm. wide. Ovaries 
3-eelled, densely fulvous-ciliate, the hairs 2 to 3 mm. long. Calyx 
lobes narrowly lanceolate, caudate-acuminate. 15 mm. long, 2 to- 
2.5 mm. wide. Corolla-tube slender, glabrous, 12 to 15 mm. long, 
the segments up to 9 mm. long. Fruit ovoid-trigonous, about 12 
mm. long and wide, more or less fulvous-villous. 3-celled, 3-seeded, 
opening by 3 longitudinal valves, the pericarp indurated. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima near Sandakan, Bamos 11+88.. 
On forested slopes at low altitudes. A species strongly characterized' 
by its unusually large first bract, its petioles being inflated above 
the insertion of the inflorescence, and its strongly trigonous, 3-celled, 
3-valved, dehiscent, somewhat villous fruits. The flowers are much 
longer than in Plirijnium capitatum Willd., attaining a length of at 
least 2.5 cm. Only remnants of very old flowers are available. 

Phacelophrynium K. Schumann. 

Phacelophrynium bracteosum Iv. Sebum, in Engl. Pflanzen- 
reich 11 (19'0&) 123. 

British North Borneo, near Sandakan, Agama 1033: Sarawak,. 
Baram District, Lio Matu, Native Collector 2183 Bur. Sci., Moid- 
ton 6706. Otherwise known only from the Philippines where it 
is widely distributed in southern Luzon, Samar, Leyte, Biliran. 
and Mindanao. 

MORACEAE. 

Artocarpus Forster. 
Artocarpus dementis sp nov. 

Arbor magna, snbglabra, ramis 5 vel (5 mm. diametro, obscure- 
puberulis; foliis coriaceis, glabris, nitidis, "oblongo-ovatis vel ob- 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 165 

longo-ovatis vel oblongo-lanceolatis, 12- ad 22 cm. longis, 4.5 ad 
9 cm. latis, aequilateralibus, basi abrupte angustatis, acutis, apice 
acuminatis, nervis utrinque circiter 12 perspicuis; fructibus suib- 
globosis, circiter 5.5 cm. diametro, antliocarpiis numerosis, leviter 
productis, ovoid-els, obtusis, circiter 1 mm. longis, uniformiter fer- 
rTigiineo-furfuraeeo-'hirsutis; seminibus numerosis, circiter 13 mm. 
longis, perianthii segmentis leviter hdrsutis. (Species A. rigidae 
affiiiis, sed foliis gla'bris et antliocarpiis brevissime productis. 

A large tree glabrous except the very obscurely puberulent 
branclilets and the furfuraceous-hirsute tips of the anthocarps; 
branches brown, rugose, terete, 5 to 6 mm. in diameter, the younger 
branclilets frequently only 3 mm. in diameter. Leaves equilateral, 
entire, coriaceous, glabrous, shining, oblong-ovate to oblong-lanceo- 
late, 1)2. to 22 cm. long, 4.5 to 9 cm. wide, the base rather abruptly 
narrowed, acute, usually gradually narrowed upward to the short,. 
blunt-acuminate apex, brownish or brownish-olivaceous when dry, 
smooth, shining; lateral nerves about 12 on each side of the mid- 
rib, not impressed on the upper surface, very prominent on the 
lower surface, anastomosing near the margins, the primary reticu- 
lations distinct; petioles about 3 cm. long, 2.5 to 3 mm. in dia- 
meter, glabrous. Mature or nearly mature fruits subglobose, the 
base often somewhat cordate, about 5.5 cm. in diameter, their 
peduncles stout, 3 to 4 cm. in length, the tips of the anthocarps 
very numerous, ovoid, blunt, about 1 mm. long, the outer surface 
of the fruit uniformly furfuraceous-hirsute, the indumentum fer- 
ruginous. Seeds rather numerous, about 13 mm. long, the accres- 
cent perianth segments more or Jess hirsute. 

British North Borneo, Gurulau Sipur, Mount Kinabalu, Mrs. 
Clemens 10770, November 27, 1945. In forests along trails. This 
species belongs in the group with, and is manifestly allied to Arto- 
carpus rigida Blume, from which it is readily distinguished by its 
entirely glabrous leaves and by the very short tips of its anthocarps. 

Artocarpus horneensis sp. nov. 

Arbor circiter 40 m. alta, ramis teretibus, circiter 5 mm. dia- 
metro, ranrulis leviter pubescentibus vel furfuraceis; foliis sub- 
coriaceis, glabris, nitidis, ellipticis vel oblongo-ellipticis, integris, 
aequilateralibus, 9 ad 14 cm. longis, apice abrupte aeuminatis, basi 
rotundatis vel late acutis, nervis utrinque 10 vel 12, perspicuis : 
inflorescentiis axillaribus, solitariis, $ oblongo-obovoideis, 12 mm. 
longis, brevissime pedunculatis, bracteolis peltatis, dense imbri- 
catis, cupreis ; fructibus subglobosis, 4 cm. diametro, laevibus, dense 
cupreo-furfuraceo-lepidotis, antliocarpiis baud productis ; seminibus 
paucis, 40 ad 12 mm. longis. 

A tree about 10 m. high, mature fruits densely and uniformly 
furfuraceous-lepidote, the indumentum cupreous. Branches terete, 
glabrous, about 5 mm. in diameter, the very young branclilets ob- 
scurely pubescent or slightly furfuraceous. Leaves subcoriaceous, 
glabrous, entire, elliptic to oblong-elliptic, 9 to 14 cm. long, 4 to 8 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



166 NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 

cm. wide, shining, the upper surface olivaceous, the lower surface 
brownish, apex rather abruptly acuminate, the acumen acute or 
obtuse, rather stout, about 1 mm. long, base rounded to broadly 
acute, equilateral or nearly so; lateral nerves 10 to 12 on each side 
of the midrib, very prominent on the lower surface, spreading, 
curved, arched-anastomosing close to the margins, the reticulations 
rather close, distinct on both .surfaces; petioles 8 to 10 mm. long. 
Staminate inflorescences oblong-obovoid to pyriform, axillary, solit- 
ary, yellow when fresh, brown when dry, about 12 mm. long, their 
peduncles stout, ferruginous-puberulent, 1 to 2 mm. in length. 
Flowers very numerous, crowded, 1 mm. long or less, the anthers 
only slightly exserted ; braeteoles peltate, ciliate, densely imbricate, 
in the young inflorescences quite concealing the flowers, cupreous. 
[Mature fruit red when fresh, cupreous or castaneous when dry, 
densely and uniformly furfuraceous-lepidote, smooth, the tips of 
the anthocarps not evident, subglobose or depressed-globose, about 
1 cm. in diameter. iS'eeds very few, sometimes only 3 or 4 matur- 
ing in one fruit, ovoid, 10 to 12 mm. in length, the accrescent 
perianth segments fleshy, glabrous. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima near Sandakan, Ramos 1592 
(type), 1749-, Xovember. 1920, the former with mature or nearly 
mature fruits, the latter with staminate inflorescences. In damp 
forests at low altitudes. A species belonging in the group with 
Artocarpus gomeziana Wall, and manifestly closely allied to tnat 
species, but at once distinguished by its densely and uniformly rur- 
furaceous-lepidote fruits, the indumentum being cupreous or 
castaneous. 

Artocarpus peltata sp. nov. 

Arbor circiter 2'5 m. alta, partibus junioribus dense ferrugineo- 
pubescentibus ; foliis ehartaceis, oblongis vel oblongo-lanceolatis, 20 
-28 cm. longis. aequilateraliibus, integris* vel junioribus minute 
dentieulatis, basi rotundatis, distincte peltatis, apice acuminatis, 
subtus molliter pubescentibus. nervis utrinque circiter 18, per- 
spicuis. stipulis oblongo-ovatis, inaequilateralibus, pubescentibus, 
12 mm. longis; inflorescentiis $ axillaribus, globosis, peduncu- 
latis; fruetibus junioribus 2 cm. diametro, globosis, laevihus, 
cinereo-puberulis, anthocarpiis baud productis, areolatis, areolis 
haud 0.5 mm. diametro; seminibus ])aucis. 

A tree up to 25 m. high, the younger parts densely and uni- 
formly ferrugineous-pu'bescent with short hairs. Branches sub- 
terete, the ultimate ones 1 to 5 mm. in diameter, very densely 
pubescent. Leaves chartaceous. oblong to oblong-oblanceolate, 20 
to 28 cm. long, (5 to 10 cm. wide, entire, when very young pubescent 
on both surfaces, in age glabrous on the upper surface except for 
the pubescent midrib, the lower surface softly pubescent with short 
hairs, the base rounded, equilateral, narrowly peltate, the petiole 
inserted 2 to 5 mm. from the leaf margins, the apex distinctly 
acuminate and usually shortly apiculate, the margins of very young 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 167 

leaves slightly denticulate ; lateral nerves about IS on each side of 
the midrib, spreading-, somewhat curved, prominent on the lower 
surface, the reticulations rather distinct ; petioles 1 to 1.5 cm. long, 
densely pubescent; stipules oblong-ovate, inequilateral, pubescent, 
acuminate, about 12 mm. long. Pistillate inflorescences axillary, 
globose, 2 cm. or more in diameter (immature), their peduncles 
densely pubescent, somewhat thickened upward, about -1 cm. long, 
the surface grayish-puberulent, the position of the numerous an- 
thocarps indicated by small areolae less than 0.5 mm. in diameter, 
the tips of the anthocarps not projecting. Seeds apparently few 
in each syncarp. 

British North Borneo, Sandakan, Villa.mil 168, March, 1916. 
On open slopes at an altitude of about SO m. This species mani- 
festly belongs in the group with Artocarpus lakoocha Boxb., but is 
readily distinguished from it and from other species in the same 
alliance by its peltate leaves. 



URTICACEAE. 

Laportea Gaudichaud. 

Laportea oblanceolata sp. nov. 

Arbor circiter 8 m. alta ; foliis oblanceolatis, subcoriaceis, 
usque ad 36 cm. longis, integris, tenuiter acuminatis, deorsum at- 
tenuato-angiutatis, subsessilibus vel breviter petiolatis, nervis utrin- 
que circiter T2, perspicuis; infructescentiiis longe pedunculitis, 
folia subaequantibus, noribus flabellatim dispositis, receptaculis 
accreseentibns. 

A tree about S m. high, somewhat pubescent, the older parts 
nearly glabrous except for the short persisting stinging hairs. 
Ultimate branches rather stout, about S mm. in diameter when 
dry, rugose, the leaf scars conspicuous. Leaves oblanceolate, sub- 
coriaceous, entire, olivaceous, 25 to 35 cm. long, 6 to 12 cm. wide, 
rather slenderly acuminate, gradually narrowed below to the at- 
tenuate-decurrent base, white-punctate on both surfaces, the upper 
surface glabrous, the lower with short stiff haiirs ; lateral nerves 
about 12 on each side of the midrib, prominent : petiole 1 cm. long 
or less, the lamina often decurrent to the very base ; stipules ovate, 
up to 1.5 cm. long. Young $ inflorescences up to IT cm. long, 
with numerous short, stiff, white hairs, in fruit long peduncled and 
equalling the leaves in length. Female flowers sessile in a single 
row on or near the margins of the nabellate receptacle, the re- 
ceptacle accrescent, lobed, and in fruit up to 1 cm. in diameter. 
Achenes glabrous, eom'pressed, ovate, more or less inequilateral, 
about 4 mm. long. iStyles somewhat pubescent, about 3 mm. long. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima, near Sandakan, Agama 
1026 (type), Ramos 1247, November, 1920; Baloran Eiver, Labuk 
Bay, }Yood 676. March, 19L9. On steep slopes and in open places 
at low altitudes. A species probably as close to Laportea stimulans 

E. A Soc. So. 85, 1922. 



168 NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 

Miq. as to any other described' form, but easily distinguished by its 

sessile or subsessile leaves. 



PROTEACEAE. 

Helicia Loureiro. 
Helicia excelsa Blume in Ann. 8ci. Nat, II 1 (1834) 219. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima, near Sandakan, Ramos 
1653. In damp forests along small streams at low altitudes. 
Chittagong, Burma, Mialay Peninsula, Singapore, and Sumatra. 

LORANTHACEAE. 

Viscum Linnaeus. 
Yiscum angulatum Heyne ex DC. Prodr. 4 (1830) 283. 

British North Borneo, Sandakan, Ramos 1228: Sarawak, near 
Ivuching, Native collector 161 (Bur. Sci.), March, 1911. India 
to southern China, through Malaya to tropical Australia. 

OLACACEAE. 

Fissipetalum genus novum. 

Stores reguilares/, Ibermaphroditi. Calyx o-partitus', isepalis 
imbrieatis. Petala 5, infra eoalita, valvatia, apice lobata, lobis 
binis, subdivaricatis, in alabastro innexis. Stamina 5, petalis al- 
terna, filamentis brevibus, glabris, coirollae tubo adnatis; antherae 
erectae, oblongo-ovatae, 2-loculares, connectivo incrassato, minute 
apiculato. Discus vel obscurus. Ovarium liberum, globosum, 1- 
loculare ; stylus ; stigma conico-capitatum, sulcatum ; ovula 3 vel 
4, ereeta. Fruetus parvus, 1-locularis, 1-spermus. — Frutex erectus, 
subglaber, foliiis alternis, integris, flortibus axillaribus, breviter 
pedioellatis, solitariis vel depauperato-fasciculatis. 

Fissipetalum borneense sp. nov. 

Frutex subglaber 2 vel 3 m. altus, ramis ramulisque teretibus, 
glabris, vel ramulis obscure pubescentibus; foliis oblongis vel ob- 
longo-ellipticis, chartaceis vel su'bcoriaceis, 12 ad 18 cm. longis, in 
siccitate brunneo-olivaceis, minutissime verruculo^is, nitidis, utrin- 
que siibaequaliter angustatis, basi acutis, apice breviter obtuseque 
acumiinatis, nervis utrinque circiter 8", distinctis, reticulis obsoletis 
vel suib Obsoletis ; floribus circiter 7 mm. longis, sepalis pubescenti- 
bus, orbicularibus, petalis extus pubescentibus in dimidio parte, 
inferiore, lobis glabris; fructibus oblongo-ellipsoideis, glabris, 8 ad 
9 mm. longis. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 169 

An erect, nearly glabrous shrub 2 to 3 m. high, the branches 
and branchlets terete, reddish-brown, glabrous or the younger 
branchlets obscurely pubescent. Leaves oblong to oblong-elliptic, 
12 to 18 cm. long, 4.5 to 7 cm. wide, chartaceous to subcoriaceous, 
entire, subequally narrowed to the acute base and the shortly 
obtuse-acuminate apex, brownish-olivaceous, somewhat shining and 
minutely verruculose on both surfaces when dry, the upper surface 
glabrous, the lower surface glabrous or slightly pubescent; lateral 
nerves about 8 on each side of the midrib, distinct, ascending at 
an angle of about -1-5 °, somewhat curved, obscurely and laxly anasto- 
mosing, the reticulations obsolete or nearly so ; petioles 5 to 10 mm. 
long, deeply channelled on the upper surface. Flowers white, axil- 
lary, solitary or somewhat fascicled, their pedicels 3 to 4 mm. long, 
slightly pubescent, 2-bracteolate, the bracteoles ovate, pubescent, 
about 1.2 mm. long. Sepals 5, free, imbricate, somewhat pube- 
scent, orbicular to orbieular-obovate, rounded, about 2.2 mm. in 
diameter, minutely puncticulate. Petals 5, united into a cylindric 
tube in the lower 2 num., externally ferruginous-pubescent in the 
lower half, or on those parts forming the limb which are exposed in 
bud, those portions of the petals valvate, oblong, about 3 mm. long, 
each petal cleft into 2, oblong, glabrous lobes, the lobes truncate- 
rounded, inflexed in bud, 3 mm. long, 1.2 mm. wide, spreading at 
an angle of about 45'° in anthesis. 'Stamens 5, alternate with the 
petals, inserted near the apex of the corolla-tube, their filaments 
1 mm. long; anthers ovoid, somewhat acuminate and minutely 
apiculate, basinxecl, 2 -celled, about 1.3 mm. long, opening by lateral 
slits, the connectives stout, broad, narrowed upward. Disk or 
very obscure. Ovary superior, globose, glabrous, 1-celled with 3 or 
4 erect basal ovules ; stigma sessile, broadly conical, somewhat sul- 
cate, about 1 mm. in diameter. Fruit (not quite mature) oblong- 
ellipsoid, glabrous, 8 to 9 mm. long, 1-celled, 1-seeded, the peri- 
carp rather thin, the seed somewhat fleshy, the calyx lobes persistent 
but not accrescent. 

'British North Borneo, Batu Lima, near Sandakan, and at 
Marutai, Ramos lk^k (type), Wood 1+53, flowering in October and 
with immature fruits in June. Mr. Wood's specimien is labelled as 
'coming froan back of the mangrove swamps/ while Ramos notes 
it occurs in forests and in open places at low altitudes. This pro- 
posed new genus presents certain characters intermediate between 
Icacinaceae and Olacaceae and might with almost equal propriety 
be placed in either family. It is at once distinguished from all 
hitherto described genera in these families by its conspicuously 
cleft petals, the relatively large lobes being inflexed in bud and 
spreading at an angle of about 45° in flower. In its stamens being 
alternate with the petals it differs from most representatives of the 
Olacaceae, while in its erect basal ovules it differs from most or all 
of the Icacinaceae. I have placed it tentatively in the Olacaceae. 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



170 NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 

MENISPERMACEAE. 

Juppia genus novum. 
Sepala 3, ovata, valvata, concava, circiter J connata. Petala 
5, subcarnosa, valvata, libera, oblongo-lanceolata. Stamina 5, 
libera; fllamenta brevissima; antherae subpeltatae, ellipticae, 1- 
locellatae, longitudinaliter dehiseentes. Fibres 2 et fructus 
ignotis. — Frutex eirrliosns, scand'ens, glaber vel subglaber. Folia 
integra, elliptical, basd 5-nervia ; petiolus in laminae margine insert- 
us. Paniculae amplissimae, pendulae, e trained vel ramis vetustis 
ortae. 

Juppia borneensis sp. nov. 

Frutex scahdens, cirrhosus, innorescentiis eceptis glaber; foliis 
ellipticis, cihartaeeis, integris, subolivaeeis, nitidis, 10 ad 15 cm. 
longis, basi rotundatis, 5-nerviis, apice breviter acuminatis apicu- 
latisque, nervis supra basin utrinque circiter 3 ; innorescentiis 
•caulinn-, pendulis, paniculatis, usque ad 60 cm. longis; noribus $ 
numerosis. breviter pedicellatis, 6 ad 7 mm. diametro, glabris, sepalis 
3, ovatis, 2 mm. longis, usque ad J connatis, concavis; petalis 5, 
■oblongo-lanceolatis, leviter ac'uminatis, 3 ad 3.5 mm. longis, liberis; 
staminibus 5, liberis, filamentis brevissimis, antheris peltatim 
affixis, ellipsoideis, 1-locellatis, longitudinaliter dehiscentibus. 

A scandent, dioecious, tenclrill-bearing, woody vine, glabrous 
•except the very slightly and obscurely pubescent inflorescences, the 
stems terete, about 1 cm. diameter, somewhat wrinkled when dry 
-and with scattered lenticels, the branchlets brownish, about 3 mm. 
in diameter. Leaves elliptic, chartaceous, entire, subolivaceous, 
somewhat shining, the upper surface minutely puncticulate, 10 to 
15 cm. long, 5 to 10 cm. wide, the base rounded, 5-nerved, the inner 
pair of nerves extending beyond the middle of the leaf, the apex 
very shortly and. abruptly acuminate, the acumen apiculate by the 
slightly excurrent midrib; lateral nerves above the basal one about 
3 on each side of the midrib, ascending at an angle of about 45°, 
slender, distinct, the reticulations rather distinct; petioles 2.5 to 
3 cm. long; tendrils simple, usually or always attached with the 
petioles, rather rigid, up to 9 cm. long. Panicles from the stems 
and branches below the leaves, pendulous, up to 60 cm. in length, 
the branches rather few, scattered, spreading, up to 17 cm. in 
length. Flowers racemosely arranged on the primary branches, 
solitary or in pairs, their pedicels about 3 mm. long. Male flowers 
yellow or yellowish-white, 6 to 7 mm. in diameter. Sepals 3, 
glabrous, ovate, valvate, 2 mm. long, united for about the lower J, 
concave, acute or obscurely apiculate, the buds globose and without 
reduced sepals or bracteoles. Petals 5, oblong-lanceolate, somewhat 
acuminate, valvate, glabrous, free, 3 to 3.5 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, 
somewhat thickened or fleshy. Stamens 5, free, alternate with the 
petals, the filaments very short, not exceeding 0.2 mm. in length; 
.anthers peltately affixed, ellipsoid, 0.4 mm. long, 1-celled, dehiscing 
longitudinally by a single valve on the upper surface. Female 
flowers and fruits not known. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW OE NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 171 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima, near Sandakan, Ramos 
1593 (type), 1578, November, 1920. In clamp forests along streams 
at low altitudes. This proposed new genus and species distinctly 
resembles Haemato carpus, but does not appear to be closely allied 
to that genus and may not belong in the tribe Triclisieae. In the 
absence of female flowers and fruits it is difficult to decide its proper 
place in the family. Among the known genera of the family the 
present genus differs in its 3 sepals which are somewhat united be- 
low, in its 5 petals and 5 stamens, — in most genera the sepals, petals 
and stamens being in three's or in multiples of three's. This genus 
is dedicated to Mr. William 0. Jupp, for long a resident of Sanda- 
kan, in appreciation of his interest in forwarding the field work in 
botany carried on by the Bureau of Science in co-operation with 
the Forestry Service of the Government of British North Borneo. 

Tinospora Miers. 

Tinospora glandulosa sp. nov. 

Frutex scandem, glaber; foliis oblongis, subcoriaceis, nitidis, 
basi rotundatis vel obtusis, usque ad 12 cm. longis, nervis utrinque 
7 vel 8, distinctis, subtus in axillis perspicue glanduloss ; in- 
fructescentiis e nodiis desfoliatis, solitariis, ainguste panieulatis, 
pedunculatis, usque ad 24 cm. longis, ramis primariis patulis infer- 
ioribus circiter 3 cm. longis; fructibus junioribus subellipsoideis, 

5 mm. longis. 

A glabrous vine, the older branches apparently fleshy when 
fresh, when dry dark reddish-brown and smooth except for the 
scattered conspicuous lentieels, the younger branches slender, grayish 
brown, lenticellafe. Leaves shining, sub-coriaceous, pale and of 
about the same color on both surfaces when dry, oblong, 9 to 12 
cm. long, 3.5 to 5.5 cm. wide, slenderly acute-acuminate, base round- 
ed or obtuse, 3-nerved, the lateral nerves extending from one-fourth 
to one-third the length of the lamina, those above the basal pair 

6 or 7 on each side of the midrib, slender, distinct, the reticulations 
distinct on both surfaces, the axils of the primary nerves beneath 
with rather conspicuous glands (domatia) ; petioles slender, 3 to 
4 cm. long. Infructescences lateral, solitary from leafless nodes, 
slender, narrowly paniculate, peduncled, up to 24 cm. long, the 
branches spreading, the lower ones 3 m. long, the upper shorter. 
Immature fruits about 5 mm. long, subellipsoid, narrowed at both 
ends, inequilateral, 2 or 3 developing from each flower. 

British North Borneo, Sandakan, Wood 939 October, 12, 1920. 
In bamboo forests at low altitudes. .In vegetative characters 
and in general appearance this somewfhat resembles the Philippine 
Tinospora reticulata Miers. It is not, however, very closely allied 
to that species, being very readily distinguished from this and its 
congeners by its differently shaped leaves and its more numerous 
lateral nerves. 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



172 NEW OE NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 

Cyclea Arnott. 
Cyclea caudata sp. nov. 

Frutex scandeus, inflore scent iis leviter pubescentibus exceptis 
glaber: foliis chartaeeis vel subcoriaceis, lanceolatis vel oblongo- 
lanceolatis, 7 ad 11 cm. longis, basi late roitundatis, interdum 
angustissime peltatis, apice caudato-acuminatis apiculatisque, 
nervis paucis, reticulis utrinque distinctis; paniculis $ axillaribus, 
angustis, 10 ad 18 cm. longis; calycibus cupulatis, 1 mm. longis, 
breviter 4-lobatis; petalis omnibus connatis; antheris 4, capitiilis 
0.3 mm. diametro. 

A slender vine entirely glabrous except the sparingly pubes- 
cent inflorescences, the stems terete, rather smooth, 2 to 3 mm. in 
•diameter. Leaves chartaceous to subcoriaceous, lanceolate to 
oblong-lanceolate, 7 to 11 cm. long, 2 to 4 cm. wide, the base 
broadly rounded, often truncate, sometimes narrowly peltate, the 
midrib occasionally inserted 1 to 2 mm. from the margin, narrowed 
upward to the slenderly caudate-acuminate and apicuiate apex, 
hoth surfaces olivaceous and somewhat shining when dry; basal 
nerves usually 2 pairs, tbe lateral ones above the base 2 or 3 on 
•each side of the midrib, rather prominent, the primary reticula- 
tions lax, distinct on both surfaces; petioles 1.5 1 to 2.5 cm. long. 
Staminate inflorescences axillary, solitary, narrowly paniculate, 
l'O to 18 cm. long, sparingly pubescent, the primary branches few, 
distant, spreading, 1 to 1.5 cm. long. Calyx cup-shaped, about 
1 mm. long, somewhat pubescent, shallowly 4»4obed. Corolla 
glabrous, cup-shaped, truncate, 0.5 mm. in diameter, the petals 
wholly united. Androphore glabrous, 0.8 mm. long, the anthers 
% forming a head about 0'.3 mm. in diameter, transversely dehis- 
cent. 

Sarawak, Upper Baram, Selungo, Major J. C. Moulton 87 
(= 2835 Native Collector Bur. Sci.), November 26, 1914:. A species 
allied to Cyclea elegans King, of the Malay Peninsula, differing in 
its leaves being caudate-acuminate, the bases being rounded and 
not at all peltate or at most very narrowly peltate; in its inflore- 
scences exceeding the leaves in length; and in its petals being 
wholly united into a truncate cup. 



MAGNOLIACEAE. 

Talauma Tussieu. 
Talauma megalophylla sp. nov. 

Arbor, partibus junioribus adpresse sordide bruimeo-villosis, 
ramulis 1.5 cm. diametro; foliis permagnis, oblanceolatis, coriaceis, 
45 ad 90 cm. longis, li2 ad 2io cm. latis, coriaceis, nitidis, tenuiter 
acuminatis, basi euneatis, supra ad costam villosis, subtus leviter 
pilosis, nervis utrinque circiter 35, valde perspicuis, reticulis laxis; 
floribus 10 cm. longis, sepalis 3, crasse coriaceis, oblongiss vel oblongo- 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 173 

•ellipticis, 8 ad -9 cm. longis, extns dense villosis; petalis carnosis, 
.glabris, quani sepalis paullo longioribus, in siccitate rugosis; 
carpellis nnmerosissimis, villosis; fructibus oblongo-ovoideis vel 
ellipsoideis, circiter 10 cm. longis, rhachibus 2.5 cm. diametro, 
earpellis immaturis lanceolatis, 4 cm. longis, lignosis, brunneis, 
partibus superioribus liberis, 1.5 ad 2 cm. longis. 

A tree about 8 m. high, the ultimate branchlets terete, about 
1.5 cm. in diameter, pale-brown, densely appressed-villous with soft, 
dirty-brown hairs. Leaves in general oblanceolate, 45 to 90 cm. 
long, 12 to 25 cm. wide, coriaceous, pale on both surfaces when 
•dry, shining, the apex rather slenderly acuminate, narrowed below 
to the cuneate base, the upper surface usually conspicuously villous 
along the midrib, ultimately glabrous, the lower surface sparingly 
villous, the hairs pale, appressed, from somewhat enlarged bases; 
lateral nerves about 35 on each side of the midrib, very prominent 
on the lower surface, spreading, somewhat curved, arched- 
-anastomo.sing, reticulations lax; petioles stout, much thickened 
below, -1 to 5 cm. long, densely villous. Flowers white, slightly 
fragrant, about l'O cm. long, their peduncles densely villous, about 
1 cm. in diameter. Sepals 3, very thickly coriaceous, oblong-ovate 
to oblong or oblong-elliptic, obtuse, 8 to 9 1 cm. long, about 4 cm. 
wide, densely appressed-villous outside, the indumentum somewhat 
-deciduous. Petals apparently very fleshy, dark-brown and rugose 
when dry, up to l'O cm. long. Carpels very numerous, in flower 
lanceolate, about 4 cm. long (not mature), woody, dark-brown, the 
fruit oblong-ovoid or ellipsoid, up to 10' cm. long, the rachis of 
the mature infructescences up to 2.5 cm. in diameter. Carpels 
lanceolate, about 4 cm. long (not mature), dark-brown, the in- 
dumentum more or less persistent, the free portions 1.5 to 2 cm. 
in length. 

British Xortli Borneo, Batu Lima, near Sandakan, Ramos 
1509, October, 1920. In damp forests at low altitudes. A species 
remarkable for its very large leaves, in this character somewhat 
..approaching Talauma gigantifolia Miq. of Sumatra which is also 
recorded from Borneo. The present species, however, differs from 
MiquePs in very numerous characters, especially in its much 
longer, differently shaped, smooth leaves, the reticulations being 
lax and not nearly as prominent as in T. gigantifolia. 

Talauma borneensis sp. nov. 

Arbor circiter 7 m. alta, pecTunculis sepalisque adpresse villosis 
exceptis glabra ; ramis. tenuibus, laevibus, ramulis 3 mm. diametro ; 
foliis chartaceis, oblongo-ellipticis vel oblongis, 12 ad 28 cm. 
longis, perspicue acuniinatis, basi acutils, utrinque brunneo-olivaceis, 
nitidisque, nervis utrinque circiter 15, cum reticuliis utrinque eons- 
picuis; noribus circiter 5 cm. longiis, peduneulo adpresise villoso, 
sepalis deciduis, extus adpresse villosis, petalis circiter 8, oblongis vel 
oblongo-obovatis, circiter 5 cm. longis et 2 cm. latis, 3 interioribus 
valde incrassatk; carpellis circiter 25, lineari-lanceolaitis, glabris; 

.R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



174 NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNE AN PLANTS. 

fruetibus oblong-is, eirciter 6 cm. longis, 2.5 cm. diametro, atrobrun- 
neis, glabris, carpellis connatis, verruculosis, circitcr 2.5 cm. longis. 

A tree about T m. high, glabrous except the densely appressed- 
pubescent apical portions of the peduncles and the appressed- 
villous sepals. Branches slender, brown, rather smooth, the ultimate- 
ones about 3 mm. in diameter. Leaves chartaceous, oblong-elliptic 
to oblong, 12 to 28 cm. long, 4.5 to 8 cm. wide, conspicuously acumi- 
nate, the base acute, brownish-olivaceous and: shining on both 
surfaces ; lateral nerves about 15 on each side of the midrib, curved, 
distinct on both surfaces as are the rather close reticulations; 
petioles 1 to 2 cm. long, thickened in the lower one-half. Peduncles 
in flower about 5 cm. long, densely appressed-pubescent with pale 
hairs, the indumentum deciduous on the older peduncles. Flowers 
white, about 5 cm. long, the sepals apparently 2, deciduous, rather 
densely appressed-Aillous with pale hairs on the back. Petals at 
least 8, oblong to oblong-obovate, glabrous, about 5 cm. long and 
2 cm. wide, apparently somewhat fleshy, brown when dry, rounded, 
the inner three much thicker than the outer ones. Anthers linear- 
lanceolate, 12 to To mm. long, acuminate. Carpels about 2'5, linear- 
lanceolate, glabrous except near their apices where they are sparing- 
ly ciliate, the free portions in flower 8 to 10 m'm. long. Fruit 
oblong, about 6 cm. long, 2.5 cm. wide, dark-brown when dry, the 
individual carpels cohering except at their very apices, verrucose, 
glabrous, the tips spreading, stout, 2 to 3 mm. long. 

British Xorth Borneo, Sibuguey, near Sandakan, Ramos 1533. 
November, 1920. In damp forests at low altitudes. A species 
belonging in the group with Talauma mutabUis Blume, and very 
closely approximating in vegetative characters to T. ~kunstleri Kino- T . 
differing from both species in its much larger flowers and fruits. 



ANONACEAE. 

Artabotrys B. Brown. 

Artabotrys dementis sp. nov. 

Frutex scandens, glaber (floribus ignotis), ramis ramulisque- 
teretibus in siccitate atro-purpureo-brunneis, leviter rugosis; foliis 
chartaceis, nitidis, oblongis vel anguste oblongo-obovatis, 10-20 cm. 
longis, perspiicue acuminatis', basi obtusis, nervis utrinque eirciter 
12, subtus perspicuis, reticulis utrinque subdensis, perspicuis; fruc- 
tibus longe pedicellatis, ellipsoideis vel oblongo-ellipsoideis. in 
siccitate atro-brtmneis, usque ad 4 cm. longis et 2.3 cm. diametro,. 
glabris, seminil)us usque ad 8, 2-seriatis. 

A scandent vine entirely glabrous (flowers unknown), the 
brandies and branchlets- slender, terete, dark-brown, somewhat 
wrinkled when dry, the ultimate branchlets about 1.5 mm. in 
diameter. Leaves chartaceous, oblong to narrowly oblcng-obovate,. 
10 to 20 cm. long. 4 to 7 cm. wide, the apex rather slenderly and 

Jour. Straits Branch- 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 175 

sharply acuminate, base obtuse, the upper surface pale or brownish 
when dry. the lower pale-brownish, both surfaces shining; lateral 
nerves about 12 on each side of the midrib, distinct on the lower 
surface, somewhat curved, obscurely anastomosing, the reticulations 
rather close and distinct on both surfaces ; petioles 3 to 7 mm. long. 
Peduncles of the infructescences 1 to 2 cm. long, rather stout, the 
torus woody, up to 1.5 cm. in diameter: fruits 5 to #0, ellipsoid to 
•oblong-ellipsoid, dark-brown when dry, glabrous, rounded, at both 
ends, up to 4 cm. long, 2.5 cm, in diameter; seeds 2-seriate, up to 
8 in each fruit, or in. those cases where the fruit is imperfectly devel- 
oped and globose, only 1. 

British Xorth Borneo. Batu Lima and Sibuga, near Sandakan, 
Barnes 1667 (type). 148'0, October and Xovember, 1920; Jesselton, 
Mrs. Clemens 9670, December, 1915. In thickets along trails and 
in forests at low altitudes. A species well characterized within 
the genus by being, so far as known, entirelv glabrous ; it is probable 
that the flowers may be more or less pubescent. It is manifestly 
.allied to Uvaria lurida Hook. f. & Th., but the seeds are 2-seriate, 
not 1-seriate as in the latter species. 

Artabotrys borneensis sp. nov. 

Frutex seandens. inrlorescentils exceptis glaber vel subglaber; 
foliis chartaceis, ellipticis vel elliptico-oblongis, pallide olivaceis, 
nitidis. 10-1.3 cm. longis; utrinque subaequaliter angustatis, 
basi acntis, an ice perspieue obtuseque acuminatis; nervis utrinque 
circiter 8, plerumque patulis, perspicuis; intlorescentiis oppositifoli- 
is. plerumque 1-tioris ; peduneulis curvatis 1 , compressis, 1-1.5 cm. 
longis: rloribus -1 cm. longis; ■ sepalis ovatis, acuminatis, 
leviter pubescentibus vel vetustioribus glabris, exterioribus oblongo- 
ellipticis, 1.5 cm. latis. obtusis; carpellis circiter 12, glabris, stylis 
crasse clavatis. obtusis; disco dense ferrugineo-hirsuto. 

A scan dent shrub glabrous or nearly so except for the inflores- 
■eences. Branches and branchlets slender, terete, black when dry, 
the ultimate branchlets about 1 mm. in diameter, more or less 
ferruginous-pubescent at their apices. Leaves cbartaceous, elliptic 
to elliptic-oblong, pale-olivaceous, shining, 10 to 13 cm. long, 4 to 
6 cm. wide, subequally narrowed to the acute base and to the conspi- 
cuously blunt-acuminate apex, the acumen usually about 1. can. 
long; lateral nerves about 8 on each side of the midrib, mostly 
spreading, arched anastomosing, rather prominent, the reticultions 
lax and distinct on both surfaces ; 4 to 5 mm. long. Inflorescences 
on the ultimate branchlets, leaf -opposed, usually only 1-flowered, 
the peduncles stout, strongly curved, compressed, 1 to 1.5 cm. long, 
sparingly appressed-ferruginous-pubescent. Flowers 4 to 4.5 cm. 
long, their pedicels stout, thickened upward, glabrous or nearly so, 
about 8 mm. long. Sepals coriaceous, ovate, prominently acumi- 
nate, black when dry, glabrous or very slightly pubescent, about 6 
mm. long, 5 man. wide. Petals thickly coriaceous, all broad, flat, 
sparingly pubescent on both surfaces or ultimately glabrous or 

rR. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



176 NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNE AN PLANTS. 

nearly so; outer three petals oblong-ovate to ovate, acute or obtuse, 
4 to 4.5 cm. long, 2 to 2.3 cm. wide, the concave basal part rather 
conspicuously appressed-ferruginous-pubescent outside, 5 to 7 mm. 
long and wide; inner petals oblong-elliptic, 3.5 to 4 cm. wide, 
somewhat narrowed below to the concave basal part which is 6' 
to 7 mm. long, 3 mm wide. Anthers numerous, 2.5 mm. long, the 
connectives truncate-rounded. Carpels about 12, glabrous, narrow- 
ly oblong, narrowed upward, 2 mm. lang ; style thicker than the- 
ovary, equalling it in length, thickly club-shaped, the apex obtuse. 
Disk densely ferrugious-hirsute. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima, Bur. Sci. 1366 Bamos,. 
October, 1920. In damp forests at low altitudes. The striking^ 
characters of this species are its large, broad petals and its usually 
1-flowered inflorescences. 

Artabotrys trichopetalus sp. nov. 

Frutex scandens, ramis ruo-osis, glabris, ramulis leviter pubes- 
centibus; foliis coriaceis. oblongo-ellipticis, 10-17 cm. longis. 
apice obtuse acuminatis, basi plerumque rotundatis, supra glabris, 
eastaneis, subtus brunneis, leviter longe ciliatis. nervis utrinque 9 
vel 10, subtus perspicuis; inflorescentiis lateralibus, paucifloris, 
pedunculis crassis, teretibus, 1.5 cm. longis, subglabris ; floribns 
circiter 3 can. longis, pedunculis 2-braeteatis, braeteis elliptico-o^atis, 
1 cm. longis, extus dense ciliatis, intus glabris ; sepalis petalisque 
dense ciliatis pubescentibusque ; sepalis 12 mm. longis, acuminatis: 
petalis exterioribus planis, 10 mm. latis, oblongo-ellipticis, interiori- 
bus lanceolatis, 5 vel 6 mm. latis, crassissimis ; antheris 3 mm. 
longis, connectivo crassissimo, obtuso, 1-1.5 mm. longo: carpellis 
circiter 25, glabris. 

A woody vine, the branches grayish-brown, glabrous, 3 to 4 mm. 
in diameter, rugose when dry. Leaves coriaceous oblong-elliptic. 
10 to 17 cm. long, 4 to 7 cm. wide, the upper surface castaneous 
when dry, glabrous, somewhat shining, the lower surface brown, 
more or less cilia te with long, rather pale, subappressed hairs, 
the individual hairs often 2 to 3 mm. in length and more numerous 
on the midrib and nerves, otherwise widely scattered; apex blunt- 
acuminate, base usually rounded sometimes acute ; lateral nerves 9 
or 10 on each side of the midrib, somewhat ascending arched-anas- 
tomosing, prominent on the lower surface, the reticulations lax. 
rather distinct : petioles 5 to 9 mm. long, when young more or less 
pubescent, ultimately glabrous. Inflorescences lateral, from the 
branches among or below the leaves, few-flowered, the peduncles 
very stout, strongly curved and terete, up to 1.5 cm. long, glabrous 
or nearly so, rugose. Flowers greenish, about 3 cm. long, their 
pedicels up to 1.5 cm. long, very densely ciliate with long ferruginous 
hairs, each supplied with 2 conspicuous, elliptic-ovate, coriaceous, 
somewhat acuminate bracts about 1 cm. long which are densely 
ciliate and pubescent outside, glabrous inside. Sepals coriaceous, 
ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, about 12 mm. 6 to 17 mm. wide. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNE AN PLANTS. 177 

densely appressed-ciliate and pubescent outside, inside appressed- 
pubescent except in the lower part which is glabrous. Petals thickly 
coriaceous, all densely pubescent on both surfaces and supplied 
with numerous, subappressed, elongated, ciliate hairs, the indumen- 
tum pale-brownish or grayish ; the on ter three petals about 3 cm. 
long, 12 mm. wide, the basal concave part broadly ovate, 6 to 8 mm. 
wide and long - , the flattened portions oblong-elliptic, acute, some- 
what narrowed below; inner three petals lanceolate, up to 2.5 cm, 
long, 5 to 6 mm. wide, very much thickened, the arched basal 
part 6 to 7 mm. long, 5 >mm. wide, glabrous inside, the free portions 
narrowly lanceolate, acuminate. Anthers numerous, 3 mm. long, 
the connectives much thickened, 1 to 1.5 mm. long, obtuse. Carpels 
about 25, oblong, curved, glabrous, narrowed upward, 1.8 to 2 
mm. long; style as long as the carpels, club-shaped. 

British Xorth Borneo, Batu Lima, near Sandakan, Ramos 
1465, October, 1920. In damp forests at low altitudes. A species 
remarkable for its indumentum and especially for its very densely 
pubescent and ciliate sepals and petals, as well as for its conspicuous, 
elliptic, 1 cm. long, ciliate and pubescent bracts. The indumentum 
on the lower surface of the leaves is widely scattered 4 ,, consisting 
chiefly of slender, elongated, subappressed hairs, attaining 2 to 3 
mm. in length 

Artabotrys trigyna sp. nov 

Frutex scandens, floribiis exceptis glaber vel subglaber; ramis 
ramulisque tenuibus, in siccitate riigris vel atro-brunneis, ramulis 
junioribus parcissime adpresse pubescentibus; foliis oblongis vel 
ohlongo-ellipticis, 10-15 cm. longis 2.5-5 cm. latis chartaceis 
vel subcoriaceis, glahris, utrinque subaequaliter angustatis, basi 
acutis, apiee perspicue acuminata, nitidis, brunneo-olivaceis,. 
nervis utrinque 12-15, tenuibus, distinctis; inflorescentiis 
oppositifoliis, bre viler poduneulatis. parce pubescentibus, teretibus 
vel obscure compressis; fioribus 2.5-3 cm. longis, sepalis parcis- 
sime pubescentibus, ovatis, acuminatis, 6 mm. longis petalis basi 
concavis 4 mm. diametro, dense subferrugineo-pubesceutibus, supra 
linearibus, circiter 1 mm. latis, parce pubescentibus; carpellis 3, 
ovoideis, glabris, stiginate circiter 1 mm. di&metro. 

A scandent shrub, nearly glal)rous except the flowers. Branch- 
es and branchlets slender, terete, dark-brown or nearly black when 
dry, the ultimate branchlets very sparingly appressed-pubescent. 
Leaves oblong to oblong-elliptic, chartaceous or subcoriaceous, 
glabrous, shining, brownish-olivaceous when dry, 10 to 15 cm. 
long, 2.5 to 5 cm. wide, subequally narrowed to the acute base 
and the conspicuously acuminate apex; lateral nerves 12 to 15 on 
each side of the midrib, spreading, slender, distinct on both sur- 
faces, arched-anastomosing, the reticulations lax; petioles 3 to 
4: mm. long. Inflorescences leaf-opposed sparingly appressed- 
pubescent, the peduncles about 1 cm. long, at first nearly straight,, 
ultimately curved, terete or slightly compressed, each bearing 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



178 NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 

about 5 flowers. Flowers yellow, about 2.5 to 3 cm. long, the 
subtending bracteoles oblong to oblong-ovate, deciduous, about 
2.5 mm. long, the pedicels nearly glabrous, thickened upward, 
.about 1 cm. long. Sepals coriaceous, ovate, narrowed upward 
to the conspicuously acuminate apex, very sparingly appressed- 
pubescent of nearly glabrous, about 6 mm. long, 5 mm. wide. 
Petals subequal, the concave bases densely appressed- pubescent 
on both surfaces, about 4 mm. long and wide, then abruptly 
contracted and linear, the linear part often curved, sparingly 
appressed-pubescent, thickened, obtuse, about 1 mm. wide, 2.5 cm. 
long. Anthers numerous, 1.5 to 1.8 mm. long, narrowed below, 
the connectives thickened, truncate and minutely pubescent at 
the apex. Carpels 3, ovoid, glabrous ; styles about 1 mm. long, 
the stigmas expanded, disciform, about 1 mm. in diameter; disk 
densely ferruginous-pubescent. Fruits ellipsoid, dark-brown 
smooth, glabrous, sessile, about 1 cm. long; seeds 2, collateral. 

British Xortli Borneo, Batu Lima and Sibuga, near Sandakan, 
Ramos 1118 (typo), 1875, October and December, 1920. In damp 
forests at low altitudes. A species belonging in the group with 
Artdbotrys saaveolens Blume, and apparently most closely allied 
to A. maingayi Hook. f. and Th. and A. gracilis King, differing 
from all of these in numerous details in floral structure. 

Fissisiigma Griffith. 
cFissistigma dementis sp nov. 

Frutex seandens. partibus junioribus foliisque subtus breviter 
adpresse ferrugineo-pubescentibus; ramis glabris; foliis oblongo- 
ellipticis, chartaceis, 4-8 cm. longis, acutis vel acuminatis, basi 
rotundatis vel obtusis, supra olivaceis, glabris, nitidis, subtus, 
brunneis et minute adpresseque ferrugineo-pubescentibus; nervis 
lateralibus utrinque 8-10, tenuibus; floribus axillaribus, 
solitariis, circiter 2.3 cm. longis; calyce triangulari, 4 vel 5 mm. 
•diametro; petalis crassissimis, exterioribus oblongo-lanceolatis, 
obtuse acuminatis, 8-1 m(m. latis, extus minute ad(presseque 
pubescentibus, interioribus ovatis, 4 mm. longis, 3.5 mm. latis, 
.acutis; carpellis plusminusve 10, glabris. 

A scandcnt shrub, the younger parts, lower surface of the 
leaves, and flowers more or less ferruginous-pubescent. Brandies 
and branchlets terete, slender, clark-brown or nearly black when 
dry, the former glabrous the latter more or less appressed- 
pubescent with shining ferruginous hairs, the very tips of the 
branchlets densely ferruginous- or cupreous-pubescent. Leaves 
oblong-elliptic, chartaceous, 4 to S cm. long, 2 to 3 cm. wide, the 
.apex acute or acuminate, the base rounded or broadly acute, the 
upper surface olivaceous, glabrous, the lower surface brownish and 
minutely appressecl-ferruginous-pubescent, the hairs more or less 
shining; lateral nerves 8 to 10 on each side of the midrib, slender, 
obscurely anastomosing, not prominent; petioles somewhat 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW OE XOTEWOETHY BORNE AN PLANTS. 179- 

pubescent or ultimately glabrous, 4 to 5 mm. long. Flowers yellow,, 
axillary, solitary, about 2.3 cm. long, their pedicels up to 5 mm. 
long, somewhat pubescent and with 1 or 2 small bracteoles at or 
near the base. Calyx triangular, 4 to 5 mm. in diameter, some- 
what ferruginous-pubescent, the angles acute. Petals much 
thickened, the outer 3 oblong-lanceolate, blunt-acuminate, 2 to- 
2.3 cm. long, 7 to 8 mm. wide, minutely appressed-pubescent with 
shining, ferruginous, short hairs, keeled inside, hollowed at the 
base; inner petals ovate, about 4 mm. long, 3.5 mm. wide, acute,, 
somewhat pubescent. Anthers numerous, 1 to 1.2 mm. long,. 
their connectives oblong-truncate. Carpels about 10, inequilateral,, 
oblong, glabrous, 1 to 1.2 mm. long; styles about 0.7 mm. long. 
Very young fruits globose, glabrous, about 4 mm. in diameter,, 
their pedicels 5 mm. in length. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima, near Sandakan, Bamos 
Uj74 (type), October, 1920, in damp forests at low altitudes; 
Khota Balud to Kibayo, trail to Mount Kinabalu, Mrs. Clemens 
9766, October, 1915. A species in vegetative characters closely 
approximating to Fissistigma elegans (Wall.) Merr., but differing 
in numerous floral characters. 

Oxymitra Blume. 
Oxymitra grandifolia sp. now 

Frutex scandens, ramulis et petiolis et subtus foliis ad costam 
nervosque perspicue f errugineo-pubescentibus ; foliis magnis, 
ehartaeeis, obliongo-ollip^icisi vel oiblongo-obovatis, 2'5^50 cm. 
longis, apice plerumque late rotundatis, basi rotundatis, distincte 
cordatis, nervis utrinque 18-25, perspicuis, supra nitidis, costa 
excepta glabris, utrinque brunneis; infruetescentiis extra - 
axillaribus, 4 vel 5 cm. diametro, fructibus numerosis, ellipsoideis, 
apiculatis, f errugineo-pubescentibus, 10-12 mm. longis. 

A scandent vine, the branchlets, infructescences and leaves 
on the lower surface conspicuously ferruginous-pubescent. 
Branches brown, about 5 mm. in diameter, wrinkled when dry,, 
ferruginous-pubescent or glabrous, the branchlets ver} T densely 
pubescent. Leaves chartaceous, oblong-obovate to oblong-elliptic, 
25 to 50 cm. long, 11 to 15 cm. wide, the apex usually broad'ly 
rounded or sometimes very broadly and obscurely blunt-acuminate, 
the base rounded and usually shaliowly cordate, the upper surface 
olivaceous, smooth, shining, glabrous or the midrib somewhat 
pubescent, the lower surface brown, rarely slightly glaucous,, 
sparingly ferruginous-pubescent on the midrib, nerves, and 
reticulations; lateral nerves 18 to 25 on each side of the midrib,. 
somewhat ascending, slightly curved, anastomosing, very prominent 
on the lower surface, the primary reticulations subparalleL 
distinct; petioles stout, pubescent, 6 to 18 mm. long. Infructes- 
cences extra-axillary, their peduncles stout, ferruginous-pubescent, 
1 to 1.5 cm. long, the torus slightly thicker than the peduncle,, 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



180 NEW OE NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 

ferruginous-pubescent. Fruits numerous, ellipsoid, yellowish- 
white when fresh, brown when dry, 10 to 12 mm. long, more or less 
ferruginous-pubescent, apiculate. their pedicels pubescent, 1 to 
1.5 cm. in length. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima and Sibnga, near Sandakan, 
Ramos 1910 (type), 1911, 1170, October and December, 1920. In 
damp forests at low altitudes. A species belonging in the group 
with Oxymitra calycina King and apparently most closely allied to 
0. pliilippinensis Merr., from which it is distinguished by its larger, 
more numerously nerved leaves, which are brown, not glaucous 
beneath, and in its much more conspicuous and longer in- 
dumentum. 



Oxymitra acuminata sp. nov. 

Frutex scandens, ramulis petiolisque dense adpresse fer- 
rugineo-pubescentibus ; ramis glabris, nigris, ramulis 1.5 mm. 
diametro; foliis chartaceis, oblongo-ellipticis vel anguste oblongo- 
obovatis, 13-18 cm. longis, perspicue crasseque acuminatis, basi 
rotundatis, plerumque leviter cordatis, utrinque brunneis, nitidis, 
supra glabris vel ad costam nervosque parce pubescentibus, subtus 
baud glaucescentibus, vetustioribus glabris; nervis utrinque 10 
-15, subtus valde perspicuis, reticulis utrinque distinctis; 
infructescentiis in ramulis ultimis axillaribus extra-axillaribusque, 
circiter -1 cm. diametro, fructibus numerosis, elMpsoideis, apiculatis, 
1 cm. longis, leviter pubescentibus, glabrescentibus. 

A woody vine, the branchlets and petioles densely appressed- 
ferruginous-pubescent, the branches slender, terete, glabrous, 
nearly black when dry, 2 to 3 mm. in diameter, the ultimate 
branchlets 1.5 mm. in diameter. Leaves chartaceous, oblong- 
elliptic to narrowly oblong-obovate, 13 to 18 cm. long, 4.5 to 6 cm. 
wide, the apex conspicuously and rather stoutly acuminate, the 
acumen up 2 cm. long, blunt, the base rounded and usually slightly 
cordate, the upper surface brown or brownish-olivaceous, strongly 
shining, glabrous or nearly so, or the midrib and lateral nerves 
sparingly pubescent, the lower surface paler than the upper, brown, 
not at all glaucous, sparingly pubescent on the midrib and nerves, 
ultimately entirely glabrous; lateral nerves 10 to 15 on each side 
of the midrib, somewhat curved-anastomosing, very prominent 
on the lower surface, the primary reticulations subparallel and 
distinct on both surfaces ; petioles 5 to 8 mm. long. Inf ructescences 
axillary and extra-axillary on the ultimate branchlets, their 
peduncles 1.5 to 2 cm. long, ferruginous'-pubescent. Fruits 
numerous ellipsoid, about 1 cm. long, apiculate, sparingly pubescent 
or nearly glabrous, their pedicels somewhat thickened upward, 
pubescent, about 1 cm. long. 

British North Borneo, Sibnga and Batu Lima, Ramos 1567 
(type), 1171, October and November, 1920. In damp forests along 
small streams at low altitudes. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 181 

Goniothalamus Blume. 

Goniothalamus stenophyllus sp. nov. 

Arbor, floribus exceptis glabra; rarais ramulisque tenuibus; 
foliis lineari-lanceolatis, chartaceis, olivaceis, nitidis, 20-30 cm. 
longis, 1.5-2.5 cm. latis, basi acutis vel subrotundatis, apice 
acuminatis, nervis utrinque circiter 23, supra impressis, subtus 
perspicuis, areuato>-anastomosantibus, reticulis laxis, obscuris; 
floribus cauldnis vel in ramis vetustioribus solitariis vel fasciculatis>, 
circiter 2.3 cm. longis, petalis exterioribns parcissime pubescentibus, 
lanceolatis, 7 vel 8 mm. latis, interioriibus crassissime coriaeeis, 
ovato4aneeolatis, utrinque pubiescentibus, 10-1,2' mm. longis; 
:antheris 2.5 mm. longis, connectivo apiculato; carpellis numerosis, 
oblongis, eupreo-hirsutis, 1-ovulatis. 

A shrub or small tree entirely glabrous except the flowers. 
Branches and branchlets slender, pale when dry, terete or the 
branchlets somewhat enlarged and slightly compressed at the 
nodes. Leaves chartaceous, olivaceous and shining on both sur- 
faces, linear-lanceolate 20 to 30 cm. long, 1.5 to 2.5 cm. wide, 
narrowed upward to the acuminate apex, the base rather abruptly 
acnte, sometimes rounded; lateral nerves impressed on the upper 
surface, very prominent on the lower surface, the latter about 23 
on each side of the midrib, straight or somewhat curved, 
anastomosing directly with the somewhat arched, equally distinct, 
submarginal nerves, the reticulations lax, obscure. Flowers cauline 
or on the larger branches below the leaves, solitary or fascicled, 
about 2.3 cm. long, their pedicels pubescent, 3 to 4 mm. in length. 
Sepals ovate, prominently acuminate, slightly pubescent, obscurely 
nerved, about 6 mm. long, 4.5 mm. wide. Outer petals lanceolate, 
about 2.3 cm. long, 7 to 8 mm. wide, acuminate, slightly pubescent; 
inner petals much thickened, ovate-lanceolate, about 12 mm. long, 
blunt-acuminate, pubescent, the upper portion of the cone 
triangular. Carpels many, oblong, 1-ovulate, 1.5 mm. long, ap- 
pressed-pubescent; styles elongated, pubescent, 3 to 3.5 mm. long; 
stigmas somewhat expanded!, not lobed nor toothed. Anthers 
•oblong, 2.5 mm. long, their connectives apiculate. 

Sarawak, Siol, Native collector 2^23, February to June, 1914, 
the flowers indicated as yellow. A very strongly marked species 
readily recognizable by its chartaceous, linear-lanceolate, pro- 
minently nerved leaves, the midrib, lateral and marginal nerves 
being impressed on the upper surface and very prominent on the 
lower surface. 

<Joniothalamus nitidus sp. nov. 

Arbor circiter 7 m. alta, ramulis junioribus plus minusve 
cupreo- vel castaneo-pubescentibus, ramis glabris; foliis olivaceis, 
utrinque nitidis, supra glabris, subtus glabris vel parce 
pubescentibus, chartaceis, oblongis vel oblongo-ellipticis, 22-30 
cm. longis, apice abrupte obtuseque acuminatis, basi acutis, nervis 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



182 NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNE AN PLANTS. 

utrinque 17-20, subtus perspicuis, arcuato-anastomosantibus ; 
floribus fascieulatis, caulinis vel in rani is vetttstioribus, pedicel- 
latis, plusminusve 6.5 cm. longis, leviter pubesceiitibus ; sepalis orbi- 
culari-ovatis, 1 em. diametro, reticulars; petalis exterioribus lanceo- 
latis, longe acuminatis, 1.5-2 cm. latis, interioribns calyptratis, 1 cm. 
longis; carpellis numerosis, 1- vel 2-ovulatis, hirsutis, stylis 3 mm. 
longis, glabris, stigmate 2-lobato, lobis subflabellatis ; frnctibns 
oblongo-obovoideis, rugosis, glabris, circiter 2 cm. longis ; seminibus 
1, rariter 2. 

A tree about 7 m. high, the very young branchlets more oi* 
less cupreous- or castaneous-pubescent, the flowers also somewhat 
pubescent. Brandies dark-colored when dry, glabrous. Leaves 
olivaceous, shining on both surfaces, oblong to oblong-elliptic, 
22 to 30 cm. long, 6 to 10 cm. wide, chartaceous, the apex abruptly 
and obtusely acuminate, the base acute, the upper surface glabrous, 
the lower surface sparingly pubescent, ultimately glabrous or 
nearly so; lateral nerves 17 to 20 on each side of the midrib, 
prominent on the lower surface, nearly straight, anastomosing 
directly with more or less arched marginal nerves 3 to 7 mm. from 
the edge of the leaf ; the marginal nerves 1 as prominent as the lateral 
ones, the reticulations subparallel, slender, rather' lax ; petioles 1 to 
1.5 cm. long, slightly pubescent, ultimately glabrous. Mowers 
dark-red! or reddish-brown, fascicled on the branches below the 
leaves and on the trunk, about 6.5 cm. long, their pedii cells 
dark-brown when dry, sparingly ferruginous pubescent, 1.5 
to 2 cm. long, each subtended by several ovate or oblong- 
ovate densely pubescent bracts 2 to 2.5 mm. in length. 
Sepals orbicular-ovate, nearly free, about 1 cm. in diameter, 
rounded or very shortly and obtusely acuminate, somewhat 
pubescent and distinctly nerved. Outer three petals lanceolate, 
6 to 6.5 cm. long, 1.5 to 2 cm. wide, somewhat narrowed below, 
greatly narrowed upward to the rather slenderly but obtusely 
acuminate apex, sparingly appressed-pubescent on both surfaces, 
brown when dry, with a distinct midrib and several slender lateral 
nerves; inner three petals connivent, about 2.3 cm. long, 1 cm. wide, 
pubescent external ly, glabrous inside, the lower surface of the 
cone somewhat inflated, then contracted, the upper part sharply 
triangular. Stamens very numerous, oblong, 3.5 mm. long, the 
connectives apiculate. Carpels many, oblong, inequilateral, 1.5 
mm. long, pubescent, 1- or 2-ovulate; styles about 3 mm. long, 
glabrous, thickened upward, the stigma somewhat 2-lobed, the 
lobes more or less flabellate. Fruits oblong-ovoid, brown when 
dry, rugose, glabrous, about 2 cm. long, the apex rounded, base 
acute, the pedicels sparingly pubescent, their apices somewhat 
triangular. Seeds 1 or 2, obovoid, compressed, about 1.5 cm. long. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima, near Sandakan, Ramos 
1668 (type), 1721f, 1276. On steep forested ridges and along small 
streams in forests at low altitudes. A species apparently allied 
to Goniothalamus fasciculatus BoerL, from which it differs in its 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 183 

■ehartaceous, abruptly an shortly obtuse-acuminate leaves, 
orbicular-ovate and distinctly nerved sepals, and in its larger 
flowers, the external petals not caudate-acuminate, the internal 
petals much larger and up to 2.3 cm in length. 

Goniothalamus dolichocarpus sp. nov. 

Frutex 1 ad 3 m. alius, floribus exceptis glaber; foliis chartaceis 
vel sub co ria eeis 1 , oblongo-lanceolatis vel obilongo-oblanceolatis vel 
oblongo-elliptieis, in siccitate utrinque griseis et minutissime 
verruculosis, 25-40 cm. longis, 7-12 cm. latis, obtuse 
acuminatis, basi acutis vel subrotundatis, nervis utrinque 
15-30, supra leviter impressis, subtus perspicuis, arcuato- 
.anastomosantibus ; floribus caulinis, plerumque solitariis, 3 cm. 
longis, petalis coriaceis, cinereo-pubescentibus, exterioribus 
-oblongo-lanceolatis, 8-10 mm. latis, interioribus conniventibus, 
2.2 cm. longis; antheris 3.5-4 mm. longis, connectivo rostrato; 
«carpellis circiter 10, oblongis, 5- vel 9-ovulatis, stigmate truncato; 
fructibus c}dindraceis, 6-11 cm. longis, 1.5-2 cm. diametro, 
glabris, seminibus 4-9. 

A shrub 1 to 3 m. high, the trunk 1 to 2.5 cm. in diameter, 
glabrous except the flowers, branches grayish or brownish, rather 
smooth, terete, the ultimate ones 2 to 3 mm. in diameter. Leaves 
•ehartaceous to subeoriacoous, oblong-lanceolate to obiong- 
oblanceolate or oblong-elliptic, grayish, and shining on both sur- 
faces when dry and usually minutely verruculose, 25 to 40 cm. 
long, 7 to 12 cm. wide, obtusely acuminate, the base acute to 
.somewhat rounded: lateral nerves 15 to 30 on each side of the 
midrib, slightly impressed on the upper surface, conspicuous on 
the lower surface, arched-anastomosing, forming a more or less 
looped marginal nerve, the reticulations lax, not prominent; 
petioles 1.2 to 2 cm. long. Flowers chiefly from the trunk and 
larger branches below the leaves, sometimes axillaiw, solitary, 
;about 3 cm. long, greenish-white, the pedicels about 1.5 cm. long, 
the basal bracteoles triangular, pubescent, about 2 mm. long. 
Calyx about 1.3 cm. in diameter, the lobes coriaceous, ovate, con- 
spicuously acuminate, somewhat pubescent, about 7 mm. long. 
Petals coriaceous, the outer three lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, 
somewhat pubescent on both surfaces, about 3 cm. long, 8 to 10 
mm. wide, narrowed upward, slightly acuminate ; inner three petals 
•oblong-lanceolate, cinereous-pubescent on both surfaces except at 
the vaulted base inside, 2.2 cm. long, 8 mm. wide, obtuse, the base 
■slightly vaulted and distinctly clawed!, the claw stout, 4 to, 5 mm. 
long. * Stamens numerous, 3.5 to 4 mm. long, the connectives 
rostrate. Carpels about 10, oblong, pubescent, 3 mm. long, the 
glabrous style equalling the carpels; stigma truncate; ovules 5 
to 9. Fruits cylindric, 2 to 4 on each peduncle, yellow when fresh, 
dark-brown or gray when dry, glabrous, 6 to 11 cm. long, 1.5 to 
2 cm. in diameter; seeds 4 to 9. 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



184 NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNE AN PLANTS. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima and Sibuga, near Sandakaru 
Ramos 1259, 1623 (type), 1654, 1879, October, November, and 
December, 1920. In thickets and in forests along small streams 
at low altitudes, locally known as babancaon. A remarkable 
species on account of the small size of the plant; its elongated 
leaves which in color and texture resemble those of Goniothalamus 
macro plu/lhis Hook. f. and Th., its usually solitary and chiefly 
cauline flowers; its numerous ovules; and its greatly elongated r 
cylindric, 4- to 9-seeded fruits. In its numerous ovules it tran- 
scends the limits of the genus Goniothalamus, but unmistakably 
belongs in this group. 

Poly alt hi a Blume. 

Polyalthia tenuipes sp. nov. 

Frutex 3 ad 4 m. altus, ramulis leviter pubescentibus ; foliis 
breviter petiolatis, oblongo-elliptieis, chartaceis vel subcoriaceis^ 
glabris, 18-30 cm. longis, 5-10 cm. latis, aeuminatis, basi 
obtusis vel subrotundatis, symmetricis, leviter auriculato-cordatis, 
supra castaneis vel brunneo-olivaeeis, nitidis, subtus pallidioribus 
vel brunneis, nervis utrinque 15-17, subtus valde perspicuis, 
arcuato-anastomosantibus, nervis secundariis et reticulis distinctis; 
infructescentiis axillaribus, longissime pedunculatis, pedunculo 10 
-20 cm. longo; fructibus ellipsoideis, 1 cm. longis, perspicue 
apiculatis, parcissime hirsutis, castaneis vel brunneis, pedicellis 
1.5-2 cm. longis. 

A shrub 3 to 4 m. high, the young branchlets slightly 
pubescent, the older branches brown or dark-brown when dry. 
Leaves shortly petioled, oblong-elliptic, 18 to 30 cm. long, 4.5 to 
11 cm. wide, chartaceous or subcoriaceous, glabrous, the apex short- 
ly acuminate, the base obtuse or somewhat rounded, symmetrical. 
slightly auricnlate-cordate, the upper surface castaneous or 
brownish-olivaceous, smooth, shining, the lower surface paler r 
usually brownish; lateral nerves 15 to 17 on each side of the 
midrib, very prominent on the lower surface, arched-anastomosing, 
the reticulations lax, distinct ; petioles stout, 5 num. long or less.. 
Flowers unknown. Fruiting peduncles axillary, slender, 10 to 20 
cm. long, glabrous o r slightly pubescent, the torus subglobose, up 
to 7 nun. in diameter, more or less ferruginous-hirsute. Fruits 
usually numerous, up to 30 on each peduncle, ellipsoid, about 1 cm. 
long, red when fresh, dark-brown when dry, very slightly appressed- 
hirsute, distinctly apieulate, their pedicels 1.5 to 2 cm. long,, 
sparingly appressed-pubesccnt. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima, near Sandakan, Ramos 
1501 (type), 1328, 1285, 1931, October and November 1920; Wood 
902, October, 1920. In dam]) forests at low altitudes. A species 
apparently most closely allied to Polyalthia longipes (Miq.) Ivoord. 
and Val. of Java, but differing from this and from its ally, 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW OE NOTEWOETHY BOENEAN PLANTS. 185 

P subcordata Blume. in its more numerously nerved leaves which 
are symmetrical, not inequilateral at the base, its much longer 
peduncles, and its apicnlate fruits. 

Polyalthia xanthopetala sp. nov. 

Abor 9 vel 12 m. alta, ramulis dense ferrugineo-pubescentibus ; 
foliis oblongis vel late oblongo-oblaneeolatis, 18-25 cm. tangis, 
subeoriaeeis, nitidis, brunneo-olivaceis, costa utrinque pubescentibus, 
acuminatis, basi late acutiis 1 vel subrotundatis, nervis utrinque 
•t-irciter 13, subtus perspicuis; florifcras 7 cm. longis, fasciculatis, 
pedieellatis, eaulinis et in ramis vetustioribus ; petalis subaequalibus, 
lanceolatis, eireiiter 7 em. longis, 10-12 mini, latis, acuminatis, 
leviter pubescentibus; carpelis numerous, oblongis, pubescentibus, 
1-ovulatis; fructibus subglobosis vel ovo'ideis, 2-2.5 cm. diainctro, 
■den se pubescentibus . 

A tree 8 to 10 m. high, the bran chiefs slender, densely 
ferruginous-pubescent, the ultimate ones 1.5 mm. in diameter. 
Branches rugose when dry, glabrous, dark-colored. Leaves oblong 
to broadly oblong-lanceolate, subcoriaceous, 18 to 25 cm. long, 4 
to 8 cm. wide, rather conspicuously acuminate, base broadly acute 
to somewhat rounded, the upper surface olivaceous, shining, 
glabrous except for the pubescent midrib, the lower surface some- 
what paler, glabrous, or the midrib usually somewhat pubescent; 
lateral nerves about 13 on each side of the midrib, prominent on 
the lower surface, somewhat curved, scarcely anastomosing, the 
reticulations rather close, slender; petioles 5 to 10 mm. long, 
ferruginous-pubescent, in age glabrous. Flowers yellow, about 7 
•cm. long, fascicled on the trunk and on the branches below the 
leaves, few in a fascicle, their pedicels densely ferruginous- 
pubescent, 1.5 to 2.5 cm. long. Sepals triangular-ovate, acute, 
pubescent. 5 to 6 mm. long. Petals subequal, distinctly pubescent 
at the base outside, very sparingly pubescent above or glabrous 
inside, lanceolate, about 7 cm. long, 10 to 12 mm. wide, slightly 
-acuminate. Stamens indefinite, oblong, 1.5 mm. long, the con- 
nectives produced, rounded, truncate. Carpels many, oblong, 
densely appressed-pubescent, 1.3 mm. long, 1-ovulate; st}'les some- 
what club-shaped, 2 mm. long, deciduous. Mature fruits sub- 
globose or somewhat ellipsoid, about 2 to 2.5 cm. in diameter, 
-densely ferruginous-pubescent as are the fruiting pedicels, the 
torus in fruit about 1 cm. in diameter. 

British Xorth Borneo, Batu Lima, near Sandakan, Ramos 1705 
(type), 1^12, 1S20, Agama 1027, October and November, 1920. 
In damp forests at low altitudes. A species apparently allied to 
Polyalthia lateriflora King, but at once distinguishable, among other 
-characters, by its densely pubescent fruits. 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



ISO NEW OK NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 

Polyalthia dolichophylla Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 
391. 

British North Borneo, Labuk, Sekong, Sebuga, Foxworthy 
621, Villa mil 26k, Ramos 157 3, 1639, 16'k®, 1717, 1739, 11k0% 
Domingo 1110, In damp forests along small streams at low alti- 
tudes. A tine series of specimens of this very characteristic species 
matching in all respects our series of specimens from Panay. The 
species was previously known only from Panay. 

Polyalthia subcordata Blume PI. Jav. Anon. (1828) 71,*. 33, 
36B; Koord. & Valet on Bijdr. Boomsoort. Java 9 (1903) 292. 
British North Borneo, Kalabakan, Tawao, Bibuga, and Batn 
Lima, Wood 905, Yillamil 2k6, Ramos 1198, 1.63&, 1661, 1878, 
1928, 1930. In damp forests along small streams at low altitudes. 
The fine series of specimens apparently represent the typical Javan 
form of the species, agreeing closely with Javan material and with 
the descriptions based on Javan material. I am inclined to believe- 
that the Malay Peninsula form described and figured by King* as 
Blume's species is specifically distinct. 

Polyalthia lateriflora (Blume) King in Journ. As Soc. Bengal 
61 2 (1892) o$, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 4 (1893) 73, t 102. 
Guatteria lateriflora Blume Bijdr. (1825) 2<0, Fl. Jav. Ann. 

(1828) 100, /. 50, 52 D. 
Sarawak, Saniatang and Saiitubong, Foxworthy 167, 4k9, both 

in fruit. May and June, 1908. Malay Peninsula. Java. 

Popowia Endlicher. 
Popowia velutina King in Journ. As. Soc. Bengal 61 2 (1892') 

94, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 4 (1893) 120, /. 162B. 

British. North Borneo, Sandakaii, lYood 850. On forested 
slopes at low altitudes. Malay Peninsula (Perak). 

Phaeanthus Hooker f. and Thomson. 
Phaeanthus impressinervius sp. now 

Arbor parva, ramulis floribusqne dense ferrngineo- vel 
castaneo-pubescentibus, ramis glabris; foliis oblongo-oblaiiceolatis 
vel elliptico-oblanceolatis, 17-25 cm. longis, subcoriaceis, in 
siccitate atro-olivaeeis, utrinque nitidis, glabris, vel subtus ad 
costam nervosque })arce pubescentibus, apice acuminatis, basi acutis, 
nervis utrinque circiter 12, supra impressis, subtus valde perspicuis, 
arcuato-anastomosantibus ; floribus circiter 2.3 cm. longis, extus 
dense ferrugino- vel castaneo-pubescentibus; sepalis petalisque 
exterioribus subaequalibus, ovato-lanceolatis, 1.5-2 mm. longis, 
acuminatis, petalis interioribus 10 mm. latis, acuminatis; capellis 
nnmerosis, J-ovulatis. stigmate ol)longo-obovoideo, dense fer- 
rugineo-pubescente. 

Jour. Straits Brancb 



NEW OE NOTEWORTHY BORNE AN PLANTS. 187 

A small tree, the younger branchlets and flowers densely 
ferruginous- or castaneous-pubescent, the branches glabrous, 
brown , rugose. Leaves oblong-oblanceolate to elliptic-oblanceolate, 
17 to 25 cm. long, 5.5 to 8 cm. wide, subcoriaceous, dark-olivaceous 
and shining on both surfaces when dry, the upper surface glabrous 
or, when young, sparingly pubescent along the midrib, the lower 
surface slightly pubescent along the midrib and lateral nerves, 
ultimately glabrous or nearly so, the apex acuminate, base acute; 
lateral nerves about 12 on each side of the midrib, impressed on 
the upper surface, very prominent on the lower surface, arched- 
anastomosing, the reticulations slender, lax; petioles somewhat 
pubescent, 8 to 10 mm. long. Flowers about 2.3 cm. long, external- 
ly very densely ferruginous- or castaneous-pubescent, blunt- 
acuminate; sepals and exterior petals subequal, ovate-lanceolate, 
1.5 to 2 mm. long, acuminate, the interior petals broadly lanceolate, 
acuminate, up to 2.5 cm. long, 1 cm. wide, internally glabrous. 
Anthers many, oblong, slightly narrowed below, the connectives 
truncate. Carpels many, oblong, 1-ovulate, appressed-pubescent, 
2 mm. long; stigmas oblong-obovate, densely ferruginous-pubescent, 
including the glabrous styleabout 1.2 mm. in length. 

British North Borneo, Sibuga, near Sandakan, Ramos 1192, 
December, 1920. In damp forests along small streams at low 
.altitudes. A species well characterized by its densely ferruginous- 
or castaneous-pubescent flowers and its subcoriaceous, very pro- 
minently nerved leaves, the midrib and nerves being conspicuously 
impressed on the upper surface. 

Uvar'm Linnaeus. 

Uvaria micrantha (DC.) Hook. f. & Th. Fl. Ind. (1855) 103; 
King in Ann. Bot. Card. Calcutta (1893) 26, t. 18. 
Guatteria micrantha DC. Mem. Anon. (1832) 42u 
British North Borneo, Mempakat, near Ivudat, Agama 10S1, 
Xovember 12, 1920, in thickets near the seashore. Burma to 
Iiido-China, Malay Peninsula;, 'Sumatra, Luzon, Mindoro, Panay, 
and Palawan. 

Woodielta genus novum. 
Sepala valvata, deorsum connata. Petala crassa, elongata, 
valvata, omnia usque ad 1 cm. connata, exteriora elliptica vel 
oblougo-elliptica, interiora, angustiora, oblaneeolata. Stamina 
niumerosa, oblonga, connectivo oblique truncate. Carpella numer- 
osa, oblonga, 1-ovulata, stigmatibus compressis, orbicularibus, sessi- 
libus, deciduis. — Arbor tparYa, inflorescentiis exceptis glabra; folia 
■oblonga-elliptica vel oblongo-lanceolata, symmetrica, floribus 
meojiocris, caulinis, fasciculatis, pedicellatis. 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



188 NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BOEXEAN PLANTS. 

Woodiella sympetala sp. nov. 

Arbor circiter 5 m. alta, inflorescentiis exceptis glabra, ramis 
teretibus, rairmlis tenuibus; foliis oblongo-ellipticis vel oblongo- 
lanceolatis, ehartaeeis, 20-35 cm. longis, acuminatis, basi acutis 
vel rotundatis, nervis utrinque circiter 12, subtus perspicuis 
curvatis, obscure anatomosantibus ; floribus fasciculatis, 3.5- 
-1 cm. longis, leviter pubescentibus, petalis deorsum omnino- 
connatis ; fasciculis eaulinis et in ramis yetustioribus, pftucinoris. 

A tree about 5 m. high, glabrous except the inflorescences, 
branches and branchlets terete, grayish, the ultimate branchlets 
about 1.5 mm. in diameter. Leaves oblong-elliptic to oblong- 
lanceolate, chartaeeous, 20 to 35 cm. long, 6 to 13 cm. wide, rather 
pale when dry, shining, the apex rather conspicuously acuminate, 
base acute to rounded; lateral nerves about 12 on each side of the 
midrib, usually slightly impressed on the upper surface, very 
prominent on the lower surface, somewhat ascending, slightly 
curved, obscurely anastomosing, the primary reticulations slender, 
rather lax, subparaMel ; petioles 5 to 1,0 mini. long. Flowers 
fascicled on the branches below the leaves and on nodules on the 
trunk, yellowish-white, pedicelledi, 3.5 to 4 cm. long, sparingly 
pubescent, their pedicels 2.5 to 3 cm. long, somewhat pubescent 
and with a small bracteole below the middle. Calyx about 1.5 cm. 
in diameter, somewhat pubescent, 3-lobed, the lobes broadly ovate, 
obtuse or acute, valvate, 8 to 9 mm. wide. Petals 6, valvate in two 
series, coriaceous, black when dry, wholly united for the lower 
1 cm. the free portions of the outer ones oblong-elliptic to elliptic- 
obtuse, somewhat narrowed below. 3 cm. long, 12 mm. wide, the 
inner three narrowly oblaneeolate, as long as the outer ones, but 
about one-half as wide, all thickly coriaceous, the tubular lower 
part of the corolla cylindric or slightly contracted at the throat, 
the lobes ascending or somewhat spreading. Stamens numerous. 
3 mm. long, the connectives truncate, overlapping, only slightly 
produced. Carpels numerous, oblong, appressed-pubescent, 1.8 
to 2 mm. long with 1 basal ovule; stigtma orbicular, glabrous, 
compressed, sessile, about 0.8 num. in diameter. Fruits oblong- 
ovoid, about 4 cm. long, dark -brown when dry, somewhat pubescent, 
subequally narrowed to the acute base and the obtuse apex, their 
pedicels pubescent, about 8 mm. long, the torus somewhat thick- 
ened, 1 cm. in diameter, ferruginous-pubescent; seed rather large 
(immature). 

British North Borneo, Sibuga and Kalabakan, near Sandakan, 
Ramos 1562 (type), 1808, Villamil 262, September and Xovember,. 
1916 and 1920. In damp forests, sometimes along small streams 
at low altitudes. This proposed new genus is dedicated to Mr. 
T). 1). Wood, Conservator of Forests, British Xorth Borneo. 
Through its petals being entirely united for the lower 1 cm. and 
otherwise strictly valvate, this proposed new genus approximates 
to Papualthia, a genus well represented in the Philippines and in 
New Guinea; it differs from Papualthia in its strictly 1-ovulate 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORXEAN PLANTS. 189> 

carpels and in its symmetrical leaves. Its alliances otherwise are 
manifestly with PolyaltMa S Monoon, from which it is at once 
distinguishable by its united petals. Like PapuaJthia it is probably 
a derivative of Polyalthia. Its flowers somewhat resemble those 
of Enicosantliiiin, but structurally are very different from those of 
that genus, and the proposed new genus is certainly not closely 
allied to Enicosantlium. 



MYRISTICACEAE. 
Knetna Loureiro 

Knema winkleri sp. nov. 

Arbor, inhorescentiis exceptis glabra, ramulis ferrugineis, 
gilaberrimis ; foliis oblongis vel oblongo-eliipticis, coriaceis, 11- 
14 cm. longis. utrinque acutis, supra nitidis, olivaeeis. subtus 
glaucis, nervis utrinque circiter 11, distiuctis : noribus 6 in ala- 
bastris depresso-globosis, subtriangularibusque. feorugineo-pubes-- 
centibus, circiter 2.5 mm. diametro: pedicellis circiter 4 mm. longis; 
disco stamineo brevissime stipitato, glabro, triangulare 1.5 mm. 
diametro; antheris 6, in paribus ad angulos dispositis. 

A tree entirely glabrous except the inflorescences. Branches 
dark-brown, terete, somewhat rugose, the bark fissured when dry. 
the very young branchlets ferruginous, shining, not at all pubes- 
cent. Leaves oblong to oblong-elliptic, coriaceous, 11 to 14 cm. 
long, 4.5 to 5.5 cm. wide, slightly subequally narrowed to the acute 
base and apex, the upper surface olivaceous, shining, the lower 
surface glaucous, the midrib and lateral nerves distinct on both 
surfaces, very prominent beneath, the nerves about 11 on each side 
of the midrib, the reticulations evident on both surfaces; petioles 
about 1.5 cm. long. Staminate flowers fascicled in the leaf axils 
and in the axils of fallen leaves, 5 to 10 in a fascicle, the pedicels 
minutely ferruginous-pubescent, about 4 mm. long, with a very 
small bracteole at the upper one-fourth, the buds minutely ferru- 
ginous-pubescent, depressed-globose, distinctly triangular, about 
2.5 mm. in diameter; perianth -lobes coriaceous, orbicular-ovate, 
about 3 mm. long. iStaminal disk subsessile, triangular, about 1.5 
mm. in diameter, the anthers 6, in pairs, a pair at each angle of 
the disk. 

Dutch Borneo, Hayoep, Winkler 2390. 1908. A remarkably 
distinct species. The specimens have been distributed as Litsect 
sp. It apparently is most closely allied to Knew a wrayi Warb. of 
the Malay Peninsula, from which it is distinguished by its flowers, 
nerves, and especially by its distinctly triangular buds, strongly 
triangular stamina! disk, and by it? few anthers, these being 6 only 
and in pairs at the angles of the disk, the sides of the disk being 
naked and without anthers. 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



190 NEW OE NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 

Knema oblongata sp. nov. 

Arbor, ramulis dense ferrugineo-ciliato-tomentosis, ramis 
glabris: foliis oblongis,, cftiantaceis vel snibcooaeeis, 20-40 cm. 
longis, acuminatis, basi rotundatis, rariter subacutis, supra glabris, 
laevibus (nitidis pallidis vel brunneis, subtus pallidioribus et leviter 
ciliato-pufoescenitibus, nervis utrinque cireiter 3£, supra leviter 
impressis, subtus valde perspicuis, reticulis subtus distinctis, supra 
subobsoletis ; fructibus pedicellatis', ellipsoideis, 2. 5-3 cm. longis. 
dense ferrugineo tomentosis, indumento plumoso, arillo apice tan- 
tum laeiniato. 

A tree about 8 m. high, the branchlets densely ferruginous- 
ciliate-tomentose, the branches glabrous or nearly so. Leaves ob- 
long, ebartaceous to subcoriaceous, 20 to 40 cm. long, 4 to TO cm. 
wide, the apex distinctly acuminate, the base rounded, rarely sub- 
acute, the upper surface glabrous, smooth, shining, brownish or 
pale when dry, the lower surface paler, sometimes more or less 
glaucous, more or less ciliate-pube^cent, the indumentum pale or 
ferruginous, rather dense along the midrib, scattered and more or 
less deciduous on the surface ; lateral nerves about 23 on each side 
of the midrib, slightly impressed on the upper surface, very pro- 
minent on the lower surface, ana-tomosing, the reticulations rather 
close, distinct on the lower surface, but indistinct or often nearly 
obsolete on the upper surface: petioles rather stout, ferruginous- 
pubescent, 1 to 1.5 cm. long. Fruits axillary and in the axils of 
fallen leaves, ellipsoid, 2.5 to 3 cm. long, densely ferruginous- 
torn entose, the indumentum distinctly plumose. Aril lacerate only 
near the apex. Pedicels stout, ferruginous-pubescent, 8 to 10 mm. 
long. 

British Xorth Borneo, Batu Lima near Sandakan, Ramos 
llf.33, 1721, 1757, 1663 (type), October and Xovember, 1920; 
Agama 1003, Xovember, 1920. On forested slopes ar low altitudes 
locally known as dara-dara. A species apparently most closely 
allied to Knema laurina Warb. from which it is distinguished by 
its more numerous nerves and by the reticulations being nearly 
obsolete on the upper surface. The leaves are also much larger 
than in Warburg's species, while the fruits are distinctly pedicelled. 

Knema nitida sp. nov. 

Arbor, inflorescentiis excepts glabra, ramulis tenuibus, plerum- 
que verruculosis : foliis chartaceis vel subcoriaceis, elliptieis vel ob- 
longo-ellipticis, 18-30 am. longis. apace rotundatis, obtusis vel 
obscure acuminatis, basi plerumque rotundatis, supra olivaceis, 
nitidis, siubtos b runnels), nervis utrinque 14-20, subtus valde 
perspicuis, reticulis subparallelis, utrinque distinctis; floribus 9 
fasciculatis, pedicellatiis, 7 ad 8 mm. longis, lobis ovatis vel oblonu - - 
ovatisf, 4.5-5 mm. longis ; $ 8-9 mm. diametlroj, lobisi late 
ovatis, disco staniineo breviter stipitato, distincte triangulare, 2 
num. diametro, antheris (5; fructibus ellipsoideils, 3-4 cm. longis, 
minute ferrugineo-puberulis glabrescentibus, arillo apice tan turn 
laeiniato. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 191 

A tree about 8 in. high, glabrous except the inflorescences which 
are more or less ferruginous-pubescent. Branches brown, terete, 
somewhat wrinkled when dry,. the bark slightly or not at all fissured, 

the ultimate branchlets about 2 mm. in diameter, usually slightly 
verruculose. Leaves chartaceous or subcoriaeeous, elliptic to oblong- 
elliptic, IS to 30 cm. long, 7 to 12 cm. wide, the lapex rounded, 
obtuse or sometimes obscurely acuminate, the base usually rounded, 
the upper surface olivaceous, strongly shining, the lower surface 
brownish, sometimes slightly glaucous; lateral nerves 14 to 20 
on each side of the midrib, very prominent on the lower surface, 
somewhat spreading, curved, obscurely anastomosing, the reticula- 
tions subparallel, distinct on both surfaces, petioles 2 to 3 cm. long. 
Pistillate flowers fascicled, axillary, their pedicels up to 10 mm. 
long: perianth 7 to 8 mm. long, the buds oblong, cylindric, the lobes 
ovate to oblong-ovate, rounded or subacute, glabrous, 4.5 to 5 mm. 
long, coriaceous, united below into a. sparingly ferruginous-pubes- 
cent, 2 to 3 mm. long tube; ovary ovoid, pubescent, the style stout, 
glabrous, 1.5 mm. long. Staminate flowers 8 to 9 mm. in diameter. 
the lobes broadly ovate, concave, rounded or obtuse, glabrous or 
obscurely pubescent, the buds depressed-globose, the pedicels 5 to 
6 mm. long, somewhat pubescent ; staminal disk shortly stipitate, 
the disk distinctly triangular, about 2 mm. in diameter, the anthers 
6, in pairs at the angles of the disk. Fruits ellipsoid, brown when 
dry, 3 to 1 cm. long, minutely ferruginous-pubescent or ultimately 
glabrous, their pedicels stout, 1 to 2 cm. long. Aril lacerate only 
at the apex. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima and Sebuga, near Sandakan, 
Ramos 1278, 1-5-30 (type), 1664, 1?®9, 190.2, October, November,' 
and December, 1920. Along small streams in damp forests at low 
altitudes. A species apparently most closely allied to Knema 
horthalsii Wa;rb., but its ultimate branchlets entirely glabrous, the 
leaves relatively much wider and with fewer nerves, the reticulations 
distinct on both surfaces, the anthers 6 only and borne on the 
angles of the distinctly triangular staminal disk. It is one of the 
few known species with relatively large staminate flowers. 



LAURACEAE. 

Actinodaphne Xees. 

Actinodapfrne diversifolia sp. nov. 

xlrbor parva, ramis glabris, laevibus, ramulis dense ferrugineo- 
pubescentibus : foliis vertieillatis, 10-30 cm. longis, utrinque 
subaequaliter argustatis, basi acutis vel cuneatis, apice tenuiter 
atro-brunneis, ferrugineo-villosis, nervis utrinque circiter 10. 
subtus valde perspicuis, reticulis primariis subparallelis, dis- 
tinctis ; umbelhilis f asciculatis axillaribus extra-axillaribusque : 
bracteis orbiculari-ovatis, rotundatis, 2 mm. longis, deciduis, 
sessilibus vel subsessilibus, paucifloris ; perianthiii segment-is dense 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



192 NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 

fer'ruginco-piibescentibus, late ovatis; staminodeis 9, lanceoktis, 
membranaceis, filamentis brevibus, longis&ime eiliatis; sepalis 
.accreseentibus. in cupulo 4-5 mm. diamietro, Labis subpersisten- 
tibus; fnictibus ovoideis vel ellipsoideis. 

A small tree, the branches glabrous or nearly so, smooth, the 
branehlets, inflorescences, and lower surface of the leaves con- 
spicuously pubescent. Leaves verticillate, lanceolate to oblong- 
lanceolate, subcoriaceous, 10 to 30 cm, long, 3 to 7 cm. wide, 
subequally narrowed to the cuneate or acute base and to the rather 
slenderly and sharply acuminate apex, the upper surface smooth, 
grayish-green when dry, shining, the lower surface rather dark- 
brown and densely ferruginous- villous on the midrib and lateral 
nerves, the hairs on the reticulations more scattered; lateral nerves 
about 10 on each side of the midrib, curved-ascending, not very 
evident on the upper surface, very prominent on the lower surface, 
the primary reticulations subparallel, rather close, distinct; petioles 
1 to 3.5 cm. long. Flowers fascicled at the nodes and also along 
the internodes of the ultimate branehlets, ferruginous-pubescent, 
the subtending bracts orbicular-ovate, rounded, more or less ciliate, 
about 2 mm. in diameter, deciduous. .Staminate flowers several 
in each umbellule, the umbellules sessile or nearly so. Perianth 
segments densely appressed-pubescent, broadly ovate, 2 to 2.2 mm. 
long. Staminodes 9, membranaceous, lanceolate, glabrous, about 
1 mm. long, their short filaments iong-ciliate; glands conspicuous, 
'Ovoid-reniform, 0.5 mm. long. Calyx-tube in fruit somewhat cup- 
shaped, -1 to 5 mm. in diameter, ferruginous-pubescent outside, 
villous inside, the perianth-lobes subpersistant, the pedicels stout, 
ferruginous-pubescent, 3 to -1 mm. long. Young fruits ovoid or 
■ellipsoid, black when dry, wrinkled, about 8 mm. long. 

British North Borneo, Sebuga, near Sandakan, Ramos 1838,. 
December, 1920. In damp forests' at low altitudes. A species 
perhaps as closely allied to A cti no daphne ridleyi Gamble as to 
any -other species, but differing radically in its vegetative characters. 

Litsea Lamarck. 

Litsea cuprea sp. no v. 

Arbor parva, ramis olivaceis, subgliabris, laevibus, eirciter 1 
cm. diametro; foliis altermife lanceolatis, subeoriaceis>, 35-40 
cm. longis, utrinque snbaequaliter angustatis, basi .cuneatis, apice 
tenuiter acuminatis, supra' glabris, griseo-olivaoeis, nitidis, subtus 
densissime cupr'eo-pubescenitibns, indiumento nitido adpresso, nervis 
utrinque 15-18, adscendentibus, disitinctis; umbelluiis fasciculatis, 
axillaribus,,, isubsestsiflrbus ; bracteiis denlsie {brimneonpubescentibus, 
■orbicnlari-ovatis, 4-5 mm. diametro; perianthii segmentis elliptico- 
ovatis, obtusis, 3 mm. longis, staminibus fertilibus 9, filamentis 2 
mm. longis, parce eiliatis, staminodeis in floribus ? linearibus vel 
limeari-spatulatfls, 1-1.2 mm. longis. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNE AN PLANTS. 193 

A small tree, the branches brownish-olivaceous, about 1 cm. in 
-diameter, smooth, glabrous or slightly pubescent. Leaves alternate, 
subeoriaceous, 35 to 40 cm. long, 8 to 10 cm. wide, subequally 
narrowed to the cuneate base and to the slenderly acuminate apex, 
the upper surface smooth, glabrous, grayish-olivaceous, the lower sur- 
face cupreous, densely pubescent with very short, appressed, sonie- 
wfbat shining hairs; lateral nerves 15 to 18 on each .side of the mid- 
rib, curved-ascending at an angle of about 45°, distinct on the 
lower surface, obscure on the upper surface, the primary reticulations 
rather distinct beneath; petioles glabrous, 2 to 2.5 cm. long. 
Umbellules fascicled in the leaf axils, few in a fascicle, subsessile, 
the peduncles at most 2 mm, long, these and the involucral bracts 
►densely brown-pubescent, the bracts 4, orbicular-ovate, 4 to 5 mm. 
in diameter. Flowers about 5 in each umibellule, their pedicels 
•stout, 3 mm. long, densely pubescent. Perianth-segments of the 
staminate flowers elliptic-ovate, obtuse, somewhat pubescent, 3 
mm. long. Fertile stamens 9, their filaments about 2 mm. long, 
sparingly ciliate ; anthers all 4-ceilled, 1.2 to 1.5 mm. long. Pistil- 
late flowers similar to the staminate ones, the staminodes linear to 
linear-spatulate, 1 to 1.2 mm. long, the glands conspicuous. Ovary 
glabrous, stigma very large. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima,, near Sandakan, Ramos 
1:267, October, 1920. In damp forests along small streams at low 
.■altitudes. A species strongly characterized by its elongated leaves 
which are grayish-olivaceous on the upper surface and densely cup- 
reous-pubescent with short, appressed hairs on ih^ lower surface. 
Its alliance appears to be with Litsea firma Hook. I". of the Malay 
Peninsula, Borneo, and Celebes, but it is radically different from 
"that species in its vegetative characters. 

Litsea caulocarpa sp. nov. 

Arbor parva ramulis et subtus foliis plus minusve ferrugineo- 
pubescentibus. ramis teretibus, ramulis leviter angulatis; foliis al- 
"ternis, oblongo-obovatis, subcoriiaceis, 20-33 cm. longis, acutis vel 
•obscure acuminatis, minute apiculatis, basi cuneatis, supra olivaceis 
vel viridi-olivaceis, giabris, nitidis, subtus brunneis, nervis utrinque 
circiter 3<0, perspicuis ; umbellulis fasciculatis caulinis et in ramis 
vetustioribus ; peduneulis circa ter 15 cm. longis, dense pallide- 
pubescentibus ; braeteis obovatis, 6 mm. longis, truncato-rotundatis, 
flense pubescentibus ; perianthii segmentis 6, plerumque oblance- 
olatis, 4-5 mm. longis ; staminibus fertilibus 12', filamentis 
tenuibus, parce ciliatis, 6-7 mm. longis; sepalis accrescentibus 
in cupulo, sublignoso, glabra, 1.5 cm. diametn>, truncato, sub- 
sessili ; fructibus eltipsoidieis, 12 mm. longis. 

A tree up to 7 m. high, the branchlets and the lower surface' 
of the leaves 'more or less ferruginous-pubescent. Branches terete, 
brownish, somewhat wrinkled when dry, glabrous, the branchlets 
more or less angular, rather densely pubescent. Leaves alternate, 
'oblong-obovate, firmly chartaeeous or subeoriaceous, 20 to 33 cm. 

!R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



194 NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORXEAX PLANTS. 

long. 8 to 14 cm. wide, the apex acute or very obscurely acuminate,. 

rather minutely apiculate, somewhat narrowed below to the cuneate 
base, the upper surface olivaceous or greenish-olivaceous, glabrous, 
smooth, shining, the nerves impressed, the lower surface usually 
brownish, pubescent with scattered, short, usually ferruginous hairs :. 
lateral nerves about 20 on each side of the midrib, prominent on 
the lower surface, spreading-curved, obscurely anastomosing, the 
reticulations rather distinct; petioles pubescent, 1 to 3 cm. in 
length. Flowers fascicled on the larger branches and on the trunk,. 
few to many umbellules in a fascicle, the individual peduncles up 
to 15 mm. long, densely pubescent, the involucral bracts obovate, 
6 mm. long, truncate-rounded, densely pale-pubescent. Staminate 
flowers 6 in each umbellule, their pedicels 3 mm. long, densely 
pubescent, Perianth-segments 6, usually oblanceolate, 4 to 5 mm. 
long, somewhat pubescent. Fertile stamens 12, their filaments 
slender, 6 to 7 mm. long, somewhat ciliate; anthers about 1 mm. 
long. Glands conspicuous, dark-colored, oblong-obovoid, somewhat 
stipitate, about 1 mm. long. Fruits 2 or 3 in a fascicle, rarely soli- 
tary on the smaller branches, up to 20 in a fascicle on the trunk, the 
latter fascicles up to 7 cm. in diameter. Accrescent calyx cup- 
shaped, glabrous, about 1.5 cm. diameter, shallow, truncate, brown 
when dry, obscurely 6-sulcaie or rounded-angular, subsessiie or very 
shortly pedicelled, the fruits ellipsoid, more or less angular to^ 
sulcate when dry, rounded, about 12 mm. long. 

British North Borneo, Sebuga and Labuk, Ramos 1S9J^ (type), 
1591. Tillamil 309, November and December, 1920, and February,. 
191 T. In damp level forests at low altitudes. A species probably 
as closely allied to Lit sea cauliflora Stapf as any other described 
form, but differing in numerous details. It is well characterized 
by its fascicled, cauline inflorescences. 

Litsea sandakanensis sp. nov. 

Arbor parva ramulis et subtus foliis dense patuleque ferrugineo- 
pubescentibus ; foliis oppositis, chartaceis, oblanceolatis vel oblongo- 
ellipticis, 22-34 cm. longis, utrinque subaequaliter angustatis, 
basi a cutis, apice acutis vel aeuminatis apiculatisque, supra viridi- 
olivaceis, nitidis, subtus ferrugineis, nervis utrinque 12-14, 
subtus cum reticulis valde perspicuis; fructibus subsessilibus, axi- 
laribus, fasciculatis vel solitariis, globosis, glabris, 8-10 mm. 
diametro, sepalis accrescentibus in cupulo, trunca.to vel irregulariter 
4-lobato subdisciformi, 5 mm. diametro. 

A small tree, the branches, petioles and lower surface of the 
leaves densely and softly ferruginous-pubescent with spreading 
hairs. Leaves opposite, chartaceous, oblanceolate to oblong-elliptic, 
22 to 34 cm. long, 6 to 10 cm. wide, subequally narrowed to the 
broadly acute base and to the acute or slightly acuminate and 
distinctly apiculate apex, the upper surface greenish-olivaceous,, 
shining, glabrous except for the pubescent midrib, not foveolate, 
the lower surface ferruginous, softly pubescent; lateral nerves 12: 

Jour. Straits Branch\ 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 195 

ix> 14 on each side of the midrib, slightly impressed on the upper 
surface, very prominent on the lower surface, curved-ascending, 
strongly curved near the margin, scarcely anastomosing, the second- 
ary nerves and reticulations lax, very prominent on the lower 
surface; petioles densely ferruginous or brown-pubescent, rather 
stout, 1 to 1.4 cm. long. Fruits axillary, subsessile, fascicled, or 
solitary, globose, glabrous, 8 to 10 mm. in diameter, dark-brown 
when dry, smooth, the accrescent calyx pubescent, truncate or 
irregularly 4-lobecl, about 5 mm. in diameter, almost disk-like. 

British North Borneo, near Sandakam, Ramos 1507, October, 
1920. In forests at low altitudes. A species manifestly belong- 
ing in the group Litsea sessiliflora Hook, f., but the indumen- 
tum on the lower surface of the leaves much denser, the nerves only, 
slightly impressed on the upper surface, and the reticulations not 
at all impressed and scarcely evident on the upper surface. 

Litsea megalophylla sp. no-v. 

Arbor circiter 12 m. alta, ramis incrassatis, 1-2 cm. dia- 
metro, cicatricibus magnis instructis, rugosis, ramulis dense ferru- 
gineo-pubescentibus ; foliis coriaceis, obovatis vel obiongo-obovatis, 
28-50 cm. longis, rotunda tie, basi cuneatis, supra laevibus, pallide 
viridibusi, nitidis, subtus brunneis, glabris, nervis utrinque circiter 
25, cum retieiulis valde perspiicuis; iniructescQirtii'S, racemosis, 
•ex axillis defoliatis, 4-5 cm. longis, f errugineo-pubescentibus ; 
sepalis in cupulo valde acereseentibus panels, sublignosis, rugosisi, 
brunneis, glabris, cupulo 3 cm. longo, 2-2.5 cm. diametroi, truncato, 
-deorsum angustato crasse stipitato; fructibus ellipsoideis, leviter 
pubescentibus, 3.5 ad 4 cm. longis. 

A tree up to 12 m. high, the branches glabrous, thickened, 
rugose, 1 to 2 cm. in diameter, brownish, the petiolar scars large 
and conspicuous, the ultimate braiiehlets 5 to 8 mm. in diameter, 
vdensely ferruginous-pubescent, more or less angular. Leaves coria- 
ceous, obovate to oblong-obovate, 2S to 50 cm. long, 12 to 23 cm. 
wide, alternate, the apex broadly rounded, base cuneate, the upper 
surface smooth, pale-greenish when dry, the lower surface brown; 
lateral nerves about 25 on each side of the midrib, somewhat spread- 
ing, very prominent on the lower surface, curved-anastomosing 
•close to the margin, the primary reticulations subparallel, very 
■distinct ; petioles stout, 2 to 3 cm. long, somewhat pubescent, 
ultimately glabrous. Fruits racemosely arranged on rather stout, 
ferruginous-pubescent rachises from the axils of fallen leaves or 
from the branches below the leaves, the rachises 4 to 5 cm. in 
length. Calyx accrescent, almost woody, cup-shaped, rugose, brown 
when dry, glabrous or nearly so, 2 to 2.5 cm. in diameter, 3 cm. in 
length, abruptly contracted into a stout pseudostalk 1 to 1.5 cm. 
in length. Fruits ellipsoid, brown when dry, sparingly pubescent, 
-3.5 to 4 cm. in length. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima, near Sandakan, ]Yood 953 
(type), Ramos 1460, October, 1920. In damp forests at low alti_ 

M. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



196 NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 

tudes. A species strongly characterized by its unusually large,, 
obovate to oblong-obovate, coriaceous, rounded, very prominently 
nerved and reticulate leaves ; by its thickened branches ; and by its 
racemose infructescences which are borne on the branches below 
the leaves. The accrescent calyces and fruits are unusually large. 
It probably belongs in the group with Lit sea mega car pa Gamble, of" 
the Malay Peninsula, but is radically different from that species. 

Litsea ellipticibacca sp. nov. 

Arbor parva, ramulis leviter brunneo-pubescentibus exceptis 
glabra., ramis teretibus, laevibus, ramulis 2 mm. diametro; foliis 
alternis, coriaceis, anguste oblongis, 15-20 cm. longls, utrinque 
subaequaliter angustatis, basi cuneatis, apice acutis, nervis utrin- 
que 14-20, subtns cum reticulis subeonfertis distinctis; fructi- 
bus axillaribus, faseieulatisi, sepalis accreseentibus in eupulo, in- 
crassato truncato circiter 12 mm. diametro, breviter pedicellato,, 
fructibus ellipsoideis, apiculatis, circiter 1.5 cm. longis. 

A small tree, the very young branchlets sparingly appressed 
brown-pubescent, otherwise glabrous (flowers unknown). Branches- 
terete, smooth, dark-brown, the ultimate branchlets about 2 mm. 
in diameter. Leaves alternate, coriaceous, narrowly oblong, 15 to» 
20 cm. long, 3.5 to 5 cm. wide, subequally narrowed to the acute 
apex and to the cuneate base, the upper surface smooth, somewhat 
shining, browmish or olivaceous when dry, the lower surface paler; 
lateral nerves 1-1 to 20 on each side of the midrib, spreading, some- 
what curved, distinct on the lower surface as are the rather close 
reticulations; petioles 1 to 1.8 cm. long, dark-brown or nearly black 
when dry. Fruits in axillary fascicles and in the axils of fallen 
leaves, usually about 3 in a fascicle, the accrescent calyces shallow- 
ly cup-shaped, thickened, brown, truncate, about 12 mm. in dia- 
meter, the pedicels stout, 3 to 1 mm. in length. Fruits ellipsoid 
or slightly narrowed upward, apiculate, dark-brown or olivaceous 
when dry, shining, rather coarsely reticulate-rugose, about 1.5 cm.. 
long. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima near Sandakan, Ramos 1397 
(type), 1266, October, 1920. In damp forests along small streams 
at low altitudes. This species manifestly belongs in the group- 
with Litsea singaporensis Gamble and L. perakensis Gamble, from . 
both of which it is distinguished by its ellipsoid, not globose, fruits _ 

Litsea grandis (Wall.) Hook. ' f. IT. Brit. Ind. 5 (1886) 162;. 

Gamble in Journ. As. Soc. Bengal 75 1 (1912) 136. 

Tetranthera granclis Wall. Cat. (1830) no. 2o52, nomen nudum;- 
Meissn. in DC. Prodr. 15 1 (1864) 188. 

Sarawak, Siol, Satire collector 2Jf01f Bur. Sci. February -June,. 
1911. Burma, Malay Peninsula, Java. 

Jour. Straits Branch. 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 197 

Litsea megacarpa Gamble in Kew Bull. (1910) 364, Journ. As. 
S,oc. Bengal 75 1 (1912) 175. 

British North Borneo, Sebuga, Ramos 161/-7, November, 1920. 
In forests along small streams at low altitudes. Malay Peninsula- 
Li tsea bancana (Miq.) Boerl. Handl. Kenn. Fl. Xiederl. Ind. 3 
(1900) 143. 

Tctranthera bancana Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I 1 (1858) 950. 

Sarawak, Simatan and Santubong, Foxworthy 126, 131, 425 r 
May and June, 1908. In forests at low altitudes. Banka, Java, 
Amboina. 

Litsea odorifera Yaleton in Ic. Bogor. 3 (1909) t 276. 

Sarawak, near Kuching, Native collector 93, 720, 1896 Bur. 
Sci. : British Xorth Borneo, between Usukan and Khota Belud, 
Mrs. Clemens 9705. The specimens agree closely with Valeton 7 & 
description and with material from specimens cultivated at 
Buitenzorg, Java. Sumatra, Palawan. 

Dehaasia Blume. 
Dehaasia triandra Merr. in. Philip. Journ. Sci. 1(1906) Suppl. 193. 

British Xorth Borneo, Batu Lima, near Sandakan, Wood 956 > 
Ramos 1634, October and November, 1920. In forests at low 
altitudes. Philippines. The Bornean form has somewhat larger 
leaves than the common Philippine one, but the fertile stamens- 
are 3 only, and there appears to be no essential differences. 

Lindera Thunberg. 

Lindera malaccensis Hook, f . FL Brit. Ind. 5 (1886) 183 ; Gamble 
in Journ. As. Soc. Bengal 75 1 (1912) 194. 

British Xorth Borneo, Sandakan, ]Yood 965, Ramos 1538, 
October, 1920. In forests at low altitudes. Malay Peninsula. 



HERNANDIACEAE. 
I It ig era Blume. 
Illigera celebica Miq. Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 2 (1865-66) 215. 
British North Borneo, Batu Lima, near Sandakan, Ramos 
1325. In thickets at low altitudes. The genus is new to Borneo, 
the species being previously known only from Celebes. The 
Bornean specimens agree very closely with Miquel's description 
except that the filaments are puberulent rather than pilose. 

S. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



198 NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNE AN PLANTS. 

SAXIFRAGACEAE. 

Polyosma Blurae. 
Polyosrna integrifolia Blume Bidjr. (1825) 659. 

British North Borneo, Sibuguey, near Sandakan, Ramos 16J/.3. 
In forests along streams at low altitudes. Malay Peninsula, 
Sumatra, Java. 



CONNARACEAE. 

Agelaea Solander. 

Agelaea agamae sp. nov. 

Frutex seandens, mflorescentiis exceptis giaber; foliis 3- 
foliolatis, foliolis ehartaceis vel subcoriaceis, oblongo-ellipticis, 9 
-15 cmi. longis, perspicue obtuseque acuminatis, basi rotunda tis 
yel subaeutas, 3-nerviis, nervis adscendentibus, utrinque plerumque 
3, perspicuis; paniculis e ramis defoliatis, leviter pubescentibus, 
5 cm. longis, folliculis oblongo-obovoideis, 1-1.4 cm. longis, 
obtusiis,, 'baud rostratisi, leviter: rugosis sled baud' tuberculatis, 
dense minuteque puberulis; seminibus baud arillatis. 

A scandent, glabrous vine or the inflorescences slightly 
pubescent. Branches terete, grayish-brown. Leaves 3-foliolate, 
their petioles 6 to 12 cm. long; leaflets chartaceous or subcoriace- 
ous, oblong-elliptic, entire, 9 to 15 cm. long, 4 to 6.5 cm. wide, 
the apex rather conspicuously acuminate, the acumen blunt, the 
base rounded to subacute, 3-nerved, the lateral leaflets somewhat 
inequilateral, the upper surface grayish, the lower surface some- 
what brownish when dry; lateral nerves above the basal pair 
usually 3 on each side of the midrib, ascending at an angle of 
about 45°, somewhat curved, anastomosing, the primary reticula- 
tions lax, distinct; petiolules black when dry, about 5 mm. long. 
Inflorescences from the branches below the leaves, about 5 cm. 
long, slightly pubescent when young. Sepals elliptic-ovate, obtuse, 
1.5 mm. long, more or less pubescent. Petals glabrous. Follicles 
somewhat inequilateral, oblong-obovoid, 1 to 1.4 cm. long, obtuse, 
not at all beaked, slightly rugose when dry, densely and minutely 
puberulent, the indumentum brown. Seeds narrowly oblong, up 
to 9 mm. Jong, the aril entirely wanting. 

British North Borneo, Bulu Eiver Valley, near Sandakan, 
Agama 736, September, 1919. In forests at low altitudes. A 
species belonging in the group with Agelaea tvallichii Hook. f. of 
the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra, from which it differs radically 
in its follicles not being at all beaked and not at all tuberculate, 
and in the entire absence of the aril. Froni the Philippine 
Agelaea trinervis (Llanos) Merr., which it resembles even more 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 199 

closely than it does .4. wallichii, it differs in its non-tuberculate 
follicles which are not at all beaked, shorter inflorescences, and 
non-arillate seeds. 

Agelaea sarawakensis sp. nov. 

Frntex scandens, innorescentijs exceptis glaber; foliis 3- 
foliolatis, foliolis oblongis, eoriaceds, 20-30 cm. longis, 6 ad 9 cm. 
iatis, apice obscure o'btnseqne acuminatis, basi plernmque rotunda- 
tis, supra puncticulatis, nervis utrinque 8-10, patulis, perspicuis, 
anastomosantibus, reticulis perspicuis, densis; cymis axillaribus, 
fasciculatis, sub fructu 2 cm. longis; follieulis inaequilateralibus, 
12-14 mm. longis, rugosis seel hand tuberculatis, brevissime 
rostratis, dense brunneo-pubescentibus; seminibus oblongo- 
ellipsoideis, 12 mm. longisi, in inferiore parte quarts arillatis. 

A woody vine, glabrous except the inflorescences, the branches 
redclish-brown, terete. Leaves 3-foliolate, their petioles stout, 
8 to 11 cm. long; leaflets coriaceous, oblong, 20 to 30 cm. wide, 
obscurely blunt-acuminate, the base usually rounded, that of the 
lateral ones slightly asymmetric, the upper surface minutely 
pitted; lateral nerves 8 to 10 on each side of the midrib, spreading 
at nearly right angles, curved, strongly anastomosing, prominent 
on the lower surface, the reticulations rather close, prominent; 
petiolules 5 to 7 mm. long. Panicles cymose, fasciculed in the 
upper axils, in fruit 2 cm. long or less, somewhat pubescent. 
Follicles somewhat rugose, inequilateral, 12 to 14 mm. long, very 
shortly beaked, not tuberculate, densely pubescent with short 
brown hairs, when mature strongly recurved. Seeds oblong- 
ellipsoid, about 12 mm. long, arillate in the lower one-fourth. 

Sarawak, near Kuching, Native Collector 1101, Bur. ScL, 
received in November, 1912. A species apparently most closely 
allied to Agelaea liullettii King of the Malay Peninsula, but the 
leaflets are larger, obscurely and obtusely acuminate, not acute, 
their bases rounded, not cuneate. 

Agelaea woodii sp. nov. 

Frutex scandens, ramulis et innorescentiis et foliis utrinque 
ad costam nervosque ferrugineo-pubescentibus ; foliis 3-foliolatis, 
foliolis oblongo-ellap'tieis vel elliptico-ovatis, 10-15 cm. longis, basi 
rotundatis, apice perspicue obtuseque acuminatis, nervis utrinque 4 
vel 5, perspicuis; paniculis axilaribus terminalibusque, angustis, 5 
-10 cm. longis; floribus 4- et 5-meris; sepalis dlense pubescentibus, 
1.8 mm. longis; staminibus 8 vel 10, filament is glabris; carpellis 4 
vel 5, dense hirsutis, anguste oblongis. 

A scan dent vine, the larger branches glabrous, purplish-black 
when dry, the bran chiefs, inflorescences and petioles rather densely 
ferruginous-pubescent. Leaves 3-foliolate, their petioles 4 to 5 
can. long; leaflets chartaceous or subcoriaeeous, entire, oblong-ellip- 
tic to elliptic-ovate, 10 to 15 cm. long, 5 to 8 cm. wide, tie 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



200 NEW OE NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 

base rounded, somewhat 3-nerved, trie apex conspicuously acuminate, 
the acumen stout, about 1 cm. long, blunt, the upper surface 
brownish-olivaceous, glabrous except for the ferruginous-pubescent 
midrib and nerves, the lower surface pale-brownislh, somewhat pub- 
escent along the midrib and nerves; lateral nerves above the basal 
pair 4 or 5 on each side of the midrib, prominent, curved, ascending, 
the primary reticulations also prominent; petiolules ferruginous- 
pubescent, about 4 mini. long. Panicles narrow, terminal and in 
the axils of the uppermost leaves, 5 to 10 cm. long, densely pubes- 
cent. Flowers 4- and 5-merous, white. Sepals oblong, obtuse, 
pubescent, 1.8 mm. long. Petals narrowly oblong-obovate, glabrous, 
3,5 mm. long, 1 to 1.2 mm. wide, obtuse. Stamens 8 or 10, their 
filaments glabrous, 2 to 4 mini. long. Carpels 4 or 5, narrowly 
oblong, 1 mm. long, densely hirsute. 

British North Borneo, Suan Lamba Eiver near Sandakan, 
Agama 573, August, 1918. In level forests at low altitudes. The 
specimens were originally identified as Agelaea bo?'neensis Merr. 
from which the species is radically distinguished by its slightly 
pubescent leaflets and by its floral characters. On account of the 
number of the stamens its alliance seems to be with Agelaea wallichii 
Hook. f. rather than A. borneensis. Prom A. agamae it is distin- 
guished by its indumentum and by its inflorescences being terminal 
and axillary, not cauline. 



Connarus Linnaeus. 

Connarus euphlebius sp. nov. 

Frutex scandens, perspicue ferrugineo-pubescent ; foliis 
usque ad 40 cm. longis, foliolis plerumque 7, oblongo-ellipticis, 
ehartaceis vel subcoriaceis*, 10-16 cm. longis, supra glabris, nitidis, 
subtus ad costam nervosque ferrugineo-pubescentibus, acuminatis, 
basi rotundatis vel acutis, minute peltatis, nervis- utrinque 10- 
12, supra impressis, subtus valde perspicuis; folliculis inaequilater- 
aliter obovoideis, 4.5-5 cm. longis, 3 cm. latis, extus dense rufo- 
brunneo-pubescentibus, intus simpliciter pubescentibus, apice late 
rotundatis, inflatis, 2 cm. crassis, deorsum angustatis. 

A woody vine, the branchlets, petioles, inflorescences, fruits, 
and the lower surface of the leaflets on the midrib and lateral nerves 
densely ferruginous-pubescent, the branches up to lcm. in diameter 
also with similar indumentum. Leaves up to 40 cm. long, rather 
long-petiole d ; leaflets usually 7, oblong to oblong-elliptic, chartace- 
ous or subcoriaceous, 10 to 16 cm. long, to 6 cm:, wide, the upper 
surface olivaceous, sliining, the lower surface paler, apex shortly and 
obtusely acuminate, base rounded to obtuse and usually minutely 
peltate ; lateral nerves 10 to 12 on each side of the midrib, impressed 
on the upper surface, very prominent on the lower surface, somewhat 
curved and ascending at <an angle of about 45°, the primary reticula- 
tions subparallel, distinct. Panicles in fruit about as long as the 
leaves, the folicles obovoid, inflated, 4.5 to 5 cm. long, about 3 cm. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 201 

wide, the apex broadly rounded, the stigmatic portion broadly acute 
and laterally situated at about the upper two-thirds, gradually nar- 
rowed to the acute or somewhat obtuse base, inflated, about 2 cm. 
thick, outside very densely pubescent with dark reddish-brown hairs, 
inside simply pubescent with pale-brownish hairs. Seeds oblong,, 
shining, the aril fleshy, yellowish-brown when dry, about 7 mm. 
long. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima near Sandakan, Ramos 1181,. 
October, 1920. In damp forests and in clearings at low altitudes. 
A species well characterized by its very prominently nerved leaflets,, 
the nerves being impressed on the upper surface and very prominent 
on the lower surface. The dark-brown indumentum of the branches,, 
inflorescences, fruits, petioles and on the midrib and nerves on the 
lower surface of the leaflets, composed of short simple hairs, is 
oharaceristic. It apparently belongs in the group with Connarus 
ferrugineus Jack. 

C nest is Jussieu. 

Cnestis palala (Lour.) comb. nov. 

Thysanus palala Lour. Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 284, excl. sym 

Rumph. 
Thysanus cochinchinensis DC. Prodr. 2 (1825) 91. 
Cnestis diffusa Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 386. 
Cnestis ramiflora Griff. Not. 4 (1854) 432. 

British North Borneo, Kudat, Castro 989, November, 1920, on 
slopes at low altitudes. Burma, Siam,Indo-China, Malay Peninsula, 
Sumatra, and the Philippines. The genus is new to Borneo. 
Loureiro's description clearly applies to this species and his specific 
name should be adopted. 



R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



The Bearded Pig (Sus barbatus) in the 
Malay Peninsula. 



By H. C. Eobinsox and J. C. Moulton. 

We owe the remarkable discovery of the Bearded Pig in the 
Malay Peninsula to Dr. W. S. Leicester an enthusiastic sportsman 
who obtained a single female specimen some years ago in the 
vicinity of Pekan, Pahang. The occurrence, however, was so remark- 
able and so at variance with preconceived ideas of geographical 
distribution that pending further evidence it was not considered 
advisable to place the occurrence on formal record. Now however 
that a further specimen has been obtained from the same locality 
there is no doubt whatever that the species must be regarded as a 
member of the peninsula fauna, though as noted below we think 
it not improbable that its presence is really due to some extra- 
ordinary change resulting in the landing of a herd from Borneo, 
the home of the true Sus barbatus, or from the Khio Archipelago 
where the rather dubious race S. barbatus oi is found. 

In answer to queries Dr. W. S. Leicester wrote under date 
March 19th. 1918, in reference to the original specimen — a fully 
adult female : " Yes I am quite certain she was shot in the neigh- 
bourhood of Pekan. I remember a herd of this breed appeared 
in the neighbourhood and I shot this large sow and several half 
grown ones from time to time but could not get at the big boar 
which was very cunning and got away every time. They were 
some time about Pekan but eventually disappeared and I have not 
come across any since/' 

Dr. Leicester very kindly presented this specimen to the 
F. M. S. Museums. 

Mr. J. E. Kempe, District Officer, Pekan, has now obtained 
the skull of a boar, which he has generously presented to the 
Kafnes Museum, Singapore; he writes under date December 6th. 
19.21 : "It was shot by Towkay Lee Cheow, — an old Pekan character 
who has hunted and kept a pack these thirty years — about six 
weeks ago at a place called Sungei Genek, some two miles up river 
from Pekan town. He gave me the skull and the description and 
told me that in all his experience extending over thirty-three 
years, and including the slaughter of thousands of pigs he had 

never seen such an animal He told me that the 

remarkable things about it were its great length and height, but 
what impressed him most was the fact that it had a thick tuft of 
hair under each eye about two inches long and a good sized beard. 

"It weighed 180 katis (240 pounds) and was very emaciated. 
He said he thought, if in condition, it would have scaled 230 katis 
or more. It was a solitary boar." 

Jour, Straits Branch 



THE BEAEDED PIG IN THE MALAY PENINSULA. 203 

The above statement supports the suggestion that this animal 
was the last survivor of some herd that had gained access to the 
Malay Peninsula and which had not been able to maintain itself 
under exotic conditions. Possibly even, it was the actual boar to 
which Dr. Leicester refers. 

The description together with an excellent sketch with mea- 
surements, at once suggested the interesting possibility of this pig 
being Sus barbatus which was originally described from Borneo' 
•and later discovered in Sumatra and the Rhio Archipelago, and 
described by Miller under the name Sus oi. 1 

A comparison of the skulls with a topo-type of Sus oi from the 
Indragiri River, S. E. Sumatra, and with specimens from Tanjong- 
Batu, Great Durian Island and Bintang Island, Rhio Archipelago, 
shows that they cannot be separated with certainty from this 
form, nor on the other hand can they be distinguished from a 
considerable series of the true Sus barbatus from various parts of 
Sarawak, Borneo. 

The question then arises, is this pig indigenous in the 
Malay Peninsula, or is this particular record the result of some 
fortuitous visit by an adventurous pair — perhaps from Pulo 
Batam, 10 miles south of the southern extremity of Johore — who 
established themselves for a brief period in Pahang? Native 
stories of a giant white pig in Johore undoubtedly refer to this 
species. On the whole we are inclined to think that it is not 
indigenous in the Malay Peninsula. Its rarity here — we know of 
no other examples having beeen killed or seen authentically — 
seems to point to the fact of it being only an occasional visitor. 
If it were a Peninsula species in the strict sense, the geographical 
distribution would be difficult to explain. On the other hand 
one should not lose sight of the fact that under favourable cir- 
cumstances sufficient individuals might reasonably come in from 
the Malayan Islands near the mainland and establish themselves 
for a noticeable period. 

Mr. Boden Kloss 2 has recently dealt with the Malaysian 
Bearded Pig. He points out the difficulty of distinguishing Sus 
barbatus of Borneo and Sus oi of Sumatra and Rhio on the dental 
characters given by Miller. 3 We agree that they are too variable 
to be of any use. Kloss however would separate Sus oi on the 
longer muzzle ("and perhaps a little broader"); the longer 
mandibular symphysis ; the deeper mandible and the slightly more 
concave profile of the face. These statements broadly speaking 
agree with certain notes made by one of us in the early part of 
1918 but hitherto unpublished on the topo-type of Sus oi in the 
Raffles Museum, which were as follows: — 

1. Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, xii, p. 51 (1902). 

2. Kloss, Journ. Straits Branch, Eoy. Asiat. Soc. No. 83, pp. 117, 150, 

(1921). 

3. Miller, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. pp. 737-758 pis. XXXIX-LXIII (1906). 

E. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



204 THE BEAEDED PIG IN THE MALAY PENINSULA. 

" The specimen is an absolute topo-type of Sus oi and in view 
of certain differences between it and the description and measure- 
ments of the type merits more detailed description. The animal 
is very fully adult but not aged. The nasofrontal suture is still 
visible but the ba si-occipital is completely ossified. The teeth 
including the posterior molars in both jaws are somewhat worn 
but not so that the details of the enamel spaces cannot be 
recognized. 

" Viewed in the basal aspect, the rostrum, anterior to the 
■canines is broader than in similarly aged specimens of S. barbatus. 
The zygomata are more heavily built and more divergent and the 
tusk sheaths more recurved than in the Bornean animal while the 
cranial region is more sharply bent upwards from the level of the 
•orbits. The mandibular symphysis is longer and this region of 
the jaw heavier than in Sus barbatus of equal size. Mr. Miller 
states that out of the specimens examined by him only two, the 
type and a specimen from Paiembang, had the posterior molars in 
a condition fit for examination. The diagnosis of the race, how- 
ever, depends on the fact that in Sus oi the upper posterior molar 
has ' its posterior portion much narrowed* the lower tooth lacking 
the terminal heel but with the third transverse ridge reduced to 
a terete heel-like remnant/ " 

Further examination of larger series from Borneo and else- 
where now convinces us that real differences between the Bornean 
-animal and others from Ehio and Sumatra have not yet been 
demonstrated and that all the alleged characters of skulls from 
the latter localities can be explained by the varying age and innate 
variability of the specimens examined. 

We are therefore of the opinion that there is no justification 
for regarding Sus oi as distinct, even subspecifically, from Sus 
barbatus and Ave therefore retain this last name to cover the 
Bearded Pig of Borneo, Sumatra, the Ehio Archipelago and 
Pahang. . 

The Giant Pig of South East Borneo and that from portions 
of Eastern Sumatra may possibly be a distinct race or even 
species as suggested by Kloss but we have no material on which 
to base an opinion. The former has been named Sus gargantua, 
Miller, and is based on a single not very old skull in the collection 
of the Agricultural High School, Berlin, from an unspecified 
locality in South East Borneo, which is the largest known skull 
of the genus Sus in any collection. The Sumatran form, as yet 
known from native accounts only, has been inadvertently named 
Sus branti by Kloss (anted) though as the name is accompanied by 
.a description it will, by the laws of nomenclature, stand. 

A table of measurements of the Peninsular, Bornean, 
Sumatran and Pihio Archipelago specimens of Sus barbatus is 

*"This is visible in one young adult male (3rd upper molar fully 
erupted but hardly worn) from Sarawak.'' 

Jour. Straits Branch 



Upper length 
Basal length 
Basilar length 
Palatal length 
Width of palate at p.m 1 
Width of palate including 
Zygomatic breadth 
Least width of palate at f roi 
Least interorbital breadth 
Parietal constriction 
Nasal breadth at posterk 
tremity of premaxilla 
Length of nasals 
Occipital depth to basion 
Mandible 

Maxillary tooth row (alvq 
Second upper molar 
Third upper molar 
Mandibular tooth row (al 
Second lower molar 
Third lower moJar . 



s 

M £? 

MX 

If) 



-a • 



M& 
fO . 



si 

a 3 

QJ § 



mm. 



| 

! 370 

I 



| 131 
1 24x1 8 i 
144x19 



mm. mm. 



422 

375 

365 

287 

49 

70 

151 

29 

68 

21 

35 
196 
123 
331 
124 
23x21 
35x22 

121 
23x17 
41x20 



361 

323 

301 

225 

42 

73 

155 

25 

74 

31 

30 
186 
119 

283 

117 

20x20 

35x22 

111 
20x17 
39x20 



S 3 

bBW) 



mm. 



352 



219 
40 

74 
154 
25 
78 
45 

39 
175 

277 

115 

20x21 

36x24 

110 
20x18 
39x21 



u 
O 

bfl 

C 

- a 

- c/3 



s ^ 

3 O 

CO 0) 



03 3 

d <u 



^ 3 

C <U 
to 75 

i-J 



336 

297 

276 

207 

40 

71 

145 

25 

71 

27 

30 
168 
119 

268 

118 

21x20 

32x22 

113 
21x18 
37x20 



mm. 

354 

309 

291 

219 

38 

68 

141 

20 

73 

23 

31 

171 

109 

279 

12 

21x20 

37x22 

110 
21x16 
38x18 



Malay Peninsula 



Sus barbatus 



Cranial Measurements of Malaysian Pigs. 

Su. barbatui Mailer & Su. jubatus Miller. 



Upper length 
Basal length 
Basilar length 
Palatal length 
Width of palate at p.m 1 
Width of palate including m 3 
Zygomatic breadth 
Least width of palate at front of 
Least interorbital breadth 
Parietal constriction 
Nasal breadth at posterior ej 
tremity of preinaxillaries 
Length of nasals 
Occipital depth to basion 
Mandible 

Maxillary tooth row (alveoli) 
Second upper molar 
Third upper molar 
Mandibular tooth row (alveoli 
Second lower molar 



378 
141 
21x19 
■35x23 
134 

24xl7|'22-7xl5-S|28-0xlli-0l 
l4vl!)i.'!S-<ivK-r;3:l-8xlS-4|4 
I 



| 413 | 418 | 40(1 



I 12 



34-2x21-8 



129-4 | 125 
83x19-4 
■0x21-0 [ 37x23 



11)2 

j 393 



41-5 
837 

147 | 
360 j 

128 | 

20 19 



348 

llii [38 
4x21124x21 



35 


30 


19(i 


186 


183 


119 


331 


283 


12 1 


117 


13 ■ 


80x20 





27(1 


219 


207 


40 


10 


74 


71 


15 1 


115 


25 


25 


78 


71 


45 


37 


39 


30 


176 


168 




119 


277 


268 


115 


118 


Mil' 


21x21) 



THE BEARDED PIG IN THE MALAY PENINSULA. 205 

appended in which is included for comparison measurements of 
normal specimens of the ordinary central Malayan form, Sus 
jubatus, Miller, from which it will at once he seen how greatly Sus 
barbatus differs in size. 

For the benefit of the non-technical sportsman, who may meet 
the Bearded Pig in the field, we may state that it may at once he 
:recognized : — 

(1) By its large size, elongated and narrow liead and by the 
great height at the shonlder and narrow dorsal ridge, 

( 2 ) By its pale colour compared to the ordinary local form, 

(3) By its beard and by the possession between the eye and 
tiie nostril on each side of the muzzle of a large warty 
outgrowth covered with bristles, which is large and con- 
spicuous in males, smaller in females, but always visible 
even in young animals. 

From the accounts available it would appear that Sumatran, 
Ehio Archipelago and Malayan animals are more scantily haired 
than those from Borneo. This was certainly the case with the 
Bintang specimen recorded in the table when seen in the flesh. 



:R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



The reported occurrence of Russell's Viper 
in Sumatra & the Malay Peninsula. 



By J. C. Moultox. 

Some 50 years ago Dr. J. Fayrer compiled statistics to show- 
that the death-rate in Iudia from snake-bite amounted to about 
20,000 persons per annum. The snakes responsible for this enor- 
mous mortality are the Cobra (Naia naja = tripudians) , the Krait 
(Bnngarus candidus), the Hamadryad (Naia bungarus) and 
Russell's Yiper (Tipera russelli), in that order of importance. 

In Malaysia three species of Krait are known: the Banded 
Krait (Bnngarus fasciatus), the Krait (B. candidus), and the 
Yellow-headed Krait (B. flaviceps). All are rare in Malaysia. 
The Cobra and Hamadryad however are by no means rare in the 
Malay Peninsula and adjoining Islands. Although records of 
death from snake-bite in these Malay countries are extremely rare 
it is generally known that these two snakes are the most dangerous 
and the most to be feared. Other snakes such as the Coral Snakes 
and Pit- Vipers in Malaysia are poisonous, although an injection 
of their poison is not necessarily always fatal. 

Russell's Yiper, or the Daboia, or Tic Polonga, as it is variously 
called in Iudia, is particularly deadly, and unfortunately common 
in many parts of India. Fayrer states that 471 snakes were brought 
in for record in one day at Amritsar in 1866. Of these over 300 be- 
longed to this one deadly species. E. G. Boulenger states that it 
is " even more venomous than the majority of Cobras, its bite 
killing fowls in from thirty seconds to a few minutes, dogs in 
from ten minutes to four or five hours, and man in under twenty- 
four hours." 

Three recognized authorities in herpetology, Drs. G-. A. 
xjoulenger, T. Barbour and Nelly de Eouij have excluded Russell's 
Yiper from the Malay Peninsula or Archipelago. And such I 
think is the generally accepted opinion. It is therefore somewhat 
alarming to find the following passage in a book entitled " Reptiles 
of the World " by Raymond L. Ditmars, Curator of Reptiles and 
Assistant Curator of Mammals in the New York Zoological Park r 
published in London 1910 : — 

" One of the commonest and most deadly snakes of India 
is a species of Tipera. This is Tic Polonga, the Daboia, 
or Russell's Viper, V. russellii, a beautifully-coloured reptile- 
reaching a length of five feet. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



THE KEPOETED OCCUEEENCE OF EUSSELL 'S VIPEE. 207 

''The range of this snake, the largest of the Asiatic vipers, 
embraces India, Ceylon, Burma, Siam and the Malay Penin- 
sula. My friend, Mr. Rudolf ]Yeber, drought several small 
specimens of typical coloration from Sumatra, showing the 
species to occur on at least one of the larger islands."* 

E. G. Boulenger (1914) states that:— 

" Russell's viper, V. russelli, or Tic-polonga, as this large and 
justly dreaded snake is known in Ceylon, is found in hills, as well 
as in. the plains of India, Ceylon, Burma, Siam, and Sumatra." 

He based his record as regards Sumatra on the British Museum 
Catalogue, but in a letter to me dated 20th June, 1921, Mr. 
Boulenger agrees now that this may be regarded as a mistake. 

In spite, of this very definite assertion by Ditmars I felt that 
the discovery of RusseiFs Yiper in Sumatra was so remarkable that 
it was worth while making some inquiries in order to obtain con- 
firmation of this interesting record. 

My friend Dr. T. Barbour of the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass., at my request interested himself in the 
matter and ascertained from Mr. Ditmars himself the following 
particulars about Mr. Weber.^and his Sumatran collections. Dr. 
Barbour writes : — 

"It seems that between 1892 to 1898 he (Mr. Rudolf Weber) 
was employed as an artist to illustrate publications of the Museum 
of Natural History in Xew York. During the latter part of this 
period he went on a scientific mission to Sumatra, but Ditmars 
informs me that now he thinks of it, that all of Weber's reptiles 
were dumped into large jars and remained lying about the Museum 
uncared for many years." Dr. Barbour concludes that "there is 
absolutely no reason whatever to suppose that Weber did not collect 
these creatures in India while he was passing through en route to 
Sumatra." 

The specimens are not to be found in the Xew York Museum 
mow. 

In the British Museum Catalogue of Snakes, the locality for 
•one specimen in that Museum is " ? Sumatra." In the British 
Museum Hand-list of Snakes the distribution is given as "India, 
Burma and Siam ; Java and Sumatra ? " 

In the light of the above I think one must look with consider- 
able suspicion on the definite assertions by Ditmars and E.' G. 
Boulenger as to its positive occurrence in Sumatra. Dr. Malcolm 
Smith gives Bangkok as the southernmost locality for it in Siam, 
and that I think must be regarded, at present, as the nearest point 
to the Malaysian sub-region, this deadly snake has yet reached. 

* The italics are mine. J. C. M. 
R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



A New Method of Writing Trinomials, 



By J. C. Moultox. 

In my " Hand-List of the Birds of Borneo " published in this- 
Society's Journal No. 67, 191-1 (pp. 1.25-191) I introduced a slight 
innovation in the method of writing trinomials. 
A trinomial is usually written thus : — 

CMoropsis viridis viriditectus Hartert. 
I criticized this method on two grounds : — 

(i) that the relatively greater importance of the 
specific name is not emphasised, or, to put it another way r 
that the sub-specific name is given undue prominence 
equal to, if not greater than, the specific name. 

(ii) that the name of the author of the species is 
omitted, while that of the author of the less important 
subspecies is retained. 

As an improvement I therefore wrote:— 

Chloropsis viridis Horsfield viriditectus Hartert 
shortened to : — 

Chloropsis viridis Horsf. viriditectus Hart. 

Tu this way due prominence is given to the specific enthVy r 
while the fact that the species is divisible into geographical races 
of relatively less importance is shewn by placing the subspecific 
name in less prominent type. The insertion of the anther's name 
after the species obviates ambiguity, and is only a reasonable 
recognition of that author's work. At the same time it serves 
to mark off the subspecifie name as a form apart. 

It might be argued of course with justice that the name of 
the author of the genus should also be inserted. But the long- 
established custom of running generic and specific names together 
is sufficiently important to over-ride any such further innovation. 

I referred the point to the British Association Committee on 
Zoological Bibliography and Publication, whose opinion thereon 
was published in the Committee's Eeport to the Association 
(Section D) at the Edinburgh meeting in 1921 as follows: — 

" The Committee agrees that the alterations introduced 
by Mr. Moulton tend to increased clearness. If it be ever 
necessary to give the name of the author of the species, it is 
no less necessary when the form referred to is one of the 
subspecies into which the species has been divided, and Mr. 
Moulton's method of introducing it seems unexceptionable. 

Jour. Straits Brancb 



A NEW METHOD OF WRITING TRINOMIALS. 209- 

" The Committee does not wish by this expression of 
/ opinion to encourage the insertion of authors' names in 
general writing, except when they are needed to avoid am- 
biguity. Mr. Moulton's devices are best suited for such 
systematic lists as those in which he has employed them." 

The type to be used is of some importance. In criticism of 
my method it has been suggested that capitals and small capitals 
would be better than small capitals and italics, because italics are 
so generally used to denote a synonym. The disadvantage of this- 
is that capitals are so often required in systematic lists for sub- 
family names that it is desirable to reserve a less prominent type 
for the genus and species when written together in this way. 
Small capitals or clarendon would appear the most suitable for the^ 
genus and species with italics for the subspecies. 

The inclusion of authors' names undoubtedly has a cumber 
some effect and should only be employed in systematic lists or 
detailed monographs. In other works it is reasonable to omit 
them altogether; in fact for general purposes it should often suf- 
fice to give only the specific name and. omit the subspecific name,. 
unless there is any point in drawing attention to the subspecific 
distinction of the particular form under discussion. 

The usual method of abbreviation in writing Latin names for 
well-known genera and species, or for genera which have been 
discussed already in any particular paper, is to give the initial 
letter of the genus instead of the name in full; "thus Elephas 
maximus, becomes E. maximus. This system can be extended 
with advantage in the case of subspecies; thus, in discussing the 
subspecies of the Asiatic Elephant, reference would be made to the 
Smnatran form as E. m. sumatranus. In systematic lists, ac- 
cording to the method introduced by me and approved for such 
purposes by the British Association Committee on Zoological 
Bibliography and Publication, this would read: Elephas maximus 
Linn, sumatranus Temm., but tor general purposes the abbrev- 
iated form as written above is regarded as more suitable. 



R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



Hindu Image from Sarawak, 



By J. C. Moulto^. 

Early in 1921 a very interesting discovery was made at 
Limbang. Sarawak, by workmen removing the top of a bill near 
the Residency. They unearthed a small stone image, in remark- 
ably good preservation, of Ganesa, the elephant-headed god of 
Wisdom. Ganesa or Ganapati, as one of the sons of Siva and 
Parvati, is one of the most revered gods of the Hindus. In the 
Hindu-Javanese religion he is Sang Yang Gana. He is the god of 
wisdom, the remover of obstacles. He is invoked at the beginning 
of a book and of important undertakings. He is a short fat figure, 
with protuberant belly, four hands, and the head of an elephant 
with only one tusk. In one hand he holds a shell, in another a 
•discus, in the third a club or goad and in the fourth a water-lily. 
Sometimes he is depicted riding upon a rat or attended by one. 
His temples are numerous in the Dekhan. There are many legends 
-accounting for his elephant head. x 

The Sarawak image (see illustration) shows the god sitting on 
the usual lotus cushion. The actual height of the image is 24 
inches and the rough stone block on which it rests 12 inches. 
Mr. F. F. Boult, Resident of Limbang, sent it to the Sarawak 
Museum, Kuching. 

Prof. Dr. NV J. Ivrom of Leiden University, to whom I showed 
photographs, when he was on his way through Singapore, tells me 
that similar images were found on Gunong Kombeng in South-East 
Borneo some ten years ago. 2 They included a Ganesa, a Brahma 
and a Siva. He suggested that the Sarawak image was of more 
direct Hindu origin and therefore probably older (6th or 7th 
century) than these discovered in Southeast Borneo, which were 
undoubtedly of Hindu origin. A list of all the Hindu images dis- 
covered in Dutch Borneo will be found in the " Encyclopaedic van 
Xederlandsch-Indie " (1919) vol. Ill, p. 198 under Oudheden. 

Sir John Marshall, Director-General of Archaeology in India, 
kindly gives me the following interesting note, from which it will 
be seen that he suggests a later date for this Sarawak image. 

" The image appears to be very similar to the ordinary type 
of Ganesa in India. The chief distinguishing features of the 
latter are (a) the elephanf s head, (b) three eyes, (c) four arms, 
the usual S} r mbols in the hands being a bowl of sweets, a rosary, 
an arc and the detached tusk of Ganesa himself, (d) a corpulent 
belly, (e) and a snake doing duty as the sacred thread. In the 
Borneo image we have the same large belly, the elephant's trunk 
and a snake for the yajnopavita. 

1. Vide J. Dowton "A. Classical Dictionary of Hindu Mythology." 

2. Oudheid Kundig Verslag 1914, p. 152. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



HINDU IMAGE FKOM SAEAWAK. 211 

"Indian images of Ganesa are found seated in three different 
postures: (a) cross-legged, (b) one of the knees upraised and the 
other lying on the throne; (c) the right foot overhanging from the 
throne and resting on the ground and the left leg lying on the 
throne {sukhasana) . In Archaeologisch Onderzoelc of Java en 
Madura, Vol. II, Plates 40-42 are reproduced photographs of an 
image of Ganesa from Singasari in Java (now in the Ethnographi- 
cal Museum of Leiden) which is seated with the right knee up- 
raised and the left leg lying on the seat (surrounded by skulls). 
But in the Indian Museum there are two (Ja. 5 and 19) images of' 
Ganesa from Java that are seated with the soles of the two feet 
joined. Photograph of Ja. 19 is enclosed herewith. This posture 
is nn-Indian and appears to indicate a period of time when the 
Javanese image-makers had outlived the trammels of Indian tradition.. 
In. the photograph of the Borneo image the feet are not clear and 
probably mutilated. But there cannot be any doubt about the 
posture being the same as that of the two Javanese images of 
Ganesha in the Indian Museum, that is to say, seated with the 
soles of the two feet joined. The trunk (sunda) hangs down in 
a manner which suggests that, as in the Indian examples, it 
presumably rested on a bowl of sweets. The head-dress appears to 
be an elaborate conventional form of the jata, the "matted locks " 
which Siva wears despite the incongruity in the case of Ganesha!. 
If it is a Jata, the image must represent Ganesha in an ascetic 
aspect, seated in meditation. This would explain the contempla- 
tive expression. But ascetic and contemplative Ganeshas are not 
known in India. 

" The Javanese images are assignable to the thirteenth 
century A. D., the age of the Brahmanic temples of Brambanan 
and Singasari. The Borneo image, which in its posture seems to- 
disclose Javanese influence, is probably to be assigned to about the 
same epoch but may be somewhat earlier. The earliest Brahmanic 
inscriptions found in Borneo (published by Vogel in a Dutch 
Journal of 191? or 1918) are assigned to the fifth century A. D. 
, This image of Ganesha shows that Brahmanic culture flourished 
in Borneo for a long period. For further particulars about the 
types of Ganesha images reference may be made to H. Krishna 
Sastri's South-Indian Images, pp. 165-176, and T. A. Gopinath 
Bao's Elements of Hindu Iconography, Vol. I, Part I, pp. 35-67." 

The discovery of this image created gijeat interest in Sarawak.. 
Thousands flocked to the Sarawak Museum to see it. The Museum 
attendants had the time of their lives seeing that the god disposed 
of all the offerings made to it. 

The accompanying illustration is from an enlarged photograph 
by Mrs. F. F. Boult, who tells me that she gave another one to the 
Sikhs in Kuching. at their request, for their Temple. 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



Notes. 



The Malayan Badger. 

Dr. W. Docters van Leeuwen, Director of the Botanical 

"Gardens, Bnitenzorg contributes the following interesting notes 
on the Malayan Badger in Java: — 

Bnitenzorg, 20th May, 1921. 
" With much interest I have read your article on the 
occurrence of the Malayan Badger in Borneo (Jonrn. Str. Br. 
Eoy. Asiat. Soc. Xo. 83, 1921, pp. 142-M6). This animal is 
very common in Java and I have seen it or smelt it on every 
mountain which I have visited. The lowest elevation at 
which I have seen this animal was 1000 feet on Mount Moeria 
in Java-central. The last time I saw it on Mount Pangerango, 
near Bnitenzorg, was from an elevation of 1-000 feet up to 
they summit, about 11,000 feet. There it is also common and 
very tame; in the vicinity of my mountain cabin it seeks the 
earthworms and insects under the thick moss-cover of the 
old crater valley. In the neighbourhood of our mountain 
laboratory at Tjibodas it is also very frequent and more than 
once we were awakened by the stink of this animal walking 
under our sleeping room. 

" It will interest you perhaps that in this forest there is 
a kind of fern, which has the same smell as the badger though 
not so strong, and which is named by the natives the " pakoe 
sigoeng"; its scientific name is Didymochhena lunulata Desv. 

" I have had some accidents meeting this animal but 
never have I felt any ill effect from the anal fluid though it is 
far from agreeable to be in contact with it. In some parts of 
•Java, especially in the old sultanates it is said that a very 
weakened solution of the fluid is used as a perfume." 

Buitenzorg, 2nd June, 1921. 
"In the neighbourhood of Mount Goentoer near Garoet 
I had once built a small bamboo cabin, with walls of dried 
grass and about every evening a badger came and looked in 
one of my open rooms and every night as he walked near the 
cabin we were awakened by the smell. This stench he bears 
loo, when not irritated, in his hairs, and also the path followed 
by this animal in the forest is recognisible by the stink. In 
the forest of Mount Pangerango I have seen the badger often 
in the first hours of the afternoon, but it is really a night- 
animal." v 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NOTES. 213 

Since describing in this Journal the two Bornean skins as a 
new subspecies, Mydaus javanensis montanus, I have examined a 
third imperfect skin from the Sarawak Museum. It was obtained 
from the Kalabits of the ulu Baram and almost certainly comes 
from the same locality as the other two. Unfortunately the 
Kalabits have made it up as a seat-mat for their own use and 
consequently cut it down considerably; only the back remains, 
the head, legs and tail having been cut off. It measures 19 
inches by 10-| at the widest part. A comparison of the whitish 
dorsal marking shows that it must have been similar in size to the 
other two. The white streak is 3 inches across at the widest, then 
narrows abruptly and breaks off completely for 3 inches before 
continuing as a very thin line for another 4 inches, after which it 
widens to the extent of 2 inches across the lumbar region. 

The length of the skin from the widest part of the dorsal 
streak between the shoulders to the root of the tail is 16^ to 17 
inches in all three skins. 

The skin representing the Type of this new subspecies has 
been deposited in the British Museum. The second and third 
skins remain in the Rattles Museum, Singapore, and the Sarawak 
Museum respectively. Xo others are as yet known. 

J. C. MOULTON. 



A Rail New to the Malay Peninsula. 



While arranging and naming the collection of Bird skins 
which have accumulated in the Baffles Museum during the last 
thirty years, an interesting discovery by which another species is 
.added to the list of Birds known to occur in the Malay Peninsula 
was made by Mrs. Horton, who has already done much valuable 
work on the bird collections of this Museum. Among the mass 
of unidentified material stored away was the skin of a Bail 
bearing the following label : " Kotta Tinggi, Johore. Dec. 18th 
1892. Sex female/' This skin proved to be that of Elwes' Crake, 
(Porzana bicolor AValden). 

This Crake was first procured by Captain Elwes in the in- 
terior of Sikkim at an elevation of 5,000 feet, in September 1870. 
Godwin- Austen found it in rice-fields about 5,000 feet up in the 
Khasi Hills in the month of June. Hume says he is sure he saw 
this species below Hoondoong at a height of 3,500 feet. It was 
obtained later by Collingwood Ingram in 1906 in the Lichiang 
Valley, West Yunnan, South China. 

U. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



214 A EAIL NEW TO THE MALAY PENINSULA. 

The Ruddy Crake (Limnobaenus fuscus) which occurs regular- 
ly in the Malay Peninsula, is closely allied to and somewhat 
similar to Elwes' Crake but the latter may be easily distinguished 
by the grey colour of the head, neck and breast, the Buddy Crake- 
being uniformly rufous. 

There is, however, a slight possibility of a mistake having been 
made in attaching the original label, as a former Curator of the 
Raffles Museum obtained several specimens of birds and insects 
from the Eastern Himalayas and the Johore label may have been 
tied in error to one of this collection. There is no evidence to 
support this theory, and considering the habits of Rails there is 
nothing at all surprising in the bird having been found in Johore. 
The Indian records were made in the summer and our specimen 
may have migrated here for the winter. 

It would, of course, be more satisfactory if this record could 
be supported by the capture of another specimen in the Malay 
Peninsula. 

J. C. Moultox. 



A Tiger at Sea. 



Instances of Tigers swimming across wide rivers or narrow 
straits are common enough. Tigers are still found occasionally 
on the island of Singapore where they have arrived from Johore 
after a swim of one to two miles across the Straits. The following 
note however of a much longer swim is perhaps worthy of record. 

Mr. Gr. 0. Dorrity of Trengganu, to whom I am indebted for 
the information, obtained the story from an old Malay fisherman 
in Kelantan some eight years ago. The local fishing fleet was 
proceeding out to the fishing grounds one night from the coast of 
Kelantan when a dark object was observed moving about on the 
surface of the water. The position given was midway between, 
the Perhentian Islands and the mainland, i.e. about five miles 
from the mainland; the total distance between the mainland and 
the nearest island of the group is eleven miles. On a closer in- 
spection, the object was discovered to. be a full grown tiger and 
evidently in some distress. A pulcat (seine-net) was thrown over 
it and the animal, entangled in the mesh, was towed behind a boat 
until drowned. 

It seems impossible to credit this tiger with the deliberate 
intention of swimming out ten miles to a small group of islands- 
winch he could hardly see from the mainland. Probably he was 
accidentally swept out to sea when attempting perhaps to cross a 
river at the mouth. 

J. C. MOULTON. 

.lour. Straits Branch 



Meteorite in Malacca Straits. 



On the morning of September 11th about 6.15 a.m., as I was 
lying in a berth on S. S. " Klang " facing the sea I suddenly saw 
a large ball of light, of dazzling brightness falling from the sky. 
Almost simultaneously there was a loud report resembling the 
tiring of a large gun, as the meteorite struck the sea. 

It could not have been more than 300 feet away. 

The master, Captain MacPonald, stated that it would have 
sunk the ship had it struck her. 

This occurrence took place when we were about one hour out 
of Port Swettenham on the voyage from Singapore. 

A. L. Hoops. 



Berkluat"— A Treng-g-anu Custom. 



The offence known is " Berkluat " is peculiar to the state of 
Trengganu alone in British Malaya. Should a man and woman 
be seen to exchange an affectionate glance, they may thereupon be 
arrested without warrant, charged with " Berkluat," and sentenced 
to as much as 3 months imprisonment. The giving of the " glad 
eye " is therefore a matter of some danger in Trengganu. 

The local dignitaries, who are mostly of Arabic extraction are 
said to be opposed to the abolition of this charge, though it is a 
fruitful source of blackmail. As most of these magnates possess 
a plurality of wives, it is rather pedantic on their part to object to 
a little ogling between couples of humble origin. 

Perhaps they have in mind 
" Apa guna pasang peliia 
" Kalau tiada dengan sumbohnyaf 
"Apa guna her main mata 
" Jikalau tiada dengan sunggohnya?" 

A. L. Hoops. 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



Points of the Compass in Brunei Malay. 



The Points of the Compass in Brunei Malay have been dis- 
cussed by Major J. C. Moulton in this Journal Xo. 83, 1921, p. 75. 

The Serang of the s. 1. Brunei explained the use of the word 
Utara as meaning X. E. by the fact that Malays fix the points of 
the compass by the winds: Musim Utara is the general Malay 
expression for the X. E. monsoon during which they cannot go out 
fishing, but if the wind shifts a point north they can, so they have* 
a definite name for this: Iraga. And thus avoid confusion with 
the rightly dreaded Utara. 

The coast of Borneo runs from S. W. to X. E., so a wind from 
the open sea i.e. Angin Laid would be a X. W. wind and a wind 
from the west would still be a sea wind Barat Laid i.e. from 
the western sea. The use of Barat Tepat for south west is probably 
a confusion of thought as such a wind would come straight 
(tepat) up the coast. 

The other three winds are not sea winds; Timor the East is 
always definite: S el at an I don't think I ever heard used; the mean- 
ing given in Wilkinson is the wind from the side of the Straits 
not S. E. 

Barat Daya for south might be explained by the meaning 
of Daya, treacherous, deceptive, as a wind partly off the shore- 
would be. 



F. W. Douglas. 



Kuala Lumpur 16/7/21. 



A Note on the Tagals of Sarawak. 



The Tagals of whom a few hundred have wandered down 
into Sarawak territory from British Borneo are a stockily built 
tribe whose looks and ornaments, tatooing and headress are very" 
similiar to some Dayak tribes. They are renowned amongst sur- 
rounding Muruts and others as experts in the art of poisoning. 
On one occasion I took from a small cloth which was round the 
neck of a Tagal chief a small piece of wood bound round with rotan 
and showed it to a Murut chief who asked me as he examined 
it from whom T had taken it. A native officer standing by 
mentioned the name of the Tagal chief whereupon the Murut 
dropped it like a piece of hot coal and nothing would induce him 
to touch it again. According to several Muruts this small piece 
of wood was quite sufficient to give a man violent fever. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



A NOTE ON THE TAGALS OF SARAWAK. 217 

The Tagals in Sarawak have a very curious form of amuse- 
ment called " TJngakang." In the middle of their long house 
verandahs there is a hole about 15 feet by 20 feet let down into the 
floor with loose spring boards at the bottom into which the young 
men jump. Then they gradually work up a higher speed, jumping 
up and down, singing " sembila kun manor " meaning in Malay 
" Baik baik kita jalan." When there are sufficient men on the 
boards and the singing has been going on a while the women 
-dressed in their best jump on and with their hands on each others 
shoulders slowly lock-step round the jumping men whilst the 
swaying boards throw them up and down with every other step. 
This is kept up for hours on end and is a survival of a head dance. 

Tliey are very artistic; most of their doors are ornamented 
with drawings as also are their bamboo pipes, combs etc. Singing- 
is a special forte and some of their chorus songs are very fine and 
tuneful, quite unlike those of surrounding tribes. They are 
tatooed they say to act as lights when their eyes are closed in death. 

Some Tagals have a story that the origin of Man was from 
Monkeys and that at one time the people of the world were all 
male monkeys. Others say that originally the Sun laid tliBee eggs, 
one white which was a Murut, one green, a Tagal and one lied. 

The first man on earth according to many Tagals was set to 
work making the holes for the rivers to run down. He had seven 
children, the youngest of whom was drowned in the Euni which, 
was the first river made. Before the holes were made for the 
rivers, when it rained the water came right up and drove the people 
on to the top of Mt. Mulok and it was once whilst all the animals 
-and people were up there for a long time that they ran short of 
food. The other animals talked together and decided to eat the 
dogs, who, understanding what they said, were very angry and 
rushed in and bit them and that is why to this day the dog hunts 
•other animals. 

When a man dies they put in his mouth a string of beads. 
The idea is that when he reaches the top of the world and entrance 
to the dead man's country, he finds it guarded by a snake who 
demands that a man shall look for its excrement and eat it before 
he can pass. When therefore the man reached this he bites the 
beads which make a noise and the snake is hoodwinked and allows 
them through. 

Like other Bornean natives they believe in birds (omens) but 
many of them only for the first two days of a journey or of work. 
They blame women for the beginning of head-hunting and blood 
fueds and like certain other tribes many of the women will not eat 
deer's flesh as they believe it to be the reincarnation of dead men. 
Their houses are very strongly built and much more carefully 
•erected than those of the surrounding Muruts. The most favored 
earring holes are series pierced right round the ears both for men 
and women. 

E. V. An-dbeini. 

B. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



Some Notes on Oriental Dragonflies 
the Genus Macromia. 



By F. F. Laidlaw, m.a. (caxtab.) 

The following account is the result of a study of examples of 
some twelve of the Oriental species of the genus, that I am for- 
tunate enough to have before me, apparently a greater number of 
species than was available to Martin in preparing the Selysian 
Catalogue of the Cokduliixae. Species of the genus are rather 
scarce in collections, and being at first sight often somewhat uni- 
form in colouring and build, their discrimination is a little difficult. 

Dr. Eis, who has the gift of illuminating the dark places of 
systematic Oclonatology. has not very long ago defined a small 
group of species belonging to the genus (Suppl. Entomol. So. 5. 
pp. 65-TO, 1916) using characters that are easily determined 
and of clue importance. He has thereby paved the way for a 
further grouping of the Oriental, and especially of the Malayan 
species, such as I attempt here. 

Employing characters similar to those made use of by Dr. Eis 
I arrange the Malayan species in groups, one of which is of course 
the group already defined by Dr. Eis. This grouping, unfor- 
tunately dependant in part on sexual characters, is I think 
tolerably natural, and should, with the aid of figures given, 
facilitate the determination of species. It is impossible to provide 
a satisfactory dichotomic table or key. I therefore give definitions 
of the groups, and under the heading of each group is added a short 
but I hope sufficient account of each of the species referred to that 
group. Fuller notes on the new species and remarks on some of 
the others, with text-figures, are appended. 

The characters relied on for the defining of the three groups 
of species I note below have already been employed by Dr. Eis in 
his paper, and suggested by Martin in the Monograph as useful. 
These characters are: firstly the colouring of the post-clypeus, 
which may be yellow, or may agree with that of the rest of the- 
front of the head in being reddish brown or dark-brown. Secondly 
the presence or absence of a humeral stripe on the synthorax; note 
that a lateral oblique stripe of yellow is present in all Oriental 
species of the genus. Thirdly the presence or absence of a flat- 
tened, pointed, triangular process on the dorsum of the tenth 
segment of the abdomen of the male. 

Specific characters are: the colour pattern of the abdominal 
segments, the occurrence of metallic lustre on some of the more 
basal of those segments, the colouring of the costal nerve, ( ? 
occasionally variable), the number of ante- and post-nodal nerves- 

Jour. Straits Branch 



SOME NOTES ON ORIENTAL DRAGONFLIES. 219 

•(shown by the "nodal indicator") ; size, and lastly the shape of the 
.anal appendages and of the genital structures of the second ab- 
dominal segment of the male. 

Probably also the shape of the margin of the hind- wing of 
the male, between the membrannle and the anal angle, is of some 
specific value. 

As will he seen from the sequel, the total number of species 
of Macro mia from the Orient is not less than eighteen; it will pro- 
bably be increased considerably in the future. The Macromias are 
handsome, strong-flying insects that will repay careful study in the 
field, and the difficulty of capturing some of the species at any rate 
raises their pursuit almost to the dignity of a sport. Kennedy 
records {Proc. U. S. Xat. Mus. 49. p. 313, 1915) that he was 
•compelled to use a shot-gun to obtain his first supply of specimens 
of the American M. magnified MacL. 

Since the publication of Kirby's Catalogue in 1890 the follow- 
ing are the important notices dealing with members of this genus 
from Indo-Malaya : — 

1899. Kriiger, L. Stettin entomol. Zeit. pp. 324-338. 
1906. Martin, R. Collect. Zool. Selys. XYII Corduliinae. 
1916. Ris. F. Suppl Entom. Xo. 5. pp. 65-71 Taf. iii, figs. 1-4 
Text-figs. 42-45. 

References to other papers are given where necessary in the 
text. 

I. Group of J/, icestwoodi Selys. 

Segments 2-6 of abdomen unicoloured, all with more or less 
metallic lustre. Front of head uniformly dark brown, but the 
pyramidal processes of the frons metallic green or violet. Males 
with pointed triangular process on the dorsum of the tenth seg- 
ment of the abdomen. Pterostigma small (2 mm. or less). 

a. A well-defined hnmeral band of yellow, incomplete above. 
Costal nerve with fine yellow line. 8 Lower anal appen- 
dage about equal in length to upper pair. These latter 
are very slightly recurved apically, and have each a very 
small, almost obsolete extero-lateral tooth at about the 
middle of their length. 

Length of hind-wing <j 46 mm. ( $ 50 mm. Serys). 

3/. westwoodi Selys. 
Perak. Penang. 

a 1 Lower part of dorsum of synthorax brown, as it passes 
dorsalwards acquiring a metallic green lustre, but no 
definite humeral band present. Costal nerve black. 

b. $ Lower anal appendage almost a third as long 
again as upper pair, the latter with apices recurved, 

JR. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



220 SOME NOTES ON OEIENTAL DEAGONFLIES. 

and with a well-developed extero-lateral tooth on 
each at about its middle. 

Length of hind-wing 40 mm. ( 9 unknown). 

M . cydippe 11. sp. 
Borneo. (Banka? Sumatra?) 

b 1 ,$ Lower anal appendage about equal in length to» 
upper pair, the latter with recurved apices, and with 
the extero-lateral tooth so reduced as to be scarcely- 
discoverable. 

Length of hind-wing $ 43 mm. $ 46 mm. 

M. euterpe Laidlaw. 

Borneo. 
II. Group of ]\[. cincta Eamb. 

Segments 2-6 of abdomen black or brownish-black without 
metallic lustre. 2-3 at least with yellow markings on the dorsum. 
Front of head very dark brown, pyramids of frons black, slightly- 
metallic. Xo definite humeral band on dorsum of synthorax. 
Costal nerve black. Males with pointed triangular process on 
dorsum of segment 10 of abdomen. 

Pterostigma about 3 mm. 

M. cincta Eamb. agg~ 

III. Group of M. calliope Eis (defined by Eis). 

Thorax black, with rich metallic lustre, with a humeral band 
incomplete above. Frons black with metallic lustre, ante-clypeu& 
black or dark brown, post-clypeus (except in one or two species) 
yellow. Costal nerve usually entirely black. Segments 2-6 of 
abdomen black (or in one or two species metallic), the second 
segment at least with yellow markings on the dorsum. $ without 
dorsal process on the tenth segment of the abdomen. In most, 
species the upper anal appendages straight or incurved apically. 

a. $ Post-clypeus dark brown, segments 2-6 of abdomen 
with metallic green lustre, unmarked save for a pair of 
small transverse spots on 2. Upper anal appendage with 
extero-lateral tooth near the apex, which is rather ab- 
ruptly inflected. Lower appendage of about equal length. 
Distal third of genital hamule abruptly narrowed, slencler r 
sickle-shaped. Hind-wing $ 34 mm. ( $ unknown). 

M. covycia n. sp~ 
Borneo. 

a 1 Post-clypeus pale yellow; segment 2 of abdomen with 
yellow ring, narrow dorsally and not covering the base of 
the segment, whilst 3-5 have small paired spots dorsally 
immediately in front of the transverse carina of each, 
(those on 4-5 very small). Segment 7 with yellow ring- 

Jour. Straits Branch. 



SOME NOTES ON ORIENTAL DRAGONFLIES. 221 

occupying its basal third, 8 with small pair of basal dor- 
sal spots. $ upper anal appendages slightly incurved 
apically, with extero-lateral tooth at commencement of 
distal third; lower appendage slightly shorter. Distal 
quarter of genital hamule abruptly narrowed, hook- 
shaped. Hind-wing S 35 mm., $ 40 mm. 

M. urania Bis. 
Tonkin. 

$ Post-clypeus pale yellow. Segment 2 of abdomen 
with yellow ring, narrow and not touching base of seg- 
ment dorsally, 3 with minute yellow spot dorsally on 
either side of the middle line in front of the transverse 
carina. Upper anal appendages nearly straight, extero- 
lateral tooth at commencement of distal third. Lower 
appendage about equal in length. Genital hamule long 
and slender, almost straight. 

Hind-wing $ 31.5 mm., $ 34 mm. 

M. callisto n. sp. 
Malay Peninsula. 

$ Post-clypeus black with small yellowish spots on the 
two small depressions immediately below the Irons. 

2 Post-clypeus yellow. Basal yellow ring on segments 
2 and 7, that on the second segment however is dark 
apically. That on the seventh covers a little more than 
the basal, quarter of the segment. Segments 3-G with 
paired dorsal lunules of orange-brown in the female, 
progressively smaller backwards, and minute on the sixth 
segment; in the male segments 4-6 entirely black, but 
in specimens examined by me the lunules are present on 
4-5. Segment 8 entirely black. $ Upper appendages 
nearly straight. Extero-lateral tooth stout. Lower ap- 
pendage a little longer. Distal two-thirds of genital 
hamule slender, sickle-shaped. 

Hind- wing $ 37 mm., $ 40 mm. 



■-&> 



M . calliope Pis. 
Tonkin. 

a 4 $ Post-clypeus yellow. Basal yellow ring on segments 
2-7, that on the second segment covering its basal half 
at least, that on the seventh about the basal third. 
Segments 3-G with paired dorsal lunules immediately in 
front of the transverse carina, 8 with paired, basal spots. 
$ Upper anal appendages nearly straight, stout extero- 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



•222 SOME NOTES OX ORIENTAL DRAGONFLIES. 

lateral tooth, just beyond the middle of each, genital 
hamule slender, straighter than in the last species but 
otherwise rather similar. 
Hind-wing S 39 mm. 

M. fraenata Martin (?) 
Khasi Hills, Tonkin (Corea?) 

In addition Dr. Bis allots To this group two other species, 
M. clio Bis, from Formosa, a large, very distinct species ( 9 h. w. 
-i7 mm.) known only from the female sex, characterized by the 
possession of large basal yellow markings on segments 3-6 extend- 
ing to the transverse carina; and M. ampliigena Selys, a large 
species from Japan ( $ h, w. 45 mm). 

.Macromia westwoodi Selys (Fig. 1.) 

1 6 Maxwells's Hill, Perak. (Baffles Museum, Singapore). 

The specimen unfortunately lacks the head. I feel sure that 
it is the true male of this species, and that the sex has not hitherto 
been described, the males attributed to it by de Selys and Kruger 
belonging in my opinion rather to the next species or an allied 
form. The present specimen shows much less discrepancy in size 
with the type female as far as de Selys' measurements go, *and the 
locality is of course a likely one. 

Wings colourless, save for a slight tinge of yellow near the 
anal angle. This latter is rather rounded, and the anal margin of 
the wing between the membranule and the angle itself is deeply 
•concave. Costal nerve marked with yellow. Nodal indicator 
xr - 5 9 L I \'% t 9 ! Pterostigma 2.5 mm. 

The yellow mark on the base of segment 7 of the abdomen 
occupies its basal quarter. 

The sides of the first and second segments are brown in colour 
shading gradually into the metallic green of the dorsum. The 
dorsal process on segment 10 is small and lies near the base of the 
segment. 

The extero-lateral tooth of the upper anal appendage is much 
reduced. 

The genital lobe of the second segment carries a stiff brush- 
like bunch of hairs, directed forward, at the apex. The genital 
hamule is short, not extending to the apex of the lobe, and is 
comparatively broad. 

Length of abdomen s 45 mm + 2.75 mm. ($ 50 mm. Selys). 

Macromia cydippe n. sp. (Figs. 2-3). 

1 $ Lio Matu, Sarawak, Borneo. Oct. 1920. (coll J. C. Moult on) 
The specimen is the Type. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



SOME NOTES OX OB TENT AL DKAGONFLIES. 22.3 

With tli is male I think it probable that the $ from Banka 
referred to M. westwoodi by de Selys, and the specimens recorded 
from Sumatra under the same name, are conspecific. 

Wings distinctly smoky especially at the apices. Pterostigma 
2 mm. long. Xodal indicator ^ |SI tt> to Anal angle not acute. 
Margin between membrannle and angle slightly concave. 

The lateral yellow band of the synthorax is pale cream -yellow 
in colour and sharply defined. The yellow ring on the seventh 
segment of the abdomen occupies the basal fifth of the segment. 

The lower anal appendage has a length of 2.8 mm. The upper 
pair are decidedly shorter, being barely 2 mm. long. Each has a 
well-developed extero-lateral tooth just before its middle, and the 
apex of each is recurved. 

The genital lobe of the second segment is small, and the geni- 
tal hamule is small and nearly straight, not unlike that figured by 
Eis for J/, terpsicliore Forster, though relatively smaller. 

Length of abdomen 42.5 mm. + 2.8 mm. 

2 unknown. 

Type in British Museum ex coll. Raffles Museum, Singapore. 

Macromia euterpe Laidlaw. 

J/, euterpe Laidlaw (Proe. Zool. Soc. London 1915, pp. 26-29. 
Text-figs. 1, 2.) This species has the anal angle rounded, and 
margin of the wing between the membranule and the angle deeply 
concave as in M. ivesttvoodi, in the male. 

The dorsum of the second segment is also much more densely 
covered "with hairs than in the two species of the group already 
noticed. The pterostigma is about 1.75 mm.* The genital lobe 
is very small, and the hamule is short stout and well curved. 

Xodal indicator if {o | if {«. 

"I have before me the paratype $ from Mt. Kinabalu. 

Two other species appear to fall into this group, viz, M. ter- 
psicliore Forster and M. mejpomene Eis. Both are from X. Guinea. 
(See Eis in Nova Guinea IX, Zoo]. 3, pp. 494-497, figs. 13-17. 
and idem, Nova Guinea XIII Zool. 2. pp. 84-85, figs. 2-3.) 

Both these species differ from the more western members of 
the group in having the pterostigma exceedingly small, only 1. mm. 
long. 

Macromia cincta Eamb. (? local race) (Fig. 4). 
1 $ . Sarawak, Borneo. Coll. J. C. Moulton. 

The specimen agrees in the main with de Selys' account of 
this species. I have not been able to see Eambur s original descrip- 



*Not 2.5 mm, as originally stated (.Laidlaw loc. cit.) 
R. A. Soc.. So. 85, 1922. 



224 SOME NOTES ON ORIENTAL DRAGONFLIES. 

tion. It shows some differences in detail which may be charac- 
teristic of a local race of the species, or may he due to age and 
loss of markings in preservation. 

The specimen before me is fully adnlt. 

Wings almost colourless save for a very small dark brown 
mark at their bases, extending from the costa to the median vein, 
and in the hind-wing reaching distally nearly as far as the first 
ante-nodal cross vein, in the fore-wing it is only half as extensive. 
Pterostigma 3 mm. long, black. Costal nerve black. Membrannle 
greyish-white, anal angle very acute, a slight yellow tinge about 
the angle. 

Nodal indicator Vo -]x I if t 7 o- Length of wing 46 mm. 
Front of head uniformly blackish-brown with a slight lustre 
which is more marked on the upper part of the frons. 

Synthorax dark-brown with green and violet reflex. No hu- 
meral stripe. Lateral stripe, covering the stigma pale, buff -yellow. 
The brown ground colour deepens to black immediately on either 
side of this stripe, and is here more richly metallic. There is also 
a small lateral ventral mark of buff-yellow on the metepimeron 
not quite terminal. 

Abdomen dorsal ly black, or brownish-black; dark brown ven- 
trally and on the sides of the first and second segment. The 
second segment has transverse band of a creamy yellow colour 
running across the dorsum from one auricle to the other not touch- 
ing the base or apex of the segment. 

The third segment has a dorsal spot of the same colour im- 
mediately in front of the transverse carina, divided into two by 
the longitudinal median carina. Below it is creamy-white. 

Segments 4-5 have small paired lunules similarly placed but 
of a darker yellow, whilst 6 is entirely black. 

The seventh segment has a small basal yellow mark on the 
dorsum occupying only about one-eighth of the length of the seg- 
ment. The remaining segments entirely black. 

Anal appendages very dark brown, exactly corresponding to 
de Selys* description. 

The genital lobe of the second segment is small. The hamules 
are slender, boldly recurved apically so as to be hook-like. 

The tenth segment of the abdomen has a sharply pointed 
dorsal prominence. 

I believe that 31. borneensis Ivruger and M. pyramidalis 
Martin, are probably members of this group. I have not seen 
examples of either. 

As a special feature (possibly found in all the males of this 
group, as I have seen it in cinda and in no other Oriental groups) 
I would call attention to a curious thickening of a small part of 

Jour. Straits Branch 



SOME NOTES ON ORIENTAL DEAGONFLIES. 225 

the ventral margin of the tergite, close to the anterior end of the 
segment. This thickening of the margin is ahout a millimetre in 
length and is beset with a few very stiff short hairs. It is quite 
a definite structural feature and possibly serves some purpose in 
connection with the genital structures of the segment. 

Cincta and its allies seem to form a distinct group of rather 
large species, characterized not only by peculiarities of coloration 
but also by the relative large size of the pterostigma, and by cer- 
tain secondary sexual characters. The group appears to be con- 
fined to Malaya and Indo-China. 

Macromia corycia n. sp. (Fig. 5.) 

1 $ . UJu Baram, Sarawak, Borneo 3. xi. 20., coll. J. C.Moulton. 
The specimen is the Type. 

Wings colourless. Pterostigma 2 mm. black. Costal nerve 
black. Nodal indicator ^ {% j - 1 /- ± % 

Upper lip black, shining, almost metallic, ante- and post- 
elypeus very dark brown, the latter with the two small pits im- 
mediately below the frons, coloured a little paler. Frons entirely 
metallic violet. Synthorax brilliant metallic green, the yellow 
markings rather of a buff-colour. Abdomen slender, segments 2 
and 7-9 moderately inflated. Small transverse marks on the dor- 
sum of the second segment, at about its middle, of pale yellow. 
Sides of the segment brown passing indefinitely into green above. 

Basal mark on 7 orange-yellow, occupying rather less than the 
basal quarter of the segment. Segments 7-10 black. 

Anal appendages blackish-brown, upper pair 2 mm. long: 
lower appendage a shade longer. The upper pair are very similar 
in shape to those figured by Eis (loc. cit. Fig. 42.) for his species 
M. urania. 

Type specimen in British Museum ex coll. Baffles Museum, 
Singapore. 

This beautiful little species is readily distinguished from its 
allies by the dark colouring of the post-clypeus, and by the absence 
of any markings on the abdomen save on the second' and seventh 
segments. Its nearest relations would seem to be M. urania Bis 
and M. callisto n. sp. 

Macromia callisto n. sp. (Fig. 6.) 

Macromia gerstaeckeri Laidlaw (nee Kruger) Proc. Zool. Soc. 

London 1902 pp. 76-77. 
1 3 1 $ Kuala Aring, Kelantan, Malay States, coll. F. F. Laidlaw 
(Skeat. Exp.) Types $ and $ in Mus. Comp. Anat. Cambridge. 
Though bearing a close resemblance to M. gerstaeckeri Kruger 
this species differs in that, whilst Kruger's species has a prominence 
on the dorsum of the tenth segment of the male, callisto is entirely 
without this structure. 

R. A. Soc. No. 85, 1922, 



226 SOME NOTES ON ORIENTAL DBAGONFLIES. 

Kruger's account of his species gerstaecleeri is sufficiently 
definite in this respect. He says of the tenth segment of the ab- 
domen that it is "vorn abgeschrdgt - und zeimlich tief gefurcht, 
der Ritchen erliebt sich nacli hint en zu einem stumpfen Hooker/' 

It is certain that this description cannot apply to M. callisto, 
and as I believe the character to be of importance I feel justified, 
after having had an opportunity of making a fresh study of my 
specimen, in giving it a name. It differs also a little in size being 
distinctly smaller than gerstaecleeri; it is in fact the smallest of the 
Oriental species of the genus. Other differences are noted below. 

$ (specimen rather immature) wings slightly and evenly 
tinged with brown. Pterostigma 1.75 mm. brown. Costal nerve 
black. Nodal indicator I if I if ?• The number of post-nodals 
in the hind-wings is smaller relatively to the number of ante- 
nodals than in the case of any of the other species I have examined. 
The anal angle is not very acute, and the anal margin of the whig, 
between the grey membranule and the anal angle, is straight. 
(M. gerstaeckeri: "Der Analrand der Hinterfiugel ist zwischen der 
lucislichcn Membranula und der Analecke dadurch ausgebuclitet, 
daos die Randader des 2-zelligen Analdreieclis hier wellig vor- 
springt") 

Abdomen dark brown (probably black in mature examples, and 
may have some metallic lustre). The second segment has a ring 
of yellow, not reaching its proximal border. The third has two 
minute spots on either side of the mid-dorsal line immediately in 
front of the transverse carina. 

Segment 7 has a basal yellow ring, occupying the proximal 
fifth of the segment. 

Colouring of M. gerstaeckeri similar but the mark on the 
second segment is broken into dorsal and lateral parts, and there 
is a basal lateral mark on the eighth segment. 

Macromia fraenata Martin (?) (Fig. 7.) 

1 $ Khasi Hills (purchased, no other data). In my collection. 

Identity doubtful. Agrees fairly well with Martin's descrip- 
tion so far as colouring goes, but not with his coloured figure, 
which again is not altogether in agreement with his account of the 
species. Further the anal appendages are unlike those figured in 
certain respects. But as his figure here also does not altogether 
fit his description, I think it wise to refer the specimen here pro- 
visionally, noting further a wide difference in habitat. Fraenata 
is recorded from Tonkin and Corea, but I cannot help thinking the 
latter locality unlikely. 

Wings slightly tinged with yellow brown at the extreme bases. 
Pterostigma 2 mm. Nodal indicator -^ {% I \% t 9 q Costal nerve 
with brownish-yellow line. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



SOME NOTES ON ORIENTAL DBAGONFLIES. 227 

Anal angle not acute. Margin between distal end of membran- 
ule and angle slightly concave. Membranule grey-brown. Lobes 
of lower lip yellow, marked with brown medially. 

Upper lip black, with transverse bar of yellow at its base. 
Ante-clypeus black, post-clypeus yellow. Frons metallic violet. 
Syn thorax metallic green or violet, humeral stripe extending rather 
more than half-way up the dorsum. Lateral yellow stripe over 
the stigma broad (1. 75 mm.) 

Abdomen, segment 1, basally brown passing gradually to black 
distally, both on the dorsum and at the sides. Second segment 
yellowish-brown as far as the transverse carina, the yellow extends 
beyond this mid-dorsally and mid-laterally almost to the apex of 
the segment. (In this respect the specimen differs both from 
Martin's coloured figure and description). 

Segments 3-6 with paired yellowish-brown lunules on the dor- 
sum of each segment, immediately in front of the transverse carina 
progressively smaller from before backwards. (Here the specimen 
resembles Martin's coloured figure but differs from his description). 
Segment 7 with a basal yellowish-brown ring, covering almost the 
basal third of the segment, prolonged mid-dorsally to a point at 
about the middle of the segment. The eighth segment has a pair 
of basal dorsal lunules. 

In addition the third segment has on either side a small basal 
lateral spot, and the eighth segment has a lateral ventral streak of 
the same colour basally. Abdomen otherwise black. Segments 
2-3 and 7-8 moderately dilated. 

Anal appendages black, upper pair straight, apically acumi- 
nate. Each carries an extero-lateral tooth a little beyond its* 
middle. Lower appendage sub-equal, with very slight upward 
curve. Genital lobe of second segment small, pointed, directed 
backwards. Genital hamule, slender, tapering irregularly, nearly 
straight, directed backwards. 

The specimen differs lastly from Martin's coloured figure of 
fraenata and resembles his description in having the frons entirely 
black, with metallic reflex. 

Length of abdomen 47 mm. + 2.5 mm., of hind-wing 39 mm. 

Macromia urania Eis 

1 possess a single male of this species, from Tonkin, acquired 
many years ago through Dr. F. Forster. 

Jt agrees closely in all respects with Dr. Eis' account of the 
Type. 

Nodal indicator J JJ | {{ f 

Macromia calliope Eis 

2 $ $ I 5 Tonkin per Dr. F. Forster (The female is the 
allotype). 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 192?. 



228 SOME NOTES ON OEIENTAL DEAGONFLIES. 

The males agree exactly with Kis' description of the Type ex- 
cept that both have quite definite humles on segments 4-5 of the 
abdomen, in each segment immediately in front of the transverse 
carina. This is a character which may well depend on the state 
of preservation, and even on the age of the individual; I do not 
regard it as being of much importance. Both males are in good 
condition, and appear fully mature. 

The female is distinctly larger. The post-clypeus is of a dull 
yellow colour, except immediately above the ante-clypeus, where it 
is narrowly lined with black. The synthorax resembles that of the 
male but the yellow colouring is duller than in the other sex. The 
abdomen is marked as in the male, but the sixth segment (like the 
fourth and fifth) has a pair of lunnles in front of the transverse 
carina. In this case they are very small. The eighth segment lacks 
the ventral lateral yellow marks found in the male. 

Nodal indicator T 8 T if | }§ T 8 T .. Length of pterostigma, 
2.4 mm., of hind-wing 41 mm., of abdomen 47.5 mm. 

My specimens are without any yellow line on the costal nerve. 

In addition to the fore-going I have been able to examine 
specimens of M. moorei Selys, M. cingulata Eamb. and of M. flavi- 
cincta Selys, from India. 

There remain to be noted the following species from Malaya 
of which I have not seen examples: — 

M. fumata Kruger. Front of head unicolourous, no humeral 
stripe on S}Tithorax, no spine on dorsum of tenth segment of male. 
Described from Java, apparently related to M. moorei. 

M. gerstaeckeri Kruger. Post-clypeus yellow, a humeral 
stripe on the synthorax, a spine on the tenth segment of the male, 
Java. 

M. septima Martin is from Tonkin; not sufficiently charac- 
terized. 

[ I have seen examples of the larvae of M. flavicincta Selys, 
from India; they do not appear to differ except in detail from those 
of American species, and certainly do not approach those of the 
genus Azuma (Epophthalmia) ]. 

Thus one can now give the following as the list of Bornear 
species (cf. I aidlaw Proc. Zool Soc. Lond. 1920. p. 318) 

M. cincta Eamb. (forma). 

M. cydippe n. sp. 

M. corycia n. sp. 

M. enter pe Laidlaw 
and with some doubt, 

M. borneensis Kruger 

M. ivestwoodi Selys 

M. gerxtaeclceri Kruger. 
Whilst for the Malay Peninsula I can record only — 

M. westwoodi Selys and M. callisto n. sp. 

Jour. Straits Branc^ 





Fig. 1. Lateral view of second abdominal 
segment of M. westwoodi Selys <£ . 



Fig. 2. Lateral view of second abdominal 
segment of M. cydippe n. sp. $ 




Fig 3. Apex of abdomen of M. cydippe n. sp. J . a 
indicates the thickening of the margin seen from 
the side. 





Fig. 5. Genital structures of second segment 
of abdomen of M. corycia n. sp. 6* . 
Fig. 4. Second segment of abdomen of lateral view (somewhat distorted by 

M.cmcta Ra.mb. J fiom the side. pressure). 




Fig. 6. Lateral view of genital struc- 
tures of second segment of ab- 
domen of M. callisto $ . n. sp. 




Fig. 7. Lateral view of genital struc- 
tures of second abdominal seg- 
ment of M. fraenata Mart- 
in(?) g. 



Genitalia of Malaysian Odonata. 



Protective Devices by Lycaenid Butterflies 
Against the Attacks of Lizards and Birds. 



BY C. L. COLLENETTE. 

Among the subfamilies composing the Lycaenieae, commonly 
called the " blues/' there are several which show a conspicuous eye- 
spot on the margin of the underside of the hind wing, coupled 
with a pair of tails, or often two pairs of tails, of varying length 
and thickness. 

When the butterfly is at rest with wings closed, the tails are 
in many cases crossed the one over the other and kept in motion 
by an irregular rotatary movement of the hind wings. In other 
species the tails are long and fragile and are stirred by any breeze 
which is blowing. Again in other species the tails are short or 
absent but the eye-spots conspicuous. The wings are in some cases 
slightly separated, which throws a shadow between, giving an ap- 
pearance of breadth when viewed from behind. 

This device has been generally attributed to an imitation, 
perfected b} r natural selection, of the head or in many cases the 
head and antennae, the enemy being led to attack the brittle hind 
wings, which break and allow the butterfly to escape. This has 
been noted by many writers and is usually referred to as being a 
protection against insectivorous birds, although other enemies are 
frequently mentioned. It would appear, however, that in Malaya 
the device is directed not so much against birds as against wing- 
less foes, chief among these being lizards. 

The device of eye-spots and tails is not shown in many families 
of Malayan butterflies, and in no other is it brought to such a state 
of perfection. 

Many species of Lycaenids, in contradistinction to the major- 
ity of butterflies, pass their lives close to the ground rather than 
at the tops of the trees. When disturbed, they rely on a short 
flight of a few yards and a " disappearance " by alighting suddenly 
on a leaf, when their closed wings render then inconspicuous. On 
a number of occasions I have followed up some of the commoner 
Lycaenids, putting them to flight and watching their actions, and 
on no single occasion has the butterfly alighted out of reach of my 
net, the usual height being 4 ft. to 6 ft. It therefore follows that 
enemies against which these insects must protect themselves hunt 
in bushes as well as in trees. 

Birds are not common in the lower depths of the jungle, and 
Lycaenids inhabiting paths shut in by trees would be largely free 
from their attentions. Lizards, however, would appear to be quite 
as common at low elevations as among the tree tops. 

The majority of lizards appear to catch their prey by the use 
of sight only. They approach, often from a considerable distance, 
at a fairly rapid rate, ending with a cautious " one foot at a time "" 
advance, and a final swift grab at the insect. 

Jour. Straits BrancTr 



PROTECTIVE DEVICES BY LYCAENID BUTTERFLIES. 231 

A lizard would in most instances approach the insect from a 
branch, eventually climbing out from the base of the leaf on which 
it had settled. A bird" would either catch a butterfly in flight, 
(unlikely in the case of the Lycaenids), or would make a quick 
peck at one which settled near to its perch. It does not appear 
possible that a bird could make a sufficiently quiet approach to- 
stalk a Lycaenid successfully. 

As the result of a number of observations, I find that some- 
species of Lycaenids show a certain amount of discrimination in 
settling. They choose an exposed position rather than one among 
the leaves and usually the upper ?ide of the leaf. The position is 
generally near the centre of the leaf, and the head of the butter- 
fly in perhaps 90% of cases is lower than the tail. The point of 
the average leaf being lower than the fixed end, it follows that the 
butterfly presents its protective apparatus to the end of the leaf 
which is attached to the branch. This appears to indicate that the 
clangers to be avoided come from the bush rather than from the air. 

I have never seen a jungle lizard in the act of catching a 
butterfly. However, the common Chi-chah of the houses (Hemi- 
dactylus frenafus), although principally a night feeder, offers an 
opportunity for experiment. I have on several occasions liberated 
Lycaenids in a room at night, but on account of the jolting re- 
ceived on the way home or perhaps the absence of daylight, the 
butterfly generally flutters to a wall and remains absolutely still, 
without any rotation of the wings. Chi-chahs as a rule take no 
interest in an insect which they do not see in motion, and if the 
butterfly is disturbed with a stick, the Chi-chahs usually take fright 
and refuse to feed. 

In Penang, in January 19<21, I liberated 17 Lvcaenids. There 
were several other insects in the room, attracted by the light and 
the Chi-chahs had already dined and were not very active. Three 
of the butterflies were attacked. One was taken by the head and 
eaten. Two were attacked from the tail, but in both cases the 
snap missed the butterfly entirely and it escaped. It is difficult 
to make this experiment in Singapore, as suitable butterflies are' 
not very common. 

The proportion of Lycaenids showing this protective device,, 
which are deficient of part of the hind wings, is relatively large, 
and in worn specimens which have been flying for some days, 
might be nut as' high as T0%. The broken portion generally re- 
sembles the rounded shape of a lizard's mouth rather than the 
sharp bill of a bird, and it can be demonstrated with forceps that 
the wings will fracture where gripped, and not naturally with a 
rounded shape. 

It appears to me that the Lycaenids showing this device are- 
protecting themselves against lizards rather than against birds, 
and it would be interesting if observations on the subject could be- 
collected. 

R. A. Soc, No. 85, 1922. 



Recent Books on Malay. 



Risalat Hoekoem Kanoen ja-itoe Oendang-Oendang Melaka 
edited by Dr. Ph. S. van Eonkel (Brill, Leiden, 1919). This 
is an authoritative text of the Malay Laws of Malacca, of which 
an abstract is given in Newbold's history of Malacca (Vol. II pp. 
'231 et seq) . It is particularly valuable because Malay "Codes" 
'deserve more comparative study than they have hitherto received 
and especially comparison with such Indian "Codes" as are to 
be found, for example in the Ain-i Akhbar and T-arikh-i Taliiri. 

Maleisch Woordenboek (Maleisch-Nederlandsch and Neder- 
landscli-Maleiscli) by Dr. Ph. S. van Eonkel (Grouda, 1918). This 
is an excellent little dictionary, which the author modestly describes 
as the first dictionary printed in the Dutch official spelling, though 
it has many other good points such as scholarly accuracy and 
arrangement to recommend it. It will be to Dutch scholars 
What Wi'lkitDisoctfs 1 and Winstedtfs abridged dictionaries are to 
us. 

tSuyplement-CatMogus der Maleische en Minangkabauscfie 
Handschriften in de Leidsche Universiteits-Bibliotheek by Dr. Ph. 
S. van Eonkel (Leiden 1921). This is a supplement (316 pp.) 
to Dr. JuynbolFs well-known Catalogus of the Ley den Library 
{1899) and is worthy to stand beside it and van EonkePs own 
'Catalogue of Malay MSS. in the Batavian Society's Library. 
Many of the new MSS. here catalogued came from Ophuijsen's 
■and Snouck Hurgronje's collection. Two MSS. of the Ht. Bay an 
Budiman are here recorded and one of the Puspa Wiraja, of 
which Dr. Winstedt (Journal 83, p. 96) knew only one MS. There 
are a number of valuable works on Islam and mysticism in the 
Snouck Hurgronje collection. The book will be of incalculable 
service to all serious students of Malay. 

Wir Menschen der indonesischen Erde by Eenward Brand- 
stetter (Luzern). This comparison of the "souls" of two peoples, 
the Indonesian and the Indogermanic is a sequel to the author's 
valuable studies of Indonesian philology, familiar to English readers 
from Mr. CO. Blagden's translations of several of the best known. 

Panioen Melajoe issued by the Balai Poestaka (Weltevreden, 
1920). This is a fine collection of Malay quatrains, the Dutch 
counterpart of the book published by Messrs Wilkinson and 
Winstedt, now out of print. The collection will be of value for 
comparative purposes, especially for comparison with the Penin- 
sular collection just mentioned. 

Kitab Loghat Melayu by E. 0. Winstedt D. Lift, and Ibrahim 
bin Dato' Muda, Linggi (Singapore, 1921). A dictionary in 
Malay for Malays, the first that has appeared in the Peninsula 

Jour. Straits Branch 



EECENT BOOKS ON MALAY. 233 

since the old Kamus Mahmudiah, long since out of date. It is 
one of the series of Dr. Winstedt's works, prepared for the rise of 
vernacular schools and colleges. It has been favorably reviewed 
by Mr. C. 0. Blagden in our parent Journal. 

Kitdb Tawarikh Melayu, third edition by R. 0. Winstedt 
D. Litt. (Singapore 1921). This is a revised edition of a Malay 
history for Malays, which has excited much interest in the verna- 
cular press, 

Dictionary of Colloquial Malay (Malay -English and English- 
Malay) by R. 0. Winstedt (Singapore 1920). This is the first 
concise colloquial dictionary of Malay by an Englsh scholar and is 
companion to the author's "Colloquial Malay"/' of which a new 
edition appeared in 1920. Mr. Blagden has reviewed it in our 
parent Journal (October, 1921). 

An Abridged Malay-English Dictionary (Romanised) by R. 
J. Wilkinson C.M.G., (Singapore 1919). A second and revised 
edition of a book which has been in the hands of all English 
students of the language since 1908. There "will be found a fair 
sprinkling of new words*, a great number of closer definitions of 
meaning and a few corrections." 

Misa Melayu with introduction and notes and edited by R. 0. 
Winstedt (Singapore 1919). Vol. 15 of the Malay Literature 
Series, published by the Methodist Publishing House. It is an 
18th century history of Perak and it is surprising that no text 
of such an interesting Malay historical work has hitherto appeared. 
Not only does it throw light on Malay life of the period' but also 
on Perak's relations with the Dutch. Dr. Winstedt's text is based 
on three MSS. and there is another at the Hague. 

Hikayat Bayan Budiman atau Cherita Khojah Maimun edited 
with introduction and notes by R. 0. Winstedt, D. Litt, Oxon. 
(Singapore 1920). This is vol. 16 of the Malay Literature Series 
and is the first complete text of the Malay version of the Persian 
Tutinameli, known in England as "Tales of a Parrot." Dr. 
Wins'tedt's text is based primarily on two MSS. of the tale in 
Raffles Library, Singapore. He also prints the oldest MS. of the 
Malay version, the fragment now in the Bodleian Library, which 
belonged formerly to Edward Poeocke and dates from about 1600 
a.d. This volume should interest many Oriental scholars. 

A History of the Peninsular Malays with chapters on Peralc 
and S elan g or by !Bi J. Wilkinson /C.M.G., (Singapore 1920). 
This is a revised and enlarged edition of " History, Part I," 
printed in 1908 in "Papers on Malay Subjects." "Research has 
added to our knowledge of early Malay history and the last four 
chapters embody hitherto unpublished results of original study." 
Especially interesting is the chapter on the murder of Mr. J. W. 
Birch and the events leading to the Perak war. Mr. C ? O. Blagden 

ft. A, Soc, No. 85, 1922, 



234 EECENT BOOKS ON MALAY. 

has drawn attention to some inaccuracies and criticis uie' author's 
failure to give references in our parent Journal (J. R. A. S. 
October 1921). 

Johol, Inas, Ulu Muar, Jempul, Gunong Pasir and Terachi: 
their History and Constitution by J. E. Nathan and R. 0. 
Winstedt (1920). This is the last but one of the second series 
of 'Tapers on Malay Subjects/-' which owed their inspiration to 
Mr. Wilkinson originally. This volume gives the latest theory as 
to which States composed the ancient Negri Sembilan. It also 
gives much information invaluable to government officers stationed 
in Negri Sembilan to-day. This book also Mr. Blagden has re- 
viewed. 

■ 

Perak Malay by C. C. Brown (Calcutta 1921, published for the 

Committee- for Malay Studies, Kuala Lumpur). This is the latest 
volume in the Second Series of " Papers on Malay Subjects." It 
is without question the most valuable and scholarly study of any 
Peninsular dialect that has yet appeared. It is to be hoped that 
there may be found students to write similar brochures, say, on the 
dialects of Kedah, Kelantan, Trengganu and Negri Sembilan. One 
of the dialogues was written by H. H. the Sultan of Perak, and the 
Raja di-Hilir (Raja Chilian) assisted the author to read the proofs. 
The 29 dialogues in the Perak River vernacular are prefaced by a 
scholarly introduction. 'To Lambok (p. 68) is referred to, if my 
memory serves me, in "Notes and Queries" of this Society: he 
was a not very remote Kinta chief and will be found in Dr. Win- 
stedt's " Perak Pedigrees." 



List of Malay Works sold by the Straits .Branch 
Royal Asiatic Society. 

Price $2.50 each. 



Ht. Sri Rama (Cherita Penglipor Lara) (Jawi) Journal 17. 1887. 

» „ „ (Rumi) 

Ht. Raja Donan (Jawi) . . . . . . „ 

Ht. Raja Ambong (Jawi) . . . . . . „ 

Shaer Raja Haji (Rumi) . . . . . . „ 

Ht Shamsu'l-Bahrain (Jawi) . . . . „ 

Ht. Awang Sulohg serta Ht Musang Berjang- 

gut (Rumi) . . .... ... „ 

Hi. Saif al-Yezan (Saif dzu'l-Yazan) (Rumi) „ 

Ht. Raja-Raja Pasai (Rumi).. .. .. „ 

Shaer Burong Punggoh serta perumpamaan 

Melayu (Rumi) . . „ 67, 1914. 

Ht. Marong Mahawangsa (Sejarah Kgdah) 
serta Sejarah Trengganu dan Kelantan 
(Rumi) .. .. .. .. .. „ 72, 1916. 

Ht Seri Rama, tersalin daripada naskhah 

tulisan lebeh 300 tahun lama-nya (Jawi) „ 71, 1915. 



55. 


1910 


18, 


1887. 


19, 


1887 


22 ? 


1890 


47, 


1906 


52, 


1909 


58, 


1911 


66 } 


1914 



Ht. Raja Budiman (Jawi) — separate publication. 



Seoond part for the Year Price to non-members 

1922. $3.50 



STRAITS BRANCH 
ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY. 



No. 86 

1 


JOURNAL 


NOVEMBER 1922. 


'-a a o £"</- y 



Sold at the Society's Rooms, Raffles Museum, Singapore, 

and by 

WHELDON & WESLEY, Ltd. 

28, ESSEX STREET, STRAND, 
LONDON. W. C. 



PRINTED AT THE METHODIST PUBLISHING HOUSE, SINGAPORE. 



Contents. 



A general account of the Geology of the Malay Peninsula 
and the surrounding countries, including Burma, the 
Shan States, Yunnan, Indo-China, Siam, Sumatra, Java, 
Borneo and other Islands of the Dutch East Indies, by 
E. S. Willbourn . . . . . . . . . . 237 

The Early History of Singapore, Johore and Malacca, by 

R. 0. Winstedt, d.litt. (oxon.) . . . , . . 257 

Burong olek-olek (jester bird) is the Brown Gannet, by A, 

W. Hamilton . . . . . . . . . . 260 

A Malay Pantheist Charm, by R. 0. Winstedt, d.litt. 

(oxon.) .. .. .. . . . . 261 

Notes on the enemies of butterflies, by C. L. Collenette . . 268 

The irregularity of a Spider's feeding, by I. H. Burkill . . 270 

Notes on Dipterocarps. No. 6. On the genus Pachyno- 

carpus, by I. H. Burkill and F. W. Foxworthy . . 271 

Notes on Dipterocarps. No. 7. On the fruit and germina- 
tion of Isoptera bomeensis, by I. H. Burkill . . . . 281 

Notes on Dipterocarps. No. 8. On some large-fruited species 
and in particular upon the effects of the pressure of the 
embryo against the interior of the fruit-wall, by I. H. 
Burkill . . . . . . . . ' . . 285 

New and rare Malayan plants, series xii, by H. N. Ridley, . . 292 

New or noteworthy Bornean plants. Part II, by Elmer D. 

Merrill .. .. .. .. .. 312 

A Murut vocabulary, by the late N. B. Baboneau, with an in- 
troduction, by G. C. Woolley . . . . . . 343 

Additions to a vocabulary of Brunei-Malay, by G. T. Mac- 
Bryan . . .. .. .. .. ..376 

The Akuan or Spirit friends, by Zainul Abidin bin Ahmad 378 

Points of the Compass in Kedah, by A. W. Hamilton . , 385 

The Gravestone of Sultan Mansur Shah of Malacca, by Zainul 

Abidin bin Ahmad . . . . . . . . 386 

The old Kedah-Patani Trade-route, by A. W. Hamilton . . 389 

Some rhyming sayings in Malay, by A. W. Hamilton . . 393 

Bishop G. F. Hose . . . . . . . - . . 395 

Index for year 192® . . . . . . . . . . 396 



[No. 86] 



Prvd 



In the footnote on p. 271 for ' ' at the time of the murder of Motley ' ' 
read "at the time of the removal of Motley to Banjermassin" and for 
1859 read 1854, and in line 8 cross out the words "when alive". These 
mistakes arose from misreading the communication referred to in the 
footnote. 

As Motley's Labuan herbarium was sold to Barber before Motley 
left Labuan for Banjermassin, the suggestion on p. 273, that the locality 
Lubok Dana where he collected Pacliynocarpus umbonatus might be on 
the Sungei Banyu Irang, cannot be upheld. 



PRI* 



[No. 86] 



JOURNAL 

of the 

Straits Branch 

of the 

Royal Asiatic Society 



NOVEMBER 1922. 




SINGAPORE : 
Printed At the Methodist Publishing House, 

1922. 



A general account of the Geology of the Malay 
Peninsula and the surrounding countries, 
including Burma, the Shan States, Yun- 
nan, Indo-China, Siam, Sumatra, 
Java, Borneo and other Islands 
of the Dutch East Indies. 
By 

E. S. WlLLBOURX, 
Assistant Geologist, Federated Malay States. 



Introduction. 

This account is a digest of the writings of man}' geologists. 
It would occupy too much space for me to detail all of them, but 
most of my information was derived from the following: — La 
Touche on the Northern Shan States, Midcllemiss on the Southern 
Shan States and Karenni, Coggin Brown on Burma and Yunnan, 
Resultats de la mission geologique et miniere du Yunnan meri- 
dional. Sept. 1903— Jan. 1904, Situation de Flndo-Chine de 1902- 
1907, Serivenor on the Malay Peninsula, Molengraaf on Borneo, 
Van Cappelle on the West Coast of Sumatra, Wing Easton on West 
Borneo. Yerbeek on the Moluccas, Amboyna, Banka, and Billiton, 
and various authors in the Jaarboek van het Mijnwezm In Neder- 
landsch Oost-Indie. 

The area dealt with includes Burma, the Shan States, Yunnan, 
Siam, Indo-China, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, 
-and the intermediate islands. Unfortunately, the most satisfactory 
method of presenting a general idea of the geology, namely to 
prepare a geological map and to base the discussion on it, is not 
available, because the geological structure of most of the countries 
has not been mapped. In spite of this, enough is known, even in 
the least known regions, such as Yunnan, and parts of Indo- 
China, to compare the rock formations of any particular period 
in the different countries, and from the present features it is 
possible to trace the effects of certain wide-spread earth-movements 
which have affected all the countries in the area, and to compare 
them with the effects on neighbouring land's. 

Large gaps occur in our knowledge of the area, so blanks 
must exist in our comparison of the structure of the different 
countries. It must be admitted, however, that these gaps are 
not always the result of imperfect knowledge of the countries 
in question, for, in more than one case, geologists are at a loss 
to account for phenomena in countries where the structure is 

•Jour. Straits Branch R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



238 THE GEOLOGY OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 

known in considerable detail. For example, no explanation lias 
yet been given of the recently extinct volcanoes which occur in a 
belt of Tertiary beds in Burma, between the Irrawadd'y and the 
Shan States. If they were situated near the great fault-plane 
which passes -from north to south many miles to the east, their 
presence could easily be explained, but their occurrence in Tertiary 
beds, so far from this great fault, is a mystery. 

Earth Movements. 

The geographical and geological features of the area were 
established as the result of folding-movements of at least three 
different periods, but the earth-movement in the late Mesozoic 
period (Hercynian), and the Tertiary earth-movement, which affect- 
ed Europe, North Africa, and the other parts of Asia, have had a 
more widespread effect on our area than the earliest one. Folding 
movements before the Mesozoic period' took place on a large scale 
only in the northern part of the area, In do China and probably 
Yunnan, although the presence of fragments of granite in volcanic 
ashes and tuffs in Singapore, probably older than the Mesozoic 
granite of the Malay Peninsula, and the Palaeozoic granite, older 
than Permian, alluded to by Vcrbeek in describing the geology of 
Amboyna, are indications that this earth-movement took place to 
some extent also in the Malay Peninsula and East Indies. 

The riinnuence of the later movements is very marked in all 
of the countries under consideration, and successive parallel mount- 
ain folds, arranged roughly en echelon, can be traced through the 
area,, beginning in the northwest, near Tibet, at the eastern end of 
the huge Himalayan mountain range. To these folds Suess gave 
the name "Coulisses/' and, talking of our area, he says, "Then, in 
•'the Shan States of Burma, several of the coulisses which approach 
"from the north and northeast disappear beneath a karst-like 
"plateau of Palaeozoic limestone, which is folded and' owes its 
"tabular form to denudation. Fresh coulisses make their appear- 
ance in the south and form the Malay Peninsula "In this 

"way the mighty swell of the Altai des in Thibet subsides and is 
"dispersed. The whole continent becomes lower. Many coulisses 
"disappear. Only a few long branches are continued 'on the east 
"into the cordillera of Annam; on the west, always giving rise to 
"fresh coulisses, through the Malay Peninsula, and' still further, 
"to Java and beyond." 

The most prominent coulisse in the western part of the area 
is the Xaga-Arakan-Andaman-Xicobar-Barissan fold, with its axis 
extending from Upper Burma in the northwest, running south 
through the Andaman Islands, and the Xicobar Islands, and turn- 
ing east through Sumatra and Java. Another important coulisse 
can be traced as the Main Eange in the Malay Peninsula, through 
Singkep and Banka, and the result of the earth-movement which 
caused this particular fold was the intrusion of the Mesozoic granite, 
accompanied by the mineralisation from which originated the 

Jour. Straits Branch 



THE GEOLOGY OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 239 

world's richest tin deposits. A coulisse between these two begins 
in. Sdam, and runs in a direction slightly west of south into Upper 
Perak whence it extends as a granite mountain range passing near 
Taiping to the Bindings, and, according to a Dutch geologist, along 
the east coast of Sumatra, masked by more recent beds, passing 
through Billiton in an easterly direction, and turning northeast 
through the centre of Borneo, and up through the Philippines out 
of our area. Another important fold or coulisse is represented by 
the Annam cordillera, perhaps continued south into either the 
Anamba Islands or the Xatuna Islands, and thence into Borneo. 
The Mesozoic folding was more intense, in the greater part 
of the area, than that which affected the Tertiary rocks, and this 
is shown by the fact that the Tertiary rocks often have gentle 
undulating folds, whereas the Palaeozoic rocks, upon which they 
unoonformably rest, are vertical or highly inclined. However, the 
Tertiary beds were subjected to intense earth-movements in some 
districts, as, for example, in Eastern Yunnan, and after folds had 
been denuded away, great faults cut across the region, at about the 
end of the Pliocene, probably giving rise to the lakes in which the 
late Tertiary fresh-water beds were laid down. 

In Western Yunnan there were strong folding movements 
after the Permo-Carbonifercus and before the upper Permian 
period. 

Stratigraphical Sequence. 

The mountain folds which were described above have been 
eroded, with the result that there are now exposed strata of all 
ages, since the period before the dawn of life on the earth. All 
the countries of our area, south of Burma, formed part of the 
Palaeozoic continent of Gondwanaland, which remained as a per- 
manent land surface from pre- Cambrian times until Devonian or 
Carboniferous, and no fossiliferous rocks of pre-C'arboniferous age 
are known, except in the north. Earth-movements and aerial denu- 
dation of the later rocks, in Yunnan and the Shan States of 
Burma, have brought these old rocks to the surface. 

Pre-Camhrian. 

Many Dutch geologists have expressed the opinion that the 
"oudeschiefer" (old schist or old slate) formation of the East 
Indies is, in part, pre- Cambrian, though they admit that where it is 
not overlain by Carboniferous limestone it may be of Mesozoic age. 
Some of these geologists have correlated the "oudesichiefer" with the 
schist series of the Malay Peninsula, the greater part, and perhaps 
the whole, of which is of Ehaetic age and later, so it appears that 
there are good grounds for not jvet accepting any ipart of the 
"oudeschiefer" as pre-Cambrian. In this account we will postpone 
a description of this "old schist" formation until we are describing 
the younger Palaeozoic and the Mesozoic formations. 

R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



MO THE GEOLOGY OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 

In Yunnan the succession of pre-Oambrian rocks is as 
shewn below. 



* * 



Unconformity 



2. Kao Liang system.. Phyllites, qnartzites, slates, 
and an occasional calcareous horizon. In part 
pre-Cambrian and part Cambrian. 

* * * * Unconformity * , * * * 

1. A basal mass of gneisses and schists underlying 
all recognised groups. 

The Lasal gneisses and schists are so metamorphosed that it 
is impossible to determine their original character, except that a 
small proportion are recognised as metamorphosed' sediments. 
They are intruded by granites which are relatively young, though 
some of them may be pre-Cambrian. 

In the Northern Shan States there is a large development of 
Archaean gneisses resembling those of South Western Yunnan in 
that they possess a similar N.E. — S.W. strike. The general mass 
are of intermediate chemical composition, and they consist of 
biotite gneisses, which are often remarkably rich in garnets, and 
which are interfbliated with more acid rocks, inoludiiing pegmatites 
and graphic granites. The orthoclase of these last rocks is not 
infrequently converted into moonstone; often it is more com- 
pletely altered into epidote, muscovite, and kaolin. In Nyounggouk 
district these acid rocks contain pink and blue tourmaline (rubelMte 
and indicolite), and it is probably from rocks of this class that the 
tine gem rubellites are derived. 

With the gneisses there occur certain subordinate rocks of 
basic and sometimes ultra-basic composition, including pyroxene 
gneisses and pyroxene granulites, and with these rocks, and parti- 
cularly with the ultra-basic types, certain remarkable crystalline 
limestones, containing rubies and spinels, are most intimately 
associated. 

A series of mica schists occurs to the sonith of the ruby mines 
area, and they seem to pass upwards into the Chaung Magyi series, 
so being either pre-Cambrian or Cambrian. 

The Kao Liang system in Yunnan is certainly in part pre- 
Oambrian, and partly Cambrian, It occurs as bands, running from 
north to south, which widen somewhat as they are traced to the 
south. In the Northern Shan States, south of Yunnan, the pre- 
Cambrian is represented by the Chaung Magyi system of phyllites 
and qnartzites, and here it differs from that of Yunnan in contain- 
ing no calcareous bands. La Touehe thinks, on lithological 
grounds, that the Chaung Magyi series may be Cambrian, for it 
shows only slight signs of alteration, but a careful search of many 
outcrops revealed no traces of fossils, and as the rocks had been 
deposited, consolidated, thrown into folds and dislocated, and final- 

Jour. Straits Branch 



THE GEOLOGY OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 241 

ly subjected to denudation, before the accumulation upon them of 
strata containing Ordovfteian fossils, the stratigfaphical evidence 
points to pre-Cambrian age. 

The Bawdwin volcanic rocks, a series of tuffs and ashes inter- 
stratified with layers of true rhyolites, occurs in some localities 
between the Chaung Magyi rocks and the lowest of the fossiliferous 
series (Ord'ovician). At Bawdwin the tuff's and ashes have been 
worked for silver for hundreds of years, and very large quantities 
of silver-bearing lead ores have been extracted. The mineralisation 
of the rocks occurred as a result of a great overthrust, fn the 
neighbourhood of which they are intensely crushed and shattered. 

Ordovician. 

Fossiliferous beds of this age are known in three localities, in 
Western Yunnan, at Pn-piao, where they consist of sandy shales 
or mudstones with bands of impure, hard, nodular limestone, at 
Shih-tien, earthy limestones and slates, and at La-mong, calcare- 
ous slates and mudstones. The fossils show a marked resemblance 
to those of the Northern Shan States of Burma, as is to be ex- 
pected from the geographical proximity of the areas. In the North- 
ern Shan States the lowest beds of the Ordovician (lower Naung- 
kano-yis), on the west side of the Plateau, consist largely of lime- 
stones, while to the east of the river Nam-T'u thev are represented 
by a. soft sandy marl. The next highest beds (the upper Naung- 
kangyis) are represented, in the west, by intensely crushed shales 
in which all traces of the original bedding planes have been lost, 
and east of the Gokteik gorge, (river Nam-Tu), by bright purple 
clay stones. These strata, after the Plateau Limestone to be 
described later, are the most important formation occurring in the 
Shan States. 

The Ordovician faunas of Eastern Yunnan and Tongking are 
of a different type from these of Western Yunnan and the Shan 
States. 

Silurian. 

In Western Yunnan fossiliferous slates of Silunian age occur 
on S.hih-tien Hill and a few miles further to the south, -and an 
East Yunnan Silurian shales pass conformably into the lower 
Devonian. In some parts of Tongking, the Silurian and Devonian 
are more or less non-fossiliferous owing to metamorphism. 

In the Northern Shan States there -are thin bands of graptolitic 
shales containing the only fossils of undoubtedly Llandovery age 
that have yet been found in the East, They 'are overlain by sand- 
stones and conglomerates, followed conformably by sandy marls 
with layers of a very hard and compact limestone. The fauna is 
similar to that of a corresponding age in Northern and Western 
Europe, and absolutely distinct from the Himalayan fauna of the 
same period, as has been the case for all the underlying formations. 
With the close of the Silurian epoch, the barrier which separated 

K. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



242 THE GEOLOGY OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 

the Burmese and Himalayan life-provinces in Ordovician times 
was removed, changes in the distribution of land and sea brought a 
true middle Devonian fauna into Burma, and later a widespread 
transgression of the Permo-Carboniferous ocean took place over 
those tracts of Asia lying' to the north of Gondwanaland. These 
changes are heralded by a series of limestones and shales, perhaps 
passing conformably upwards into the Plateau Limestone of Devon- 
ian age, and containing upper Silurian fossils characteristic of the 
Bohemian or Hercynian type, whereas, as described above, the rock 
formations before this contained fossils allied to Northern and 
Western European types. 

Devonian. 

The shallow-water beds of the upper Silurian period near the 
northern coast of Gondwanaland, now known in the Northern Shan 
States, and the deeper-water graptolitic shales of Yunnan further 
from the shore, were succeeded by a uniform thick deposit of 
dolomitic limestone, which forms a great area of plateau land, 
extending from Yunnan into the Southern Shan States, and probab- 
ly continuous with the limestones in which the guano caves of Moul- 
mein are situated. It extends an unknown distance m an easterly 
direction, covering a wide area in China.. On the west, in the 
Northern Shan States, it extends to the edge of the Irrawaddy al- 
luvium, but to the north and south of this it is separated from the 
alluvium by a strip of Archaean rocks. In several places its thick- 
ness can be shown to be over 5000 ft. It is remarkably homogene- 
ous, and it is sandy to the touch and granular, although it is very 
pure, and not at all siliceous in reality. It has a brecciated and 
intensely crushed appearance, perhaps due to the .great earth-move- 
ments at the close of the Mesozoic, and perhaps to sinking of the 
rock into solution-cavities. It its non-fossiliferous, except at one 
place in the Northern Shan States, called Padaukpin, not more 
than one hundred square 3 r ards in area, where a rich middle 
Devonian fauna was found, with predominating Western European 
types, and at one or two places in the south and north of Yunnan, 
where there is a close resemblance to the Padaukpin type. It is 
unexpected to find this type of fauna, because, as mentioned above, 
the life in the north of our area changed in upper Silurian times 
from the Western European type to that of America and Bohemia. 
However, the fossils cannot be regarded as necessarily typical of 
the Plateau limestones, on account of their extremely local occur- 
rence. 

In Yunnan and China the Devonian limestones are more 
bituminous and shaley than in the Shan States and Malay Penin- 
sula. In East Yunnan pure limestones are the exception, and in 
Indo-China the pre-Carboniferous beds are all sandy, suggesting 
that the sea of that period was more shallow and less open towards 
the north and northeast, and the fact that the Carboniferous lime- 

Jour. Straits Branch 



THE GEOLOGY OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 243 

stone of Yunnan, Indo China, and China resembles the limestone 
of the Shan States suggests that, with the close of the Devonian 
period, the submergence advanced northwards. 

Carboniferous and Permian. 

In Indo-China and Cochin- China there was an unconformity 
between the shallow-water Devonian rocks and the succeeding Car- 
boniferous limestones. The lower horizons of the middle Carbonifer- 
ous limestones of Eastern Yunnan are sandy, and of a shallow- 
water type, which ptasses upwards into a sandy coal-bearing series 
with subordinate limestones, and then, in the western part of East 
Yunnan, into deep-water limestones. In the eastern area earth- 
movements took place, resulting in folds running in a northeast- 
southwest direction, and the denudation of these folds resulted in 
sandy sediments during the middle Carboniferous period, while the 
limestones interbedded with basic lavas were laid down during 
local periods of stability. 

Then slow submergence took place, and enormous thicknesses 
(about 5000 ft.) of massive limestones now cover the area. In the 
eastern area there is a distinct break in the stratigraphical sequence, 
■between the lower part of the middle Carboniferous and the upper 
Carboniferous limestones, owing to the folding movements just 
described, but the conditions during the greater part of the upper 
Carboniferous period were uniform deep water, resulting in an 
uninterrupted series of limestones, which are responsible for the 
unusual scenery of Eastern Yunnan -at the present day. In the 
case of the folded series of middle Carboniferous sands and inter- 
bedded limestones the sandy beds have been denuded away easily, 
leaving the limestone standing out as prominent scarps, but the 
upper Carboniferous series of limestones, without sanccy bands, 
has given rise to the Karst type of scenery, so oalled from the Karst 
district in Austria, dry, and almost waterless, with pot-holes and 
underground streams. 

These Carboniferous limestones are of a very widespread nature, 
occuring in • practically the whole of Indo-China, the Malay Penin- 
sula, Sumatra, and in the islands of Eotti and Tiiimor in the Archi- 
pelago, where they pass conformably up into the Permian. Pernio- 
Carboniferous limestones are not very strongly developed in the 
Northern Shan S.tates, for they have been greatly denuded there, 
and merely form a band lying on the Plateau Limestone. They differ 
from the latter in not being so intensely crushed. 

In the Malay Peninsula they form very prominent groups of 
hills, with vertical cliffs up to 2'0O0 ft., 'Separated by intervening 
expanses of flat land with ian irregular surface of pinnacles and 
solution-hollows, covered and smoothed over with alluvium. The 
type of scenery here displayed is quite different from the karstic 
type of Yunnan and the Shan States, although the limestone in the 
Peninsula too is very uniformly free from sandy bands. The 
difference is due to the fact that, in the Peninsula, the limestone 

R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



-244 THE GEOLOGY OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 

has been converted into coarsely crystalline marble, by pressure 
and heat consequent on the intrusion of the Main Range granite 
in Mesozoic times, and, except for occasional fissures, the limestone 
mass is impervious to wlater. Caves, characteristic also of the 
Permo-Carboniferous limestone (and not of the Plateau Limestone) 
of Yunnan and the Shan States, are common in the Peninsula, and 
here they frequently contain phosphate deposits derived either from 
bats' guano, or from a concentration of the phosphatic minerals 
originally contained in the limestone now dissolved to form the 
caves. Guano deposits are known also in the limestone caves of 
Moulmedn in Lower Burma. The wide depressions in the plateau 
country of the S'han States, due to subsidence after solution of the 
underlying limestone, and to the crushed limestone being unable to 
sustain its own weight, are not met with in the Malav Peninsula, 
hut there was one well-known case of a village sinking several 
feet owing to the water being pumiped from an underground cave. 

The series has been subjected to intense folding, although this 
is not evident from an examination of the numerous cliff -exposures, 
except in certain occasional instances, for, in nearly all cases, the 
structure has been completely obliterated by the deposition of surface 
stalactitic deposits. One exception is Gunong Ginting, near Ipoh, 
where several distinct overfolds are seen, only a few hundred yards 
apart, with the axes of folding dipping in quite different directions, 
and numerous readings taken in limestone pinnacles, where the 
cover of alluvium has been removed in mining operations, also give 
very different dips. These folds were accompanied by faults, as 
would be expected in such a massive rock, and, in addition, a series 
of vertical faults was formed when the Main Range granite was 
intruded, independent of the folding, but due to the unequal sub- 
sidence or raising of different blocks of limestone and overlying 
Triassic and Jurassic rocks in the molten magma. Some of these 
vertical faults must have been of great magnitude, for schists, almost 
certainly of Triassic or Jurassic age, are found faulted down against 
the foot of a cliff, hundreds of feet high, of Permo-Carboniferous 
limestone. 

The above description applies particularly to the limestone 
of the western States of the Malay Peninsula; the calcareous series 
of Raub rocks east of the Main Range is similar, except that here 
a shaley fades is strongly developed. It is probable that the absence 
of shales in the west is due in part to the intense metamorphism 
which the series has undergone, and that certain black streaks and 
bands which penetrate the limestone represent their remains. There 
is no evidence to show that the limestone hills in the east have been 
formed by faulting. 

The fossils of the Shan States are similar types to those of the 
Salt Range of India, and they resemble a few fossils from the 
islands of Rotti and Timor in the Malay Archipelago. The fossils 
of the Malay Peninsula are found only in a few localities, as, in 

Jour. Straits Branch 



THE GEOLOGY OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 245 

most places, all traces of organism have been destroyed by the re- 
crystallisation of the limestone, and specimens of homotaxial value 
have been found onlv in Pahang, east of the Main Range, and in 
Pataluner, Slam. The Pahans: fossils yield types ranging from 
lower Carbon if erous to Permdian. whereas the Siamese fossils have 
been described by one author as lower Carboniferous and by another 
as Permo-Ciarboniferous. South of a line drawn east and west 
through Kajang in South Selanq-or, the limestones and shales seem 
to nass into an unfossiliferous' shaley series, devoid of sandy beds, 
and non-calcareous, excent for calcareous shales and shialey lime- 
stones occurring i n the Muar Valley. 

In Sumatra Carboniferous limestones occur, forming mount- 
ains nearly 2000 feet high, crystalline and containing black nodular 
chert. There are also other Palaeozoic limestones with very scanty 
fossils whose age has not yet been determined. Probably they too 
are Carboniferous to Permian. 

In the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago the Carboniferous 
and Permo-Carboniferous limestones just described are the oldest 
rocks known, with the following exceptions, (i) a granite m Am- 
boynaiis said to be Palaeozoic, and the granite fragments in volcanic, 
ash near Singapore may be of the same age, (ii) a series of shales 
and fine-grained quartzites underlying limestone in the Langkawi 
Islands, perhaps corresponding with the Mergui series of shales and 
arenaceous rocks in Burma, underlying the Moulmein Limestone. 
Tbe OurlescJiiefer formation of the Archipelago is believed to be 
of Permian to Jurassic a°-e, in snite of the fact that many geologists 
in tbe past have considered 'it to be Palaeozoic or even pre- 
Cambrian. 

Folding movements, which took nlace towards the close of the 
period of formation of this very widespread series of limestones, 
were heralded and accompanied by a big show of volcanic activity, 
not, however, .displayed in all parts of the area. It is evident in 
AVestern Yunnan, where the greater part of the Permo-Carbonifer- 
ous series is often made up of tuff and ash beds, intercalated with 
thick andesitic, doleritic, and basaltic lava flows; in Eastern Yun- 
nan, where basic lavas are found interbeclded with the upper part 
of the middle Carboniferous limestone; in the Malay Peninsulia, 
particularly in Pahang, east of the Main Eange, where it is 
represented by acid, intermediate, and occasionally basic, lavas, 
dykes, and tuffs; near Singapore ; in Sputh Sumatra, where a series 
similar to that in the Malay Peninsula occurs; and in Borneo. 

In Pabang, volcanic activity began probably in the Carbonifer- 
ous period and continued intermittently through the greater part 
of the Triassic, although, as land conditions followed the deposition 
of the limestone, a good deal of the series has been denuded away. 
Evidence of the persistence of volcanic activity, during the shallow- 
water <and land conditions, is furnished by a remarkable deposit of 
boulders of volcanic rocks, dyke rocks lavas and tuffs, embedded 

R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



246 THE GEOLOGY OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 

din volcanic tuff. It is supposed to be a beach deposit formed of 
boulders of volcanic rocks which were exposed along the shore line, 
and cemented by volcanic ashes which were all the time bein<? ejected 
hv neighbouring volcanoes. Tuffs and lavas are imerbedded with 
the succeeding shallow-water series of quartzites, shales, and schists, 
of Triassic age, both in Pahang, and, on the western flanks of the 
Main Range, in South Selangor. 

In Central Borneo volcanic rocks of an andesitic type are 
interbedded with rocks which are probably of Jurassic age, and 
certain amphibolites there are variously held to be pre-Cambrian 
crystalline slates, or eruptive rocks, belonging to this Jurassic 
period, which have been uralitised and altered by mountain-pressure. 

Permo-Carboniferous and Mesozoic volcanic rocks, including 
serpentine and andesite, with corresponding tuffs and breccias, 
and occasionally dolerites, are very widespread throughout the 
smaller islands of the Archipelago, though only in a few of the 
places, such as at Letti, where volcanic breccias are overlain by 
fossiliferous Permian limestone, is it possible to be sure whether 
they are pre-Permian or Mesozoic. In Java there are volcanic 
rocks known to be pre-Eocene, but nothing more definite can be 
stated as to their age. 

Triassic and Rhaetic. 

Towards the middle of the Permian period the emergence of 
the land from the sea began in Eastern Yunnan, and the Permo- 
Carboniferous limestone masses were attacked by denudation, so 
much so, that, in some places, they were completely removed. The 
shore line retreated back far to the south and west. The thick Red 
Beds of upper Permian and perhaps lower Triassic age, were then 
deposited in Yunnan, the lower part of the series in East Yunnan 
consisting of conglomerates, and passing up into sandstones and 
shales, often containing salt and gypsum. Widespread basaltic 
and andesitic eruptions occurred at the close of the Permian. 
Triassic beds are preserved in East Yunnan only where they were 
faulted down, and so preserved from the severe erosion to which 
the country was subjected at the close of the Pliocene period. 
The beds are alternations of marine and land deposits, passing into 
deep-sea deposits at the top-. After the deposition of the Red beds, 
no more marine sediments were formed, and Yunnan has been a 
land surface from the upper Triassic period to the present day. 

The Shan States were dry land during the greater part of the 
Permian and the whole of the Triassic period, and no deposition 
took place, except for beach deposits derived from the denudation 
of the Plateau limestone and the underlying rocks. In the Malay 
Peninsula there was probably a land-period after the formation of 
the Permo-Carboniferous limestone, followed by shallow- water con- 
ditions, during which the sea was dotted with lagoons, probably 
formed by coral-reefs, enclosing clear water suitable for the growth 

Jour. Straits Branch 



THE GEOLOGY OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 247 

of radiolaria, the silica necessary for their growth being supplied 
by submarine volcanic emanations. Periodical slight changes in 
the sea level took place, which admitted detrital matter from the 
neighbouring land. These conditions produced the series of radio- 
larian cherts, interbedded with quartzites, sandstones, and grits, 
which cover a large area in Kedah, South Selangor, Xegri Semhilan, 
and Pahang, in the Malay Peninsula, and in the island of Billiton. 
Padiolarian rocks probably of this period are common also in Bor- 
neo, Sumatra, Celebes, Timor, Potti, and many other islands. In 
the Malay Peninsula the series, in some places, is built up of 
deposits of chert perhaps hundreds of feet in thickness, and thicker 
deposits of sandy beds, while in other places the series consists of 
alternating bands of chert and grit or quartzite, varying from 
several feet to only one inch in thickness. All the beds are con- 
torted into sharp folds, and the rocks, particularly the shales and 
shaley grits, have been metamorphosed by earth-movements. In 
Perak this series occurs only in the extreme north, where it is a 
continuation of the extensive development in Kedah. Further 
south it probably corresponds roughly with a series of shallow- water 
quartzites and shales, which covers the greater part of the area for 
thirty miles north of Taiping, and which disappears, west of the 
Semanggol range, under Eecent alluvium. The Triassic fossil 
Estlieriella was found in these shales at Semanggol. 

Certain boulder clays in the Kinta Valley, which are older 
than the Mesozoic granite, have been provisionally allotted to the 
Permo-Triassic period. Thev are very interesting because they 
are the source of the greatest part of the tin deposits of the 
Kinta Vallev. For a long time they were spoken of as alluvial 
deposits, until geological investigation showed that they are 
undoubtedly older than the granite. It is possible that they have 
suffered considerable alteration since the granite was intruded, and 
one geologist holds that they were derived from quartzites and 
shales which had been mineralised by the Miesozoic granite. He 
says that the underlying rock, known in many cases to be limestone, 
has been partially dissolved by underground water, and that the 
quartzites and shales were let down into the resulting cavity, with 
a consequent destruction of the bedding. The result is a clay con- 
taining a large proportion of quartz sand with varying amounts of 
tin-ore. That the clays are older than the granite is seen by the 
following facts. 

(1) Xear the granite the clays are often rich in tourmaline 

streaks and patches, and in quartz, whereas further from 
the junction the tourmaline and quartz are less evident. 

(2) The clays near the granite are often richer in tin than 

those further aAvay. 

The tourmaline patches and quartz are derived from veins of 
quartz and tourmaline which traversed the clays before they be- 
came jumbled up by the solution of the underlying limestone. 

R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



248 THE GEOLOGY OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 

The chert series of South Selangor, Negri Sembilan and' 
Pahang is overlain by grits, qnartzites, and shales, the lower portion 
of which includes beds of conglomerate, in which the pebbles consist 
in the main of quartz, quartzite, radiolarian chert, and rocks of the- 
Pahang Volcanic series. It is probable that this quartzite and 
shale series is separated by a considerable unconformity from the 
underlying cherts and quartzites, and that strong folding move- 
ments, which affected the latter, had ceased when the shallow-water 
conditions of the Ehaetic and Jurassic periods had set in. 

In Ynnnan and parts of Indo-China there were land conditions 
from the upper Triassic to the present day, but the Shan sea basin, 
described below, extended into Yunnan, so some Ehaetic beds were 
formed resembling the Napeng beds of the Shan States. The 
Xapeng beds are fossiliferous clays, sometimes calcareous, laid down 
on the irregular surface of the Plateau Limestone. The fossils 
they contain are sometimes ill-developed,, owing to the fact that 
they lived in cups in the limestone not in free communication 
with the open sea, while in other places the fossils are well grown. 
The number of new species shows that great changes in the distri- 
bution of sea and land had taken place between the deposition 
of the Permo-Carboniferous and the Xapeng beds, and the basin 
of the Shan sea was isolated from the main ocean. It extended 
into Ynnnan, as mentioned above, and into the Malay Peninsula, 
where characteristic Ehaetic fossils have been found in three or 
four places east of the Main Eange, possibly also in Singapore 
Island, and certainly on the west coast of Sumatra. In French 
Indo-China the Ehaetic period was represented by shallow-water 
beds also, including the coal beds of Tien Yen Lang Then. 

Jurassic. 

As already mentioned, there is an extensive series of shallow- 
water and. estuarine shales and qnartzites, of Jurassic a°e, in the 
Malay Peninsula. The shales haA r e usually been converted into 
phyllites by the earth-movements which took place at the time of 
the intrusion of the Mesozoic granite masses, and they show sharp 
folds and faults. The shales are locally carbonaceous, and certain 
intrusions are known, consisting of about forty or fifty per cent 
carbon and the remainder siliceous material, which probably re- 
present coal seams which were altered by the granite. 

In Burma, the Mergui series of slates, argillites, clay-schists, 
and silicified tuffs, with subordinate qnartzites and conglomerates, 
have been regarded as corresponding with the shallow-water Juras- 
sic series of qnartzites and shales further south in the Peninsula. 
However, as the Officiating Director of the Geological Survey of 
India in his General Report for 192'0 (page 26), describes the 
series as underlying the Monlmein Limestone formation, Ut 
now appears that the rocks are of Carboniferous or pre- 
Carboniferons age. and that they correspond with the similar series 

Jour. Straits Branch 



THE GEOLOGY OF THE MALAY PEXIXSULA. 249 

underlying the Carboniferous or Permo-Carboniferous limestone 
«of the Langkawi Islands. 

In the Dutch East Indies the pre-Cretaceous beds younger 
than the Permo-Carboniferous limestone are thought to be represent- 
ed by the "old schist formation." already mentioned in the descrip- 
tion of the pre-Cambrian rocks. As stated in that description, 
many authors have relegated it, largely on the ground of the lack 
of fossils, to the pre-Cambrian, and others to the Palaeozoic period, 
but it bears a strong resemblance to the altered shales and quartz- 
ites of the Malay Peninsula, and it was probably deposited at the 
same time. If this is so. the radiolarian chert beds and the Ehaetic 
of the Archipelago are part of the "old schist formation," or the 
''Malayan Series" as it was called by Yolz. 

In Sarawak a limestone containing middle Oolite fossils is 
known. 

In the Northern Shan States of Burma, the Napeng beds of 
Ehaetic age pass conformably into the succeeding Xamyau series, 
which consists of basal conglomerates, overlain by sandstones, shales, 
and clays, with very subordinate carbonaceous layers. In the 
greater part of the north of our area, continental conditions were 
prevailing (as in the Ehaetic period), and the old land surface to 
the northeast was gradually rising, with a consequent advance 
southwards of the shore line, so that the sandy sediment from it 
was deposited as the Xamyau series. This series of beds once 
covered a wide area, but denudation has entirely removed it from 
the western portion of the Shan Plateau, and the portions still 
remaining only owe their preservation to the fact that they were 
faulted down, and so protected from the severe erosion in post- 
Jurassic times. The rocks are thrown into regular folds striking 
from X.X.E. to S.S.W. 

Cretaceous. 

It was probably during the Cretaceous period that the granite 
which runs from the Southern Shan States, through Tavoy and 
Mergui to the Malay States, to Singapore, and the islands of Banka 
and Billiton, was intruded, bringing with it tin and tungsten nume- 
rals. Dutch authors think that the granites and hornblende- 
granites of the Archipelago were intruded at different periods, and 
the granite of Amboyna is held to be older than the Permian. It 
may be of the same age as the granite from which the frag- 
ments in the Pahang Volcanic series ash of Singapore were derived. 

Granitic rocks in Eastern Yunnan contain cassiterite, and 
the tin deposits of Ko-chin have been derived from them. Two 
French geologists agree in assigning to them a Palaeozoic age, 
and, if they are right, this is very interesting, as showing that the 
tin deposits of the area which we are considering were not all 
brought by granite of one period. Many of the coulisses, mentioned 
in the earlier part of this account, came into being as a result of the 
intrusion of the Mesozoic granite. 

R. A. Soo., Xo. 86 1922. 



250 THE GEOLOGY OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 

Iii Sumatra the granite is mostly syenitic, and whether it was 
intruded in Palaeozoic or Mesozoic times is not yet known. In 
the Malay Peninsula there are two distinct fades, a tin-bearing 
granite, and a hornblende-granite with associated syenite, the latter 
being found in the Benom Range. This hornblende-granite agrees 
with the hornblende-granites found in Sumatra, and elsewhere in 
the Archipelago, and there is no evidence of it being younger or 
older than the tin-bearing granite. 

Sedimentary strata of Cretaceous age are known in Borneo, 
Java, Sumatra, and smaller (islands of the Dutch East Indies, but 
all of the northern part of the area was a land surface subject to 
erosion, and no deposition was taking place there. 

In Borneo certain strongly folded shallow- water sandstones. and' 
marls contain foraminifera, of which one species OrbUolina, makes 
it certain that the deposits are Cretaceous (Cenomanian). In Java 
there is a series of serpentinous, mica-, chloritic, and clay-schists 
containing limestone bands, which, in one place, contained 0<rbi- 
tolina, the fossil characteristic of the Cretaceous beds in Borneo. 
These limestones are nearly always granular and crystalline, with- 
out fossils. The schists are traversed by thin quartz- veins, and 
they are penetrated also by dykes of quartz-porphyry, gabbro and 
dolerite. 

Cretaceous rocks are found in the Arakan Yoma of Burma, and 
along the same line of strike, to the south, in the Andaman Islands. 
Marine limetones occur at the base, while the upper part of the 
series consists of shallow-water and estuarine deposits. Besides 
the granite intrusion, masses of serpentines of Cretaceous age are 
known, and these are penetrated by veins of the semi-precious mine- 
ral jadeite. 

Tertiary. 

In our area, as in Europe, there is a blank between the upper- 
Cretaceous and the overlying Eocene deposits, which is marked by 
an abrupt change in the nature of the fauna, rather than by a sharp- 
ly marked stratigraphieal break. The igneous activity in Cretace- 
ous times was the forerunner of earth-movements which continued 
during Tertiary times, affecting both the lower and upper Tertiary, 
although they were much stronger in the north, and in the 
Andaman Islands, than in the Malay Peninsula and in the East 
Indies. 

In the Xorthern Shan States there is no trace of the marine 
Tertiary rocks which are so well developed din the plains of Lower 
and Upper Burma, so it is clear that, when the Tertiary sea extend- 
ed over what is now the valley of the Irrawadd}^, the Shan Plateau 
had already been raised above its waters. 
Tertiary of Burma. 

In Burma the Tertiary beds are represented by the following 
series : 

Jour. Straits Branch 



THE GEOLOGY OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 25.1 

Upper Tertiary Irrawaddy system of fresh-water beds. 
Middle Tertiary Pegu system of marine beds, 
(lower Miocene 
and Oligocene) 

* * * * Unconformity * * * * 

Lower Tertiary consisting of numlmulitic limestones under- 
( Eocene) lain by a shaley series containing interbedded 

seams of coal. 

* * * * Unconformity * * * * 



Cretaceous beds passing down into the Triassic. 

Tbe Tertiary coals of Burma -are nearly all confined to the 
lower Tertiary or Eocene, being almost invariably associated with 
characteristic beds of nummulitic Milestone. The series is about 
12O0 feet in thickness. Usually the coals are bright and non- 
laminated and they contain a large proportion of volatile matter. 
They are extremely friable and quickly break up under exposure. 
They do not cake, and they contain only a small proportion of ash. 

In Tennasserim there are several localities where the coal has 
been reported on, and, in some cases, the seams have been shown to 
be of no practical value, because the seams are too small, or be- 
cause of the poor quality of the coal. InHenzada district an attempt 
was made to exploit the coal, but the rocks are highly disturbed, 
(the general dip as about 60°), and transport and labour difficulties 
prevented operations. At Thayetmyo a mine was opened many 
years ago, in spite of the fact that the beds were nearly vertical, 
so making mining very difficult, but the two original seams gradual- 
ly merged into one, and then died out, after only a little coal had 
been taken out, so operations were abandoned. 

In Arakan district similar coal seams are found, which, on 
account of their highly disturbed nature, are not likely to provide 
large supplies, even for local use. In Shwebo district a company 
opened up extensive mines at Letkobin which worked for thirteen 
years with an annual output of I'OyOOO to 15,000 tons until the year 
1904, when the workable coal became exhausted. 

Near the Upper Chindwin River, coal seams are quite strongly 
developed, and, in the Nantahin-Peluswa area, of twent3 r five square 
miles, it is calculated that there are 210 million tons of workable 
coal. .Near Pinlebu, a village twenty five miles north-west of 
Wuntho, there are promising coal seams of Miocene age, dipping at 
a low angle. 

The Pegu system attains a thickness of 12,000 feet. It is 
important as containing the petroliferous beds which yield all the 
petroleum of Burma. It is marine throughout. 

R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



•252 THE GEOLOGY OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 

/ ( Fossiliferous blue clays and 

Kama clays \ sandy beds. The main oil-bear- 

( ino- formation of Burma. 



Pegu 



Upper Prome series ( Fossiliferons sandstones, clays, 



system ) Lower Prome series i and shales. 

C Unfossiiliferons shales, resting 
Sitsavan shales \ unconformablv on Eocene num- 



mulitic limestone. 



The outcrop of Kama clays extends along the Irrawaddy Basin, 
and on it are situated the oil fields of Yenangyauno-, Singu, Yenan- 
u'vat, Minbu, and various smaller fields. The Petroleum, being 
lighter than water, has been imprisoned along the axes of the antic- 
lines, wherever a layer of impermeable rock has formed a roof to 
prevent it from escaping, and bores are put down along the crests 
■of the fold's to tap it. Gases have also collected, and the mud 
volcanoes of the Arakan coast and at Minbu owe their origin to 
the escape of such gases along fissures. 

The Kama clays are overlain by the Irrawaddv system of flu- 
viatile deposits, attaining a thickness of 20,000 feet, which were 
-once known as the "fossil-wood group*" owing to the abundance of 
drift-wood contained in them. Emergence of the land took 
place in the north of our area sooner than in the south, and the 
retreat of the shore line from north to south began at the end of 
the Pegu period. In the north the Irrawaddy rocks are all fresh- 
water beds, whereas in the south, as- in western Prome, the lower 
part of the Irrawaddv system includes some marine beds. Detailed 
work by oil geologists shows that in some districts there is consi- 
derable unconformity between the two series. 

Tn the plain of Irrawaddv beds, east of the Irrawaddy River 
and in the southwest of Yunnan, strong volcanic activity took place, 
building up the great volcanoes of Popa and Hawshuenshan. 
As already mentioned, these eruptions are many miles to the west 
•of the boundary-fault between the Tertiary rocks of the Irrawaddy 
Plain and the older rocks of the Shan Plateau. Popa is fifty miles 
northeast of the Yenangyaung oil field. 

The basalt dyke at Loi Ling, in the Northern Shan States, 
is a Tertiary volcano, but here there was a much smaller display 
than in the Irrawaddy Plain and in Southwest Yunnan. 

The fresh-water Tertiary beds of the Northern Shan States 
are silts and soft sandy rocks with seams of brown lignatic coal, 
filling lake basins. These basins in the older rocks are the result of 
faults which occurred towards the close of the Tertiary period, 
and the lacustrine beds in them are either of late Tertiary or 
Pleistocene age. They have been found in six places, the most 

-Jour. Straits Branch 



THE GEOLOGY OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 253 

important being at Xamma, where the area is fifteen miles long and 
three and a half miles wide. The coal seams are confined to the- 
lower nortion of the series. The dip averages 20°, hut it varies con- 
siderably locally, perhaps due to underground solution of the lime- 
stone floor. The inferioritv of the coal, and the distance of the- 
field from the railway, make it doubtful if it is worth while to^ 
start mining operations. 

Similar lacustrine deposits occur in different parts of Indo' 
China. 

Tertiary of Malay Peninsula. 

In the Malay Peninsula Tertian' beds with interbedded coal' 
seams are known in three localities, at Eantau Fanjang (in 
Selangor), at Enggor (in Perak). and in Perlis. 

At Eantau Panjang, the coal seams are being profitably worked, 
the fuel findiing a ready sale, for use in the tin mines and railways 
of the Peninsula. The thickness of the beds is not known with 
certainty. It appears that coal seams, interbedded with sands and 
and shales, form the lower portion of the series, and that they are 
overlain by several hundred feet of shales which contain a little oil, 
not enough to pay for distillation. According to the usual proce- 
dure, this coal should he classed as a lignite. Its percentage of 
fixed carbon is less, and its percentage of moisture lis higher, than 
that of some cheap Indian coals, and these are unfavourable proper- 
ties, but its low percentage of ash, and the fact that it does not 
clinker, are properties in its favour. 

The percentage of moisture in the Eantau Panjang coal (about 
20 %) indicates an upper Miocene age. The dips in these Miocene 
beds range from 10'° to 12°. 

When this occurrence was the only Tertiary deposit that had 
been prospected, in the Peninsula, it was thought to be a lake or 
swamp deposit, similar to those in the Northern Shan States, 
although it was then also held to be probable that its present small 
area, (which amounts to only a few square miles), does not represent 
the whole of the original area of deposition, but that much of it 
has been removed by denudation. However, the discovery of over 
90 feet of calcareous shale, at Enggor, lying under Tertiary sands, 
shales, (some of which are themselves calcareous), and interbedded 
coal seams, suggests that the Enggor deposits, at any rate, are pro- 
bably not lacustrine deposits, but marine, and that the deposits 
might have been comparable in extent with those of Sumatra and 
Burma if the Peninsula had not been subjectel to severe erosion in 
post-Miocene times. 

In Perlis the area and thickness of the coal bearing beds is 
unproved. A bore was made to a depth of 205 feet and' was then 
stopped in June 1921, owing to lack of casing. Sands, clays and 

R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



254 THE GEOLOGY OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 

sandy clays were first en countered, followed by running sands with 
traces of coal from 125 feet to 2.05 feet below the surface. 
The coal at Enggor and at Perlis is similar in composition to that 
at Eantau Panjang, and is probably of the same age. 

There are still considerable areas in the Peninsula, east of the 
Main Range, as yet unexplored, and it is possible that in these areas 
there may be extensive tracts of country covered with marine 
and fresh-water beds, equivalent to those of the Irrawaddy plains. 
Such tracts provide the only possibility of mineral oil being found 
in payable quantities in the Malay Peninsula. Unfortunately there 
is no evidence that any such beds exist. 

Tertiary of Sumatra. 

In Sumatra there is a considerable area of Tertiary beds, both 
near the coast and in subsided areas inland. Xear the east coast 
they are concealed by Pleistocene deposits. There is very little 
fossil evidence to go by, but the percentage of water in the inter- 
bedded brown coals gives information as to the age of the beds. 
The Ombilin coal field near Padang, which has been worked by the 
Government for many years, is of Eocene age, judging by the low 
percentage of moisture, and more Eocene coals occur at Gunong 
Tusam in North Sumatra. The younger Tertiaries in North 
Sumatra usually contain no coal at all, but the commonest coal occur- 
rences in the south are in the upper Miocene beds (younger Tertia- 
ry), as at Palembang. In the Boekit Asam Field, where the estimat- 
ed amount of workable coal is forty million tons, the seams are 6 to 
7, 3 to 6, and 5 to 6 metres thick. This upper Miocene series with 
coal seams is recognised: also in Djambi though the seams are dimi- 
nishing in number and thickness, so it appears that the Djambi Pro- 
vince forms a transition from Palembang to Deli and Atjeh in the 
north. . 

No unconformity has been found in the coastal regions affect- 
ing the later Tertiaries, except that between Tertiary and very 
young Pleistocene strata. In the Andaman Islands, on the other 
hand, the Eocene is highly folded, and the Miocene, unconformable 
on the Eocene, is only slightly folded, showing that the main young- 
er folding was pre-Miocene. A similar unconformity exists between 
the Eocene and Miocene inland in Sumatra. No information about 
this system of folding can be obtained from the small exposures of 
Tertiary (Miocene) rocks in the Malay Peninsula, except that the 
small dips indicate that no intense folding has occurred after 
Miocene times. In the Mesozoic granite there are sheared areas 
which are probably the result of Tertiary movements. 

In the Tertiary-Quaternary period in Sumatra, there was con- 
siderable volcanic activity, generally of an andesitdc type, accom- 
panied by subordinate intrusions of quartz-porphyry, porphyrite, 
gabbro, picrite, basalt and diorite. The upper Miocene lignite beds 
(d Palembang have been subjected to the heat developed by the 
intrusion of such rocks, and their economic value has thereby been 
increased. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



THE GEOLOGY OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 255 

Tertiary of Java. 

The greater part of Java is covered with Tertiary, Quater- 
nary, and Eeeent deposits, and all the divisions of the Tertiary seem 
to be represented an some part, or other, of the island. The Eocene 
beds include compact clays, marls, and the widespread nummulitic 
limestones common to this period ail over the world. In west 
Java,, at Bantam, dolerites and diorites are intercalated with them 
and at Xanggoulan, besides basalts and olivine dolerites, lignite 
beds are found interbedded with the sediments. 

The lower Miocene are often very much folded, and may be 
even vertical. Some of the beds were laid down under water, and 
the andesitic lava flows of this period were sometimes laid down 
under the sea, and sometimes on dry land. 

The middle Miocene beds are less strongly developed than the 
lower, and they are typically marly rocks. Pyroxene-andesites are 
interbedded with the series in Bantam and in Preanger, but not 
in east or central Java. The upper Miocene beds are essentially 
calcareous, sometimes consisting of hard, crystalline limestone, and 
sometimes being soft and marly. They are markedly dolomitic. 
No volcanic rocks are found in this part of the Miocene series. The 
middle and upper Miocene beds are often folded, but usually less 
strongly so than the lower Miocene. 

There have been reports of rich gold deposits being present 
in Java, but there is no foundation for them. A little gold is present 
in the pyrites of certain Miocene clays which have been altered by 
andesitic flows in the Eesidency of Krawang, but the commercial 
value of the deposit is negligible. 

Eocene deposits in Bantam contain a good coal, but they are 
so folded, and the position of the one metre seam is made so irregu- 
lar by these foldings, that it would not pay to work. There are 
about two miilMon tons of fuel available here. Lignites of upper 
Tertiary age are known in Nanggoulan and in Bantam. Oil is 
obtained from Miocene beds in many localities, perhaps formed 
from the foraminiferal remains which they contain. 

Tertiary of Borneo. 

In Borneo, dm the west, no Tertiary strata are found, this period 
being represented only by andesitic lava flows, whereas, in the south- 
ern, northern, and central parts of the island, Tertiary deposits are 
well developed. In Central Borneo boulders of Eocene age contain, 
ing nummulites are contained in valley gravels, but these nummulitic 
Eocene beds are not met with in situ. A sandstone formation of 
estuarine origin, with interbedded coal seams in Central Borneo, 
is placed in the older Tertiary series. Generally the strata are 
horizontal, or only slightly tilted, but locally they are tilted and 
strongly disturbed and sometimes even vertical. Two seams of 
coal, two metres thick are being worked in Eocene beds on the island 
of Poeloe Laoet, off the southeast coast of Borneo. The field is 
estimated to contain eighty million tons of workable coal. 

R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



256 THE GEOLOGY OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 

Recent Deposits. 

They include many deposits of great economic value, such as 
the ruby gravels of the Mogok Valley, and the alluvial tin-deposits 
of Burma, the Malay Peninsula, and the islands of Banka and 
Billiton. Where they are devoid of minerals thev usually provide- 
very" good agricultural land, and the clav beds which thev contain 
are used for brick-making. In Borneo the old gravelly river- 
depists generally contain gold, especially in west Borneo, but. 
although they are worked by the Chinese in certain rich spots, it 
has not vet been proved that thev are worth working on a large scale. 
In the Malay Peninsula it is fairly certain that the amount of gold 
in similar deposits does not pay to work by European methods. 

In the Malay Peninsula and in Sumatra there is evidence that 
the sea had a level, in recent times, higher than it has at present. 
In Sumatra, it is indicated by raised sea-beaches, some more than 
300 feet above sea-level, and also by high gravel terraces in river- 
basins close to the present sea. shore. On the Peninsula, in Perl-is, 
marine shells were found in a cave nearly 300 feet above sea-level. 
but they may have been carried there by human agency. However, 
biological and geological evidence combined indicate that the Penin- 
sula was in Recent times connected to the Archipelago, so that 
Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and' the Peninsula were united to form 
a continent. The sea level then rose until the Peninsula was a 
group of islands, and subsecuient recession of the sea took place 
later which is believed to be still in progress at the present day. 
Molengraaf does not agree that Borneo has been affected by this 
cycle. 

Under the heading of Recent deposits should be classed the 
deposits now being laid down by the active volcanoes in Sumatra, 
Java, and various islands. Barren Island, east of the Andamans, 
was last observed to be in eruption in 178(9, and since then it has 
been dormant. In Borneo the Midler Mountains are built up of 
rhyolitic rocks, perhaps of Tertiary or of sub-Recent times, though 
it is also possible that thev may be so old as the Cretaceous period- 
It is interesting to observe that there is a close connection 
between the position of volcanoes, both active and recently extinct., 
and the lines of folding. 



The Early History 

OF 

Singapore, Johore & Malacca; 

AX OUTLINE OF A PAPER BY G. P. ROUFFAEK. 



BY R. 0. WlNSTEDT, D. LITT. (0X0X.) 



In the Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volhenhunde van 
JV 'ederlandsch-Indie (Deel 77), 1921, G. P. Rouft'aer, who first identi- 
fied tanah Melayu as the basin of the Jambi, has published a start- 
ling paper on the geography of the Malaya Peninsula. It is pro- 
bable that his surmises as to the situation of Langkasuka and 
several other theories will not be accepted, but his paper should be 
in the hands of every serious student of Peninsular history. 

Rouffaer brushes aside G. Ferrand's recent theory (Journal 
Asiatique, 19118) that Malacca existed, as the unreliable Gaspar 
Oorrea wrote, for 700 years before the coming of the Portuguese, 
under the name Malaiju, Marco Polo's Malayur. Malayur is only 
a Tamil form of Malayu, the original home of the Malays in Jambi. 
Would Fra Odorigo van Pordenone and Ibn Batutah have been 
silent over the existence of such an early Malacca? Would the 
Nagarakretagama (1365 A.D.), recording the conquests of Hayam 
Wuruk, the famous ruler of Majapahit, have then referred to the 
Peninsula simply as Pahang? 

On the other hand it is hardly likely that in 11:03 Malacca 
•'belonged to Siam," as the Ming annals say; from 1405-1413 was 
a Hindu state under Permaisura and becoming Muslim under 
Gujerati influence in 1414 suddenly won trade and empire. The 
Pararaton mentions two Malay princesses captured at the fall of 
Jambi and one Tuhan Wuruju (= Bongsu), a dewa-putera (i.e. 
son of a Ksatriya dewa) of Pamelekahan or "Malacca lands/' a 
captive in Majapahit in 1328 A.D. Again Gerini tells how 
Siamese laws enacted in 1360 A.D. cite as tributary to Siam 
" Ujong Tanah, Malaka, Malayu, Worawari " (Researches, 1909, 
pp. 531-2). Probably Barros (1563 A.D.) and the Sejarali Melayu 
are right in saying that Malacca existed as early as the middle of 
the Xlllth century A.D. and became a commercial centre about 
1400 A.D. owing to immigration of Malays from Singapore or 
Tumasik, the " sea-country." 

Barros ( 155>3 ), the most reliable of Portuguese chroniclers, 
relates how one Sangesinga (? Sangyang Singha) ruler of Singa- 
pore was murdered by his guest Permaisura, who was a fugitive 
from East Java owing to disturbances on the death of Pararisa 
(=0. J. Bhra Wicesa, who ascended the throne of Majapahit in 

Jour. Straits Branch R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



258 EAKLY HISTOBY OF SINGAPORE, JOHORE & MALACCA. 

1389 A.D. and ruled some 40 years). The king of Siam attacked 
the usurper who fled to Pago on the Muar. His whilom followers, 
the Cellates (= Orang Laut) opened Bertam near Malacca. 

D' Albuquerque (1557) relates how, when Malacca was found- 
ed, a Bhatara ruled Tumapel in Java and the Permaisura fled to 
Singapore, murdered its chief and ruled it for five years, until the 
ruler of Patani, brother of the murdered chief, drove him to Muar, 
whence he went to Bintao (Bertam) and founded Malacca. The 
reference to Tumapel is valuable. 

The Sejarah Melayu (Chapters 5 and 10) give the Malay 
tradition of Singapore's relationship with Java. The end of 
chapter 10 refers to its destruction by Hayam Wuruk after 1338 
A.D. when according to the Pararaton Gajadmada took his famous 
oath not to eat palapa until 10 countries including Palembang 
Pahang and Tumasik had been subjected to Majapahit and before 
13 66 A.D. when the Nagardkretagama tells how all the islands and 
states in the east and west of the Malay Archipelago had been sub- 
dued. The lettering on the fragment of the Singapore monolith, 
now in Baffles' Museum, is said by Dr. Ivrom to resemble Maja- 
pahit characters and to antedate somewhat 1360 A.D. Dr. Ivrom 
is studying a cast of the fragment. 

How old is Singapore? PTsing mentions in 690 A.D. a 
state " Mo-ho-hsin "' at the south of the Peninsula = Mahasin " the 
great Salt state," which Bouffaer identifies with a Malay land 
" Hasin " recorded in a Majapahit inscription of 1034 A.D. to 
have been conquered by Erlangga, a prince in East Java (born 991 
A.D.— reigned 1019-1042 A.D.). Probably it is Ibn Ivhordady- 
beh's " .Schalahit " (Selat). According to Bouffaer it was Tasik 
= Temasik (of the 14th century) = old Samudra = Singapura (of 
the loth cent.), while on the mainland was Wura-wari (old Jav. 
= " clear water ") from the 10th to 11th centuries = Ganggayu i.e. 
G-angga ayu (O. J. = "fresh water") before 1450 but still known 
at the time of the Sejarah Melayu (1612 A.D.) = Johor of the 
XYIth century. An inscription of 1006 A.D. in Sanskrit and old 
Javanese, in the Calcutta Museum, tells how Wurawari had brought 
disaster to Java, and the Siamese laws of 1360 A.D. count it 
among places subject to Siam. In the Tanjore inscription of 
Bajendracola I (10-3O A.D.), Kadaram = Kedah, Srivijayam = 
Palembang, Malayur = Jamhi, and Bouffaer suggests Mayiru- 
clingam = Great Yirudingam = Chao Ju Kna's Great Ji-lo-t'ing = 
Mahasin = Singapore; Ilangacogam = Langkasuka = Ganggayu = 
Wurawari ; Ma-Ppappalam = ? Pahang or Penang, and Mevilim- 
bangam " the walled " may be the Dindings or Klang. Langka- 
suka = Chao Ju Kua's Ling-ya-ssi-kia (1225 A.D.) = the Xegara- 
kretagama's Langkasuka (1365) = I-Tsing's Lang-ka-su (69$) = 
Langgasu or Langga of the Chinese annals of the Liang dynasty 
(50 ; 2-5'5'6) = ? the Lanka of the Ramayana. The Calcutta inscrip- 
tion speaks of Luaram (= hvah O. J. " river, water " and ram Skt. 
= rama "sweet, charming") as its capital. 

.Tour. Straits Branch 



EARLY HISTORY OF SINGAPORE, JOHORE & MALACCA. 259 

An inscription of 924 A.D. of prince Sri Wijayaloka of East 
Java speaks of Ujong Galoh = Ujong Putri = Jong Galoh or the 
Hujung Galoh of Erlangga's inscription. Galoh ' jewel ' = jauhar 
(Arabic) = Johore, and the name fits the honorific Eatna-parayana 
of the old Javanese Ramayana and the " Golden Chersonese " of 
Ptolemy, whose Sabana will correspond with the XVIth century 
Straits of Sabang and be the Karimuns, Hasin or Galoh. Was it 
from the Biduanda Kallang of Kallang river that the mysterious 
Kalangs, prisoners of war mentioned in old Javanese romance, 
came? Among the Solo regalia (upacliara) are a Snake (Arda- 
walike) and a Roc (Garuda) ; among the Jokja regalia only the 
Snake. These must be symbols of the victory of Erlangga's as 
Vishnus's Garuda over the 'Snake' princes of Wurawari, Hasin, 
Langka, just as of the other regalia an Elephant symbolizes Patih 
Gajahmada, a Cock Hayam Wuruk and a Buffalo-Calf Java's 
victory over Menang-ke(r)bau and -so on. To this day a Garuda 
is the symbol of Hindu Bali (first conquered by Java in Erlangga's 
time), while the Muslim mosques and art of Java took a Snake as 
the symbol of Islam's victory over Hinduism. 

Apparently about 1135 A.D. Daha brought Galoh nearly to 
ruin. A Panji tale (Bij. Kon. Inst. 2, VII, 1863) speaks of a 
Klana Tunjong^Seta, prince of the island Kenchana, (= " gold " 
and ? the "Golden Chersonese"), who desiring to win a Daha 
princess, Dewi Angreni, (or Raden Galoh), attacked Java and 
failed, slain by Pangeran Klana Jayang Sari, alias Raden Panji 
Kuda Wanengpati, a prince of Jenggala in the service of the ruler 
of Kediri. The people of Kenchana and three princes were carried 
captive to Java. Perhaps the Sejarah Melayu (chapters 14 and 
19) show that Middle Java and Ujong Tanah once came to grips 
and that Malacca, or really Galoh, had to do with Daha in the 
Panji period. 

Though the early Portuguese knew nothing of Galoh, Gang- 
gayu or Langka, the Sejarah Melayu (chapter 1) connects Gang- 
gayu with Johore and interprets the word to mean " a treasure- 
house of jewels," which fits both galoh and jauhar. 

Between 1275 when Kertanagara of Tumapel sent his ill-fated 
expedition against Palembang and Marco Polo's visit in 1292, 
apparently Kertanagara had destroyed Mahasin i.e. old Singapore 
(Sejarah Melayu. chapter 5). But Marco Polo mentions "Pen- 
tarn " or Bintan, whither perhaps one band of fugitives had fled, 
and the Sejarah Melayu records how the founders of the new town 
Tumasik came from Bintan. The Javanese name, Tumasik, may 
have been given by men of Tumapel, who, after Majapahit 
triumphed over their country in 1293 owing to the absence of 
Tumapel's forces in Palembang, stayed in Sumatra and the Malay 
islands. Probably Kertanagara's attack on Hasin drove sea Malays 
(ivong asm) not only to Bintan but to Muar and " Malacca lands," 
opposite which were the " Five Islands " that in early Chinese 
charts take the place of Malacca. Majapahit's attack about 1360 



U A. Soc, No. 86 192t 



260 EAELY HISTOEY OF S1NGAPOEE, JOHOEE & MALACCA. 

A.D. must have sent vet a further band in the same direction. 
From 1328 down to the death of Hayam Wuruk, the great Maja- 
pahit conqueror, in 1389, the Malacca Straits woulld.be under 
Javanese influence and only later under the Siamese suzerainty of 
which Chinese annals and Siamese laws speak. 

Such in briefest outline is Eouffaer's paper, which fills 174 
pages and is to be continued further. 

Though it has no direct bearing on this paper, it is interesting 
to note that Baffles' Museum has not only a neolithic celt from. 
Singapore but also several from Kota Tinggi in Johore : all made 
from local stone. 



Burong olok-olok ( jester-bird ) is the 
Brown Gannet. 



By A. W. Hamilton. 

Burong olok-olok is mentioned in Wilkinson's Dictionary as 
an unidentified bird : but in reality the bird is not such a jest as its 
Malayan name would seem to imply, and it has been identified for 
me kindly by Mr. H. C. Robinson, as the Brown Gannet or Sula- 
sula (Linn.). 

The brown gannet or olok-olok as it is called in KJedah is a 
dark plumaged sea bird with webbed feet, solitary specimens of 
which are usually met with at sea off the coast of Kedah in company 
with a flock of ffulls. 



A Malay Pantheist Charm. 



By E. 0. WlNSTEDT, D. Litt. (Oxox.) 

According to the Shi'ites Ali, the baginda 'Ali of Malay charms, 
-was the repository of Islamic mystical knowledge. And there is a 
.story how a great prince, who had been defeated by a mightier, asked 
him : " Teach me the charms which the Apostle of God taught you." 
It is certain that this was a request which the first Malay converts 
to Islam were always making to the early Indian missionaries. And 
the charms the missionaries taught them were held to be esoteric, like 
the mantra of the Brahmins and the secrets of Sufism. The Shi'ite 
heresies and the pantheism, orthodox and heterodox, to be detected 
in many Malay charms await closer study at any rate by English 
scholars. " The utterances put into the mouths of the eight or nine 
principal saints of Java betoken a rash mystic pantheism," says 
Snouck Hurgronje. " This same heretical mysticism found some 
opponents and many strong supporters in Acheen in the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries. The book of the " Perfect Man/' al- 
Jili's Insaiiul-Kamil, was much studied in early days in Java and 
left its mark on the bizarre contents of numerous native tracts. 
Allah is the one, indivisible Being, exalted above time and space. 
Multiplicity is appearance. Only God exists." A full description 
•of al- Jilt's book can be read in Nicholson's " Studies in Islamic 
Mysticism" (Cambridge, 1921) or in Shaikh Muhammad Iqbal's 
"The Development of Metaphysics in Persia" (London, 1908). 
" Such mysticism " continues Snouck Hurgronje, " is found also in 
Arabian lands but only in small circles of the initiated, as half 
secret doctrines of the Sufis, cautiously concealed on account of the 
hunt of official theologians for heresy and of the suspicious fana- 
ticism of the vulgar. In the East Indies, however, it formed woof 
and warp not only of learned speculation but of popular belief. 
Tracts with drawings and tables were used in the endeavour to 
realize the idea of the Absolute. The four elements, the four 
winds, the four righteous Khalifs, the four founders of the schools 
-of law, the four sorts of attributes of God in dogma, the four grades 
of progress in mysticism, the four extremities of the human body 
and many other sets of four were for popular mysticism revelations 
of the one indivisible self of man; through the names of Muhammad 
and Allah, each in Arabic spelt with four letters, were symbolized 
the One Being. ' Who knows himself, knows his Lord and he who 
knows his Lord has knowledge of himself,' said these mystics." 
("Arabie en Oost-Indie," Leiden, 1907). A pawang's charm to 
•call back to memory the medium in Kelantan's main puteri, for 
•example, invokes 

-Jour. Straits Branch R, A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



262 A MALAY PANTHEIST CHARM. 

'Balang Abubakar, 'balang Umar, 

'Balang Uthman, 'balang Ali! 

Jaga sa-l'ali! 

Angin sliari'at, roma dengan Tculit! 

Angin 'itikad, daging dengan darah! 

Angin tarikat, urat dengan tulang! 

Angin ma'rifat, nyaiva dengan ben eh ! 

Angin em pat di-dalam, empat di-luar, 

Em pat di-kanan, empat di-kiri, 

Empat di-bawali, empat di-atas, 

Jaga keluar 

Di-pintu sir, pintu 'itikad, pintu cliinta, pintu rasa. 
Dr. Gimlette has collected and is printing the full charm in a 
new edition of his "Malay Poisons." I quote the extract to illus- 
trate the paivang's use of the mystic four. 

Snouck Hurgronje's book on " The Achehnese," D. A. Kinkes' 
" Ahdoerraoef van Singkel " (Friesland, 1909), B. J. 0. Schrieke's 
" Het Boek van Bon an g " and H. Kraemer's " Een Javaansche 
primhon uit de zestiende eeuw " (Leiden, 1921) should all be in the 
hands of the student of Malayan pantheism. 

The Malay magician has a strange pedigree: first, animist, 
then Hindu and lastly, as Sufi mystic, the unconscious inheritor of 
Gnostic and Xeo-Platonic doctrines. Brahminical mantra, to which 
even the Gods are subject, perhaps prepared his mind for the auda- 
cities of the Sufi. I will take one instance from Skeat's " Malay 
Magic" (pp. 587-588) :— 

" Jihrail, Mikail, Israfil, 'Azrail; 
Ye are four but witlt me five! 
I sit on the seat of God! 
I lean against the pillar of God's throne." 
Is this a misconception or wilful corruption of al-Jili's description 
of the Perfect Man : — " he furnishes from himself an antitype to 
everything in existence — his heart stands over against the Pen, 
his soul over against the Guarded Tablet, his nature over against 
the elements. He stands over against the angels with his good 
thoughts." Another of Skeat's pawang (p. 581) speaks of " a white 
learned Shaikh who leans against the pillar of the Throne, who 
knows the Guarded Tablet, who writes down the Creed," (and, I 
suppose, of Muhammad in the phrase " the Sovereign Jewel who 
dwells above the Throne, controlling all the children of Adam.") 

In this paper I translate a charm obtained in an East coast 
State of the Malay Peninsula : a promise to its possessor forbids me 
to divulge its home exactly. It was copied by me from a begrimed 
book probably a century old and transcribed according to the colo- 
phon from a still older manuscript : — 

" A chapter to explain the charm called the Fortress of the 
Unity of God, practised by Maklab Setam. Whosoever would 
practise it should recite the fatihah first and give a present to its 
owner. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



A MALAY PANTHEIST CHARM. 263 

" A beginning should be made on Thursday night and the 
charm should be continued until the night of the following Thurs- 
day. 

" It should be recited four times a night with a sincere vowing 
of the heart to unity with Allah and the vision of Him implanted 
in one's heart, until His Being permeates one and one has faith: 
6 1 am lost in the universal and absolute Essence of God ; ? and one 
is lost to self and one's self becomes absolute and universal too : — 

" In the name of God the Merciful the Compassionate. Oh 
God! grant peace to our lord Muhammad and the household of 
Muhammad who watcheth over my self and my friends and all my 
children and all the contents of my house and my property and the 
possessions of my hands with a sevenfold fortress from the fortress 
of God Most High ; its roof — ' There is no God but God/ and my 
wall ( Muhammad the Apostle of God/ and my key ' the might of 
God/ which may not be opened for ever save with His permission. 
Muhammad is like man and unlike man; he is like a chrysolite 
among stones. 

" Now the import of the term ' fortress ' is that we know that 
we come from not-being and to not-being shall return. For there 
is nothing evidently save the Being of God. And of a surety the 
Being of God never parts from His absolute essence, which carries 
out all His will, according to His word : c His desire is accom- 
plished by Himself and goes forth to no other than Himself save to 
not-being/ 

" The intention of the term self is e spirit/ one of the attributes 
of the knowledge of God Most High, which parts not from His 
essence and it becomes an objectified idea and is called man. Now 
the spirit is distinct and determined. Always the spirit yearns 
towards God. 

" The intention of ( the house ' is the body. The body is the 
place of the spirit and so the veritable place that reveals the Real 
God according to the saying of the Prophet, on whom be the peace 
of God : ' Whosever knows himself, knows his Lord/ The house 
was built of itself and though it will pass away, yet He whose house 
it is is the Eealitv who with His absolute essence is eternal. 

" The intention of our ' property ' is the liver and heart and 
lungs and gall and all that God Most High has created : according 
to His word : — i There is no strength in any one save the strength 
of Allah, lord of all the worlds both as regards things revealed and 
things hidden.' 

" The intention of our ' possessions ' is the ten senses, firstly 
the outward and secondly the inner. The outward are five : the 
sight of the eyes, the hearing of the ears, the taste of the tongue, the 
smelling of the nose and the touch of the hand. The inner also are 
five : consciousness, faith, insight, perception and judgment. 

" The intention of the sevenfold ' fortress ' is the creation by 
God Most High of man with seven attributes : life, knowledge, 

E. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



•2G4 A MALAY PANTHEIST CHARM. 

power, will, hearing, sight and speech. And seven parts of the 
body must be bowed to God in prayer : the forehead, the palms of 
the hands, the knees and the toes of the feet. 

" The intention of the ' key ' is because we have utter trust and 
union by surrendering ourselves to God Most High, according to 
His word : ' Hold yourselves fast to the cord of God wdiich breaks 
not neither is there concealment of His will frohi mystical know- 
ledge;' as said the Prophet on whom be God's peace: — c Nothing 
at all moves save by permission of Allah/ For we cannot behold 
aught if the cord break and it cannot break save by the will of God 
Most High, and there is no other can break it. 

" And the intention of the c key ' is Muhammad Apostle of 
'God for God is utterly hidden; none other save himself knoweth 
Him, for He cherisheth His glory. And the Eeality of God Most 
High was revealed to the spirit of Muhammad our Prophet and from 
that Spirit God Most High created all this universe, and all the 
•attributes of His secret wisdom were revealed: and so it is that 
Muhammad is called the 'key/ because he opened the treasure- 
house that was hidden, according to His word : — ' I opened that 
which was closed/ 

" And the intention of the protection of God is according to 
His word : ' God Most High is with thee wheresoever thou art/ ac- 
cording to His word : ' God is nearer to thee than the muscles of thy 
neck/ 

" And the intention of ' roof ' is the power of God to cover any 
■of His servants with mercy according to His will, so that he be 
locked away from all enemies and clanger in this world and the next, 
neither shall the lock be opened by genie or man save with the per- 
mission of God Most High." 

Was it some such charm as this that Sultan Ahmad of old 
Malacca was expecting to learn from the Makhdum, whom he took 
on his elephant into battle against the Portuguese and who cried 
clutching the howdah with both hands, " Sultan ! This is no place 
to study the Unity of God. Let us return/' (Sejarah Melayu. 
Chapter 3-i). In chapter 20 of the Sejarah Melayu we have a 
reference to a Meccan, Maulana Abu Ishak a mystic (fahan pada 
'ilmu tasawwuf) practising austerities, the author of a work the 
Dar al-mathlum, who despatched a pupil Abu Bakar to Malacca to 
teach the doctrine of Essence and Attributes and Works contained 
in his book. Sultan Mansur Shah got a Pasai pundit to translate 
it. All the notabilities of Malacca became pupils of the Meccan 
and even the Kathi sat at his feet after he had seen the newcomer 
with a halo of light about him. Then Sultan Mansur Shah oifered 
.a present of gold and two female slaves to any Pasai theologian who 
•could solve the problems whether those in heaven and those in hell 
remain in their respective places for ever. .A Pasai pundit replied 
openly that they did, quoting the authority of the Koran. But the 
Sultan of Pasai summoned him, hinted that an embassy could not 

Jour. Straits Branch 



A MALAY PANTHEIST CHARM. 265 

have come from Malacca in quest of such an obvious answer and 
suggested giving in private a deeper esoteric meaning communic- 
able, like all Sufi mysteries, only to the elect. The pundit took the 
hint and won the prize offered by Malacca. His esoteric solution 
is not recorded but al-Jili has given apposite Sun answers : — " The 
powers of endurance of the sufferers in hell continues to grow — 
God never takes back his gifts and these powers come from God — 
until there appears in them a Divine power which extinguishes the 
fire, because no one is doomed to misery after the Divine attributes 
become manifest in him," or again " You may say, if you like, that 
Hell-fire remains as it was, but that the torment of the damned is 
changed to pleasure." (Nicholson, op. cit. pp. 136-7). 

There is a record of one flagrant example of heterodox panthe- 
ism from Perak 30 years ago. Its exponent was sentenced to gaol. 
The creed he taught found God in man : " There is no God but God. 
I am God." (La ilaha ilia Halt I Ahu Allah! Allah ia ahu! Allah u 
dkul Allah ta'ala itu tiada melainlcan diri ini Allah.) The creed, 
alms, the pilgrimage, the turban, the sixteen pillars of a mosque, 
the steps of its pulpit, the holding of a staff by the preacher, the 
kissing of the Black Stone at Mecca were all ascribed to disgusting 
sexual analogies. Not 44 but 40 members are required for the con- 
gregation of a mosque because man and woman together have 40 
fingers and toes. Hell is anger and heaven sexual love. The 
Angel of Death is a man's eyes; the seven furnaces of Hell his 
knees; the bridge across the Mre his back-bone. One's right eye 
is Kiramun and one's left Katibin. And so on, a rigmarole of 
nonsense and an obscene travesty at an immeasurable distance of 
the Divine Love celebrated by the mystics of Persia. 

The Malay Charm. 

" Fasal pada menyatakan 'ilmu kota tauhid yang di-amalkan 

oleh Tuan Maklab Setam (*^> ^_J*x*) . Dan barang siapa hendak 

mengamalkan dia, maka di-bacha fatihah dahulu, di-hadiahkan 
kapada yang empunya dia. 

Maka di-mulai kapada malam Jumaat hingga sampai kapada 
malam Jumaat pula; maka di-bacha-nya empat kali pada sa-malam 
serta di-nadzarkan hati kita bersunggoh-sunggoh kita mengesakan 
kapada Allah serta di-shuhudkan masok ka-dalam fuad kita, sa- 
hingga penoh maujud di-dalam diri kita pun di-'itikadkan-lah : 
c Aku ghaib di-dalam dzat mutlak dan itlak,' maka fana-lah diri 
kita sa-kali melainkan diri mutlak dan itlak itu jua. 

L^aJU. /J^w" 4AS^j3j cV-^3^ /*""**' i£~*°: { *^ t *\ Jt 3 (J^3 cj*^3 lS*^ ^ 
V^A^ rs^y 4$\ *jA3 l&i*9j 4&\ J j— j -U.>^> V^jij *X\ V) a}\ V 

R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



266 A MALAY PANTHEIST CHAKM. 

Shahadan ada pun murad daripada ' kota ' itu, telah kita ketahu'i 
asal kita itu daripada 'adam, melainkan kembali kapada 'adam pula 
kita. Ada pun yang ada nyata-nya itu hanya ujud Allah jua sa- 
mata-mata-nya. Bahawa akan ujud Allah itu sa-kali-kali tiada 
bercherai dengan dzat-nya yang mutlak itu bagi dzat-nya; maka 
ia-itu-lah yang melakukan barang-barang kehendak-nya saperti 

firman-nya: ^tjt ^ J^-S, herti-nya ' Berlaku barang kehendak- 
nya di-atas diri-nya jua/ tiada berkehendak kapada yang lain-nya 
daripada-nya itu, sa-sunggoh-nya pun kapada 'adam jua. Tamat. 

Sliahadan ada pun murad daripada ' diri ' itu roh nama-nya, 
suatu sifat daripada Allah ta'ala, tiada bercherai dengan dzat-nya; 
dan ia-lah jadi suatu hakikat-nya, maka di-namai ' insan/ Ada 
pun roh itu mufassil lagi mukaiyad. Bahawa sa-nya roh itu 
berkehendak sentiasa kapada Tuhan-nya. Tamat. 

Shahadan ada pun murad daripada i rumah ' itu jasad nama- 

nya. Ada pun jasad itu tempat ^? rjVSj) roh itu, kerana itu- 

lah sa-benar-benar-nya tempat kenyataan Hakku'llah ta f ala, saperti 
sabda Xabi salla'llahu 'alaihi wa-sallama : ' Man 'arafa nafsahu 
fakad 'araf rabbahu/ herti-nya, ' Barang siapa mengenal diri-nya, 
maka bahawa sa-nya mengenal-lah Tuhan-nya.' Ada pun rumah 
itu di-jadi sendiri-nya, sunggoh pun akan fana melainkan empunya 
rumah-nya Hak yang kekal dengan dzat-nya yang mutlak itu. 

Shahadan ada pun murad daripada ' harta ' kita itu ia-itu 
saperti hati dan jantong dan paru-paru dan hempedu dan barang 
yang di-jadikan Allah ta'ala sa-mata-mata-nya saperti firman-nya : 

jJUloj <&\ ^. j\ ^\ jj\JLTUj herti-nya, '■ Tiada kuasa sa- 

orang jua melainkan dengan kuasa Allah kapada sakalian 'a*am 
ini daripada dzahir-nya dan batin-nya/ Tamat. 

Shahadan ada pun murad daripada ' milek ' pada kita itu 
pancha indera yang sa-puloh itu, pertama-nya dzahir, kedua-nya 
batin. Ada pun yang dzahir itu lima perkara : penglihatan mata, 
penengaran telinga, perasaan lidah, penchium dengan hidong, 
penjabat dengan tangan. Ada pun pancha indera yang batin itu 
lima perkara pula : sir, 'itikad, chita, rasa dan waham. 

Shahadan ada pun murad daripada tujoh ' kota ' itu, kerana 
Allah ta'ala meiijadikan kita ini tujoh sifat, maka di-sempurnakan 
insan itu tujoh sifat: sifat hay at, 'ilmu, kudrat, iradat, sama f , 
basar, kalam. Dan wajib sujud kapada Allah ta'ala tujoh anggota : 
pertama-nya dahi, kedua-nya tapak tangan, dan ketiga-nya lutut, 
dan keempat-nya kaki dengan perut-nya jari. 

Shahadan ada pun murad daripada ' kunchi ? itu sebab-nya 
sangat-sangat yakin kita dan tauhid kita pada menyerahkan diri 

kita kapada Allah ta'ala, saperti firman-nya : ? <u)\ Aj>. y^^y 

*9 VtiS V*.*«r herti-nya, ' Berpegang kamu dengan tali Allah yang 
tiada putus-nya lagi tiada terlindong barang sa-kehendak-nya itu 

Jour. Straits Branch 



A MALAY PANTHEIST CHARM. 267 

•daripada nia f rifat-nya/ saperti kata Nabi sallaTlalm 'alaihi wa- 
sallama : ' La takhriku dzarratin ilia bi-idznr llah/ herti-nya, 
' Tidak bergerak barang suatu jua pun, melainkan dengan idzin 
Allah? Kerana tiada dapat di-pandang dengan memutuskan dan 
tiada putuskan melainkan dengan kehendak Allah sa-mata-mata, 
maka tiada dapat lain-nya. Tamat. 

Shahadan ada pun murad daripada ' anak kunchi ' itu Muham- 
mad BasuluTlah. Kerana Allah itu sangat-lah terbunyi, tiada 
siapa mengetahui-nya akan dia melainkan pada diri-nya. Sebab 
itu-lah Allah ta'ala memeliharakan kebesaran-nya itu ; maka 
Hakku'llah ta'ala pun tajalli kapada roh Nabi kita Muhammad, 
maka roh itu-lah Allah ta'ala menjadikan sakalian 'alam ini; maka 
dzahir-lah sakalian-nya sifat 'ilmu-nya yang batin itu. Maka 
sebab itu-lah di-katakan c anak kunehi/ kerna membukakan per- 

bendaharaan yang terbunyi, saperti nrman-nya : jL9l^« jJj c^S 

herti-nya, ' Ada aku berharta yang terbunyi-nya/ Tamat. 

Shahadan ada pun murad daripada pelihara Allah saperti 

lirman-nya : +zS Uj \ *.x*^ j* j herti-nya, ' Allah ta'ala itu serta 

kamu barang di-mana kamu/ saperti firman-nya : ' Allah terlebeh 
hampir daripada urat leher/ 

Shahadan ada pun murad daripada ' atap ' itu kuasa Allah 
atas barang yang di-kehendaki-nya pada menudong daripada sa- 
orang hamba dengan rahmat; maka jadi-lah terkunchi daripada 
sakalian seteru-nya dan bala-nya daripada dunia akhirat; maka 
tiada-lah terbuka kapada sakalian jin dan manusia melainkan 
dengan izin Allah ta'ala. Tamat. 



Notes on the Enemies of Butterflies. 



BY 0, L. COLLEXETTE. 



On 24th January, 1922 while collecting larvae and pupae of" 
the common Skipper (Hidari iraun) which can be found plenti- 
fully in Singapore in rolled up sections of the banana leaf, I 
noticed that three or four butterflies of the species were flying 
round the flowers of a neighbouring Papaya tree. After watch- 
ing them at close quarters for a minute or two, I espied one which 
appeared to have deformed wings, at rest on a flower. Looking 
more closely, 1 found that it was in the clutches of a Praying 
Mantis. (Rhombodera basalis). The Mantis held the butterfly in 
its fore legs and occasionally brought it up to its mouth to suck 
the juices, holding it away again while it considered them. After 
watching this for a few minutes I took the Skipper away, the 
Mantis holding on until it was nearly pulled from the tree and with 
no apparent fear of my fingers. 

The Mantis was stationed on a small bunch of the Papaya 
flower buds, with an open flower half an inch in front of its doubled 
fore legs. Skippers were flying from flower to flower, and I waited 
in the hope that one would fly within its reach: A foolish indivi- 
dual finally blundered right on to its back and then settled on the 
very flower which it guarded. The Mantis flinched a little at the 
touch, drew its front legs close to its body and then made what I 
considered a rather clumsy grab at the insect. The Skipper flew 
away none the worse. 

Other Skippers visited flowers three or four inches away, being 
followed by the Mantis with a turn of the head. 

Then, as dusk came on, a Hawk Moth with pink in its wings,. 
probably Hippotion boerliaviae, paused in space opposite the special 
flower, but apparently saw the preliminary inward swing of the 
Mantis' fore legs, and darted off. 

Shortly afterwards, the same Hawk Moth, or another of the 
same species, hovered in front of the flower and put its proboscis 
down the long tube. The Mantis made the same grab ;as before,, 
but again missed its quarry. Darkness and mosquitoes prevented 
further observations. 

Another Mantis had been sitting all this time on the under- 
side of >a leaf, but beyond turning its head when a butterfly passed,, 
with the very smallest chance of being able to make a capture, it 
did not move. 

Jour, straits fsranch &. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



NOTES ON THE ENEMIES OF BUTTERFLIES. 269 

During the following three weeks T visited the Papaya tree 
on several occasions and always found the same two Mantids. They 
were the same shade of light green as their background and it needed 
the closest scrutiny to .detect them. On each visit they were either 
at rest under leaves or walking about on the leaf stems, although 
butterflies and other insects were often present on the flowers. 

I do not think that these Mantids were capable of reasoning 
out that insects were to be caught on the flowers. Although they 
were plainly interested in •anything moving within six inches of 
them, they would remain just out of reach of a promising spot 
without attempting to go nearer to it. 

in the Botanic Gardens, at midday on 5th February 1922, I 
was watching four or five "brown" butterflies (Ypthima) settled 
on a single head of flowers on a shrub. A patch of yellow and 
blue higher up the branch caught my eye, and revealed a large 
" Chamelion " (Calotes cristatellus) . It was some six inches from 
the butterflies, with its head turned towards them in a position of 
attention. I went quietly back to a distance and watched for 
twenty minutes, but tne lizard did not stir in the slightest, possibly 
because I had alarmed it. From a distance at which the butterflies 
could easily be seen, it was most difficult to pick it out from the 
surrounding leaves. At subsequent visits I did not see it, although 
the flower-head continued to attract butterflies for some time. 

Another danger to butterflies is the spider. In the Changi 
jungle, on 29th January, 1922, 1 found an Eutkalia merta, a power- 
ful butterfly with a strong flight, completely helpless but undamaged 
in a web spun across a path. The spider could not be found. 

Instances of butterflies being preyed upon by their enemies are 
not easy to observe, but the dangers which they are exposed to, such 
.as those indicated in these notes, are very many. 



The Irregularity of a Spider's Feeding. 



By I. H. Bukkill. 

One afternoon in 1908 my attention was drawn to an irrides- 
cent green hunting spider npon the wall of my house in Calcutta. 
There were many mosquitoes about at the time : and I asked myself 
if this spider fed upon them, and accordingly caught it for the 
purpose of observation. The source of the mosquitoes was quickly 
found in the servants' quarters, the brood of larvae appropriated, 
and by means of a glass funnel over the vessel containing the larvae 
and pupae, the flies as they emerged were forced to enter a glass 
fronted box which became a cage for the spider. A small vessel of 
water was placed in the cage so that the air was constantly moist. 
■ The temperature went uncontrolled, and as it was the hot weather 
ran to maxima above 100° F. The cage was not moved from the 
room where the spider had been caught. The spider was now sup- 
plied with fresh mosquitoes daily and the "kills" counted over 6$ 
days, i.e. from May 25th. to- July 26th. On July 2>6th. as I was pro- 
ceeding on tour, the observations were discontinued, and the spider, 
a female, weighed : she weighed .075 grammes. The spider put into 
spirit, Avas posted to a specialist in spiders, for determination, but 
the parcel miscarried, and the name of the species is not known. 

The spider in the 63 days over which the observations were' 
extended, killed and devoured 355 mosquitoes ; but most irregularly.. 
When caught she was hunting; on the next day she laid eggs, and 
then fasted on and off over a week: for two days after this she fed 
ravenously, killing 17 on the first of the two and 10 on the second;, 
then followed a fast day, a day when 2 were killed, and another fast- 
day; after this on five days she fed considerably, killing in ail 58 
mosquitoes; then came a three days complete fast; three days of 
moderate feeding, a day's fast, and so on. Once in July she fast- 
ed completely for seven days. Her maximum was 17; and this she 
reached on three occasions. 

Xewly a copy of the Transactions of the AYisconsin Academy 
of Sciences, Arts and Letters, vol. XIX. has come into my hands,, 
wherein at p. 524 is an account by Miss Catherine Elizabeth Xebel 
of the feeding of seven individuals of the spider, Aramea sericata, 
which she watched for periods up to fifteen weeks, feeding them 
upon the fruit fly, — Drosophila ampelophila. Her spiders fasted 
and fed as irregularly as mine : but she noted that if the temperature 
of her laboratory were raised to 100° F. the spiders responded by 
an increased feeding upon the second day. 

It should be noted that these were voluntary fasts, not involun- 
tary which spiders are well known to endure for very long periods. 

My spider was never seen to take any notice of a mosquito 
which did not move. What an advantage rest by day would seem 
to confer on the mosquito ! 

Jour. Straits Branch R. A. Soc\, No. 86 1922. 



Notes on Dipterocarps. 

No 6. On the genus Pachynocarpus. 



By I. H. Burkill AXD F. W. Foxworthy. 

Pachynocarpus is a small genus of the natural order Diptero- 
carpaceae, with its nearest affinity to the somewhat polymorphic 
genus Yatica. If Yatica be divided into two or more genera, then 
Pachynocarpus is abundantly distinct; but if, as several botanists 
think, Yatica in its variety is still rightly considered a single 
genus, then it is a debateable point whether Pachynocarpus should 
be kept apart from it. It was defined in I860 by Sir Joseph 
Hooker (Trans. Linn. Soc. XXIII. , p. 159) upon material col- 
lected by James Motley in Borneo and sent by iMr. E. S. Barber* of 
the Eastern Archipelago Company to Sir William Hooker 
at Ivew from Labuan. Yatica had been defined long before, — 
first in 1771 by Linnaeus (Mantissa. II, p. 152) upon a specimen 
from Ceylon (mislabelled China) ; then it had been recognized as 
appearing in the Philippine Islands in a second species (Blanco, 
Fl. Filip., ed. 1, 183 7, p. 4'01 ) and in the islands of Borneo and 
Sumatra in two more species (Blume, Mus. Bot., 1S5>2, p. 31). 
To these have been added other species up to the number of 55, 







Figs. 1 and 2, the shells of two fruits of Yatica Wallichii gathered, 
from under the same tree in the Tasek Gelugor Forest Eeserve, Province 
Wellesley, showing extremes in the development of the calyx (shaded) : 
3, a fruit of Yatica ridleyana in vertical section: 4, shell of the fruit of 
Faclujnocarpus umbonatus in vertical section. All reduced to one-half 
and in all the calyx shaded. The cotyledons are indicated in 3. 

* The Director of the Eoyal Botanic Gardens, Kew, kindly informs us 
that Edmund Scott Barber was Eesident Director of the Eastern Archi- 
pelago Company at Labuan at the time of the murder of Motley (see 
Jour. Straits Branch, Eoy. Asiatic Soc. No. 79, 1918, p. 37) and pur- 
chased at the sale of Motley's effects, the latter 's herbarium. Under the 
date Nov. 16th, 1859, he wrote to Sir William Hooker at Kew, telling him 
this and that he would forward the herbarium; and explained that Motley 
when alive had intended to do so. He also offered a collection of mosses. In 
a second letter he stated that Motley's herbarium consisted of about 40O 
specimens, and advised the sending to Kew of numerous small packets, 
of mosses and "a remnant of Motley's herbarium not arranged." 

Jour. Straits Branch R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



272 NOTES ON DIPTEROCAEPS. 

with a distribution from Ceylon to New Guinea, and northwards 
as far as the eastern extremity of the Himalaya. More or less in 
the middle of the area occupied by Vaticas occurs Pacliynocarpus. 

From the species of Yatica nearest to it, the first described 
Pacliynocarpus, — P. umbonatus, — differs in the degree of adnation 
of the calyx, as the diagrams above indicate. 

Upon this adnation Hooker defined the genus : and in 18'6<2 
in the Genera Plantarum (i., p. 192), he remarked succinctly that 
Pacliynocarpus differs in no other way from Yatica, of which 
genus but seven species were known to him. Alphonse de Candolle 
in 1868 (Prodromus, XVI, part 2, p. 605) retained Pacliyno- 
carpus, altering the definition by pointing out that the stamens 
may be 15 in number, instead of 10, as had been stated. Burck, 
nineteen years later (Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. VI, 1887, p. 223), 
sunk the genus to the position of a section of Yatica, at the same 
time describing as a new species Yatica verrucosa. -Heim fol- 
lowed (Eecherches sur les Dipterocarpacees, Paris, 1802, p. 10'?) 
with the restoration of Pacliynocarpus, and with a subdivision of 
Yatica. Sir George King (Journ. As. Soc. Beng., LXII, 1893, 
p. 136) took Heim's view; and at the same time he transferred 
Yatica Wallichii, Dyer, and Yatica ruminata, Burck, to Pacliyno- 
carpus, in a way which we find wrong, and he added a new species, 
— P. Stapp'anus. 'Sir Dietrich Branclis, the last comprehensive 
writer upon the order, followed suit (Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 
XXXI, 189'5, p. 136) : he placed the species as King had done, 
except that he did not reduce Yatica ruminata, but called it Pacliy- 
nocarpus ruminatus. He had described a Yatica Ridleyana 
(Hooker's Icones t. 2401), which, from its obviously close rela- 
tionship to Yatica Wallichii, Dyer, Ridley in the Singapore her- 
barium, and as a follower King, transferred to the genus 
Pacliynocarpus; and this transference appeared in Mr. James 
Anderson's "Index of Plants, Botanic Gardens, Singapore" as 
P. Ridleyana, but wrongly ascribed to Brandis. The result of all 
these writings is that we have six names under Pacliynocarpus : — 
P. umbonatus, Hook. f. ; 
P. verrucosus, Heim, transferred from the genus Yatica, where it 

stood as .V verrucosa, Burck: 
P. Wallichii, King, including Yatica Wallichii, Dyer; 
P. Stapfianus, King; 
P. ruminatus, Brandis, submerged from V. ruminata, Burck, by 

King into P. Wallichii, but restored to Pacliynocarpus by 

Brandis; and 
P. Ridleyanus, J. W. Anderson, transferred from Yatica Ridleyana, 

Brandis. 

Burck had described a Yatica obtusa (I.e., p. 228) placing it 
next to 1'. ruminata with the remark u anne rectius V. ruminatae 
varietas/' If so near Y. ruminata as that and if V. ruminata is 
a species of Pacliynocarpus, then so also must this species be; and 
therefore we may have seven to deal with. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NOTES ON DIPTEEOCAEPS. 273 

For our work we have borrowed the specimens left in the 
herbarium of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Calcutta, by Sir George 
King, and examined them carefully, along with the material which 
we have been able to accumulate ourselves from within the Malay 
Peninsula. The result is a great reduction and a return towards 
older views. While reserving an opinion upon the advisability of 
retaining Vatica as it stands, we cut out of Pachyno carpus most 
of the species added to it. We consider P. verrucosus, Heim, un- 
likely to differ from one of the other species of the genus: P. 
W /illicit ii, King, to consist of Vatica Wallichii, Dyer, and a Pachy- 
nocarpus confused; P. Sta[jfianus not to differ from the second 
part of King's P. Wallichii: ruminatus to be the same as Vatica 
Wallichii: and P. Bidleyanus to be a Vatica likewise. Moreover we 
find at present no reason to keep up the two species Vatica obtusi- 
folia, Ridley, and V. Kelsalli, Ridley, described in the Journal of 
the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, No. 34, 1910, 
pp. $6-2? : both appear to be Vatica Wallichii, Dyer. 

In the Calcutta herbarium are two sheets of Pachyno carpus 
umoonatus from the "Herbarium Hookerianum " with flowers; 
and in a capsule upon one of them is a detached fruit. It is clear 
that they were part of the material upon which the species was 
described. Attached to one of the sheets is a fragment of Chinese 
paper bearing this note : — " 160', Dipterocarpeae — ? Vatica. A tree 
1 to 1-J feet diameter ; wood very hard close and lasting, when cut 
yellowish brown, turning nearly black on drying; bark smooth, 
light coloured; yields a yellow transparent copal-like resin. The 
gum called in Europe "dutch copal/' Rassak bunga — flowering 
rassak; blooms cream-coloured, said to be very showy; tinged with. 
pink when in blossom; very sweet scented. Loobook dana." In 
the Transactions of the Linnean Society the wood of Pachyno- 
carpus was described by Sir Joseph Hooker, not as in this note, 
but as soft and white, and the wood of Cotylelobium melanoxylon 
Hook. f. which is also called "rassak" § was described as yellow, 
when seasoned turning black. Both species are said by him to 
have been got upon the north coast of Labuan, but Mr. T. H. Eley 
now Resident at Labuan, is unable to ascertain for us that there 
is a bay or stream-bend there, known at Lubok d'ana : and we are 
not confident that Lubok dana cannot be for instance on the 
Snngei Banvu Irang in Banjermassin. The note quoted appears to 
have been Motley's. It is to be asked not only if Sir Joseph 
Hooker wrongly assumed Lubok dana to be in Labuan, but why 
the discrepancy in the description of the wood, or if the note 
has been placed upon a wrong sheet, and belongs to Cotylelobium 
melanoxylon : I >ut then the number 160 Hooker gives to the other. Sir 
George King had these specimens before him when he wrote his 
account of Pachyno carpus. It is to be observed that he held his 
material of Pachyno car pais from the Malay Peninsula to differ from 

§ "Eapak" the name quoted by Hooker is an error — a misreading of 
the word ' ' rassak ' ' written by Motley with the first s long. 

R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



274 NOTES ON DIPTEEOCAEPS. 

them; and his opinion always deserves consideration: but beyond 
that he went wrong in not seeing that the peninsular material was 
different from the really unlike Vatica Wallichii. 

In considering whether King was right to keep apart that 
Malayan material from the Bornean type, and right also to dis- 
tinguish specifically P. Stapfianus, we have met with much diffi- 
culty. We have ended in keeping the peninsular and the Bornean 
material apart, more from caution than from conviction, and find 
the Pachynocarpus-portion of King's P. Wallichii not separable 
specifically from his P. Stapfianus. If however, there is a con- 
fusion in Motley's specimens, and it can be of a Vatica in flower 
mixed with a P achy no carpus in fruit (flowers and fruit were pro- 
bably gathered months apart), then the flowering specimen is likely 
to be a flowering Vatica and perhaps V. Wallichii, while the fruit- 
ing specimen (which is P. umbonatus) may not differ from P. 
Stapfianus. More study in Borneo is needed to decide this both 
near Labuan, and because Motley's last years were at Banjermassin 
in the south east. 

At flowering time there is no sure mark in a herbarium speci- 
men by which Pachynocarpus can be distinguished from Vatica 
Wallichii. That led to King's mistake . of identifying the two; 
and a fair measure of variability in the calyx caused him to think 
that the adhesion which is not visible in the flower, came quite late 
in fruit-development, whereas it commences from the fall of the 
petals. The diagrams printed above indicate some of the varia- 
tion in the calyx. We have had good opportunities of studying 
Vatica Wallichii alive, because it is a tree cultivated in the Econo- 
mic Garden, Singapore, and because also it is by no means un- 
common round the coasts of the Malay Peninsula. It has been 
planted on dry ground in the Economic Garden and has grown 
well; but its natural habitat is upon ground liable to flooding. 
Herbarium specimens prove its occurrence down the west coast of 
the Peninsula, certainly from Province Wellesley, and possibly 
from Trang in Lower Siam, to Singapore ; and down the east coast 
from Kuantan to ^Singapore. It, by being identified with Burck's 
Vatica ruminata, is known also from Bangka. It is possible that 
Dr. Haviland's flowering specimens, N"os. 19'OT and 1908, from 
near Kuching, Sarawak, may be it; but fruits are necessary for 
making this sure. 

To Malays it is one of the several trees called Eesak. Eesak 
paya (swamp resak) is a name for it in Pahang and so are Eesak 
pasir (pasir may mean sand, sea beach, or a certain quality in a 
wood which causes it to take the edge off cutting tools) and' 
Eesak laru,* which last belongs also to Pachynocarpus Stapfianus. 
Goodenough, Eidley's collector, called it Damar Mata Kuching on 
specimens collected in Singapore island and in Malacca. Derry in 
Malacca called it Kayu Merbatu Pasir. 

* Laru is a substance used in making sugar. In this particular case, 
it is said that punctures or cuts' are made in the bark; the resin which 
exudes is collected and placed into syrup which is being boiled, causing 
it to harden into sugar with a yellow colour. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NOTES ON DIPTEROCAEPS. 275 

The wood of Tatica and Pachynocarpus seems to be very much 
alike. The sapwood of Vaiica Wallichii is white or pale yellow 
and the heartwood is brownish yellow, becoming much darker after 
exposure to the air. There is less of resin in the wood than is 
usually found in most memlbers of the order. 

A pale damar runs out of injuries and glazes over the stem. 

The tree attains no great height, reaching say 60 feet and the 
spread of its branches is narrow, say 10 feet from the trunk. If 
grown in the open it keeps its lower branches and is then leafy 
nearly to the ground; but in high forest its trunk is straight and 
branchless to 30 feet or more. A tree 50' feet high may possess a 
diameter at breast height of 20-30 inches. The bark is light grey 
and smooth. 

Its times of flowering in Singapore are uncertain doubtless in 
response to the uncertainty of the weather. All trees flower to- 
gether. Flowering however in the Peninsula seems to be most 
common in April or May. 

Individual trees differ from each other in small points. The 
leaves of some dry darker than the leaves of others. Tiie flowers 
vary from a pale cream to milk-white; in some there is a touch of 
red upon the outside of the bud; examined at sun-down the petals 
may be bent just to a right angle on their claw, in others more. 
These variations characterise whole trees. It may be that the trees 
whose flowers are most pigmented, are the trees whose leaves dry 
darkest; but this has not been proved. A flower whose petals are 
bent through a right angle is figured below. The small eye is 
noteworthy. 





Fig. 5 on the left, a flower of Vaiica Wallichii in face view: Fig. 6- 
on the right, a flower of Vatica Ridleyana, also in face view. Both nat. 
size. Below each is the stigma and style enlarged. 

The flowers have a strong and pleasant scent. By their multi- 
tude the}^ make the tree conspicuous at flowering. They open 
about dawn, and fall about the next dawn. The stamens number 
15; — if 10 in such plants as that upon which Vatica Kelsalli was 
founded, then so by reduction, accidental probably. The flowers 
face downwards and outwards chiefly. Three or four distinct 
patches of glandular tissue occur in a row upon the underside of 
the leaves where the lateral veins break into loops. These leaves 
last for about 3 years. Six months pass before the fruit is ripe. 
The fruit is dry and water-distributed chiefly by means of floods. 
We have seen this process in operation in the Tasek Gelugor Forest 
Eeserve in Province Wellesley, where heavy rain had flooded the 

R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 




276 NOTES ON DIPTEKOCARPS. 

low and level ground, and the fruits were stranded in lines at the 
limit of the flooding. The duration of the floating was tested and 
described in a note by one of us (Journ. Straits Branch Eoy. As. 
Soc. 81, 1920, p. 75) where the wrong generic name P achy no carpus 
was used for it. The average duration of floating in that experiment 
was found to be 2'2 days. The germination was described in the 
same place. The capsule is ruptured along three lines predeter- 
mined by weaknesses in the walls. These three lines are more 
-clearly shown in the capsule of the related Yatica Zollingeriana, 
A. DC., which is figured here, because it is instructive in regard to 
the nature of the less clearly marked lines of rupture in Yatica 
Wallichii. 



i 



Fig. 7. Shell of the fruit of Vatica Zollingeriana, A.DC, in vertical 
section showing the sepals (s), and the wall cut on one side down one of 
the lines of rupture, and on the other through the thick swollen mid-part 
between. Doubtless V. Zollingeriana is water-distributed, for the swollen 
part is such as would keep it floating. 

The fruiting calyx of Y. Wallichii is developed to a somewhat 
variable extent : sometimes it is humped as in the first figure above ; 
sometimes it is rather flat, as in the second. The two figures were 
from fruits picked from the ground of the Tasek Gelugor Forest 
Reserve at the same spot, and appeared to be the product of a tree 
immediately above them. 

Our material of Yatica Wallichii is as follows : — 

Province Wellesley. In the Tasek Gelugor Forest Reserve, with 
fruit, in September 1921, BurTcill 6-599! 

Pexaxg. Without precise locality, Wallich Cat. 9018! 

Perak. Ulu Sapetang, with young fruit in Feb. 1909, ill. Hashim 
228!; Larut, within 100 ft. of sea level in dense jungle, 
with young fruit in January 1884, King's Collector 
54231; on low hills, with fruit in February. 1#84, King's 
Collector 5546!; Briah upon the Larut plain, with young 
fruit in December 1892, Wray 4223!; banks of the Ber- 
nam river at 30'0-400 ft., with young fruit, in April 1886, 
King's Collector 8857! 

Pahaxg. Temerloh, with fruit in November 1921, Awang Lela 
5 470 !; Kuantan in the Baloh Forest Reserve, with fruit 
in March 19i20, Yeob 873! ; Kelebor near Kuala Rompin, 
with fruit in April 19£H, Bidin 4182! 

Selaxgor. Kelamber Forest Reserve near Klang, in swamp with 
fruit in September 1919, Ham id and Yeol), 3295! 

Malacca. Without locality, in flower and with young fruit, Main- 
gay 201!; Snngei TJdang, with fruit in -July, 1894, Good- 
enough 1968! 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NOTES ON DIPTEROCABPS. 277 

Johore. Kuala Sembrong, with fruit in October 1892; Lake and 
Kelsall! ; Kota Tinggi, on the riverside, with fruit in 
December 1892, Ridley! 

Singapore. Kranji with fruit in 1893,' Goodenuugh ! ; Changi, 
with flowers and detached fruit in May 1889, Good- 
enougli! ; in flower and with half ripe fruit in April 180S, 
Ridley 4740!, and with flowers and fruit in May 18*89, 
but fruit detached and may not be of this date, Ridley 
1839!; Toas with fruit in March 1S9i3, Goodenough 
50151; Tampinis road, with young fruit, in ( ? April) 
1893, Ridley 4739!; Botanic Gardens in flower March 
1916, November 1919, January 1921 and in fruit October 
1916, July 1921, Burkill 1077!, 1265!, 1267!, 1266!, 
1270!, 5969!, 5970!, 5971!, 5972!, 5973!, 64341, 6435!, 
64361 

Bangka. Without precise locality (the type of V. ruminata 
Burck) Teysmann! cult, in Hort. Bog. VII, c. -la with 
fruit, No. 204 ! and with flowers and fruits, van Flooten [ 

It is exceedingly probable that the following also belong to 
Vatica Wallicliii, but they lack fruit. 

Lower .Siam. Trang upon the bank of the river, in dense jungle,, 
with flowers in March 1881, Kunstler 1437! 

Province Wellesley. Nibong Tebal with flowers, in January 
1 900, Curtis 3458! (part of which is the type of V. ovali- 
folia, Eidl.). 

Perak. Larut in open jungle with flowers in September 1884,. 
King's Collector, 6594!, and in May 11884, King's Col- 
lector 6070!, 5763! 

Pahang. Kuantan, with flowers, in June 1921, Mohamad 3733! ; 
at the Chini Lake with flowers in April 1919, Lambak 
3173!; on the Eompin river in the Menchali Forest Re- 
serve, with flower in May 1919, Foxworthy 3232! 

Malacca. Sungei Udang with flowers in 18i92, Berry 961! 

Johore. Penyabong, with flowers in May 1918, Foxiuortlvy 1197 ! ; 
Skudai river with flowers in August 18 ! 7'9, King! ; Jaf- 
faria with flowers in August 1879, King! 

Singapore. Pulau Seletar in flower, 1892, Ridley 494® ! and in 
flower April 18>92, Ridley 6202!, and in 1891, Ridley 
6205! ; Chan Chu Ivang by a stream, in flower in October 
1892, Ridley 4449!; Changi in flower in May 188'9, Good- 
enough!; Tampinis in flower in April 1916, Burkill! 

Vatica Ridleyana is a species which occurs in a state of nature 
in the Botanic Gardens, Singapore, where it flowers and fruits at 
rather wide intervals. It may be that a specimen in the herbarium 
of the Eoyal Botanic Gardens, Calcutta, collected on Bukit Timah 
in Singapore island, is also Vatica Ridleyana, but as it is without 

E. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



278 NOTES ON DIPTEEOCAEPS. 

the characteristic fruits it is impossible to make sure of this: it 
was collected in 1894: in 1892 Mr. Ridley got the species on Bukit 
Mandai (No, 8943) and also at Changi (Nos. 4447! and 4448!), 
since which dates clearing has been extensive; and the tree has 
not been recognised in recent years outside the Botanic Gardens. 
In the Gardens there are several individuals. The tallest is in 
area N, tree No. 79'5 : the second tree No. 815 in area V, and 
others are in area U and V. It is not a tree of lowlying ground ; 
and its large fruits sink at once in water. Such distribution as 
they get must be by being rolled along the floor of the forest or 
(and this is the usual distribution of many forest trees of the 
second rank) by transport through small distances by animals 
seeking food. 

Tree No. 79'5 in the Botanic Gardens is about 10'0 feet high. 
Its trunk is 6i2 l in. in circumference at breast height: the bark is 
medium grey. The spread of the branches is about 30 feet from 
the trunk, the lower 60 feet of which are straight smooth and 
branchless. 

The flower drawn above was produced by tree 815 in January 
1921; and fruits were not ripe until the following November. 
They fell very deliberately through three months or more. 




Fig. 8. A half ripe fruit of Vatica moluccana, Burck, showing the 
•development of the reflexed calyx. The fruit is figured to illustrate a 
stage in the series of species connecting Vatica Wallichii with Vaticas of 
the section Eetinodendron. 

The fruit, of Vatica Ridleyana, if elongated, is always turned 
to one side as drawn; but tree No. 815 produces longer fruits by 
% in. than tree No. 796, in which the apex is nearly straight. The 
leaves have glandular patches just as those of Vatica Wallichii. 

These glands are slightly concave, and carry brown hairs. 

The spongy parenchyma of the lower surface of the leaf gives 
place over their area to something denser. No excretion has been 
observed to occur on them; but probably there is one. 

Pack ynocar pus umbonatus, by the view taken here, is the tree 
of Borneo sent by Barber to Sir William Hooker at Kew, — cer- 
tainly the fruiting part of the specimens, but not quite so certainly 
the flowering part. These flowering branches show thinner leaves 
with less prominent veins than any peninsular specimen which 
we ascribe to the genus. And as leaves so thin seem to be within 
the range of variation of the leaves of Vatica Wallichii; and as 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NOTES ON DIPTEROCAKPS. 279 

dried flowers offer no character by which the two can be distin- 
guished, it is well not to state dogmatically yet that P. umbonatus 
and P. Stapfianus are distinct species. 

Pachynocarpus verrucosus, (Burck) Heim, described upon a 
specimen from Sungei Landak in Borneo, north east of Pontianak, 
collected by Teysmann, will probably be united with one of the 
•other species when fully studied. 

Pachy no carpus Stapfianus is like Vatica Ridleyana a tree of 
rising laud. The result is that flowering herbarium specimens un- 
.authenticated by fruits, if from the interior of the Peninsula, are 
more likely to be it than the similar Vatica Wallichii. We know 
it to occur in the Siamese Malay States, Penang, Perak, Selangor, 
:and Pahang. King's Collector records it as 8O-1O0 ft. high, with 
a girth up to 3 ft. As it occurs at Bangi, Selangor, it is a tree 
38 ft. 2 in. high, and 3 ft. 1 in. in girth at breast height. The 
height to the first branch is 6 ft. -1 in., and the girth just below the 
first branch 2 ft. 11 in. The spread of the crown is 2:6 ft. 1 in. 

We have not measurements of any other trees. Its leaves in 
most ca-es dry dark as in some specimens of Vatica Wallichii, so 
that by their colour there is no means of separating the two when 
•dry. Of the flower in life we are not able to give a figure. We 
have records of flowering in July and October in different places 
and different years : and of fruiting in January, February, April 
:and July. 

The fruit when half ripe is acute to blunt; and when fully 
ripe by the rounding of the fertile loculus becomes globose and 
generally loses the minute apiculus representing the style. It has 
not the dimensions ascribed to it by Sir George King in any of 
the type specimens but is about one inch long. The calyx is ad- 
herent through ^-f of the length of the' fruit. It and the exposed 
surface of the carpellary wall above it are lenticellate, sometimes 
little, i-ometijmes much. The tip of the sepals persists and is free 
until the fruit is half ripe, then it generally falls off. The months 
when fruit is most likely to be found are March, April and May. 

The embryo is quite unlike that of Vatica Wallichii. The 
•outer cotyledon is half -wrapped half -folded round the placentar 
^cotyledon ; and both reach the apex of the fruit cavity : 




9 ^-^ to 

Figs. 9 and 10, the embryo of Pachynocarpus stapfianus ? nat. size. 

Our material of Pachynocarpus Stapfianus is as follows : — 

Lower Siam. T'apli Klong Wan towards the Tenasserim border 
in fruit in March 1919, Ilamicl 37 Si! 

R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



280 NOTES ON DIPTEBOCAEPS. 

Kedah. Lankawi island, at Sungei Batu Asah, in fruit February 
1911, Mohamed Haniff 15553! 

Pexaxg. Telok Bahang, at 500 ft., with fruits in July, 1888, 
Curtis 1161 in one part!; Batu Feringgi in fruit with- 
out any date, Forest Guard,! ; Government Hill at 500 
ft., with flowers in February 1881, Curtis 1161 in the 
other part!, and in April 1890, with flower and fruit in 
March 1900 (obviously date of flowering; date of fruit 
uncertain) Curtis A!: Bukit Penara, with flowers and 
detached fruit, in March, Curtis 1391 I 

Perak. Larut, in open jungle at 300-850 ft, in April 1885,. 
King's Collector 7466! ; Gopeng in open jungle, in April 
1884, King's Collector 5932!, and in open jungle with 
fruit in May 1884, King's Collector 6132!, September 
188'5, King's Collector 8186! near the Bernam river at 
300-400 ft. with fruit in April 1886, King's Collector 
8857! 

Selaxgok. Bangi, with fruit in Januarv 1920 and with flower in 
October 19i21, Forest Guard Ahmat 5008! 

Pahaxg. Baloh Forest Eeserve, Kuantan District, in fruit in 
March 1919, Forest Guards Yeop and Abdul Rahim 3145! 
(a condition having the fruit so covered with lenticels that 
it appears different, and it is possible that when more 
fully known it will have to be distinguished.) 

Flowering specimens which seem to be P achy no car pus Stap- 
fianus but cannot be assigned to it positively are King's collector's- 
Xo. 6594 from Larut, 500-800 ft., with flowers in September 1881, 
his Xo. 5763 from Gopeng with flowers in April 1881, his Xo. 6070 
from Gopeng, with flowers in May 1884, Curtis' Xo. 1218 from 
Sungei Penang Eoad at 1,000 ft. (doubtless the more western Sungei. 
Penang of the two in the island of Penang) ; another collected 
by Curtis, without number, in September 1887, from the Experi- 
mental Xursery at 2,000 ft. on Government Hill, Penang, and a 
third with flowers in August 1880 ; King's collector's further 
specimens from the Bernam river bearing his number S75'3, having- 
been got in flower in April 1886 ; and lastly Barnes' Xo. 10872 
from Kluang Terbang at 5,000 ft. on Gunong Benom, Pahangy 
with buds. 

Maisak is the Siamese name for this tree, and it is a Eesak 
to the Malays. Eesak laru is a name from Kuantan and also from 
Penang. 

Our conclusion is that Pachynocarpus stands with two or 
possibly three species, i.e. P. umbonatus, Hook, f., possibly Pi 
verrucosus, Burck, and P. Stapfiianus, King; but that P. umbonatus 
must be collected again to remove some doubt as to the correct 
identification of the flowering specimens with the fruit. The rest 
of the species put by various authors into the genus go to Yatica. 



Notes on Dipterocarps. 



No. 7. On the fruit and germination of 
Isoptera borneensis. 



By I. H. Burkill. 

Isoptera borneensis, ScherY., is a tree which yields much of the 
Tangkawang fat produced in Malaya. Borneo, where its extension 
is through the island, is the centre of its distribution: eastwards 
it reaches Mindanao and westwards the Malay Peninsula, Bangka 
and south Sumatra. It is a large, but apparently not a very large 
tree. Its habitat is the margins of rivers of moderate size. Into 
their waters it drops is fruits, and they are distributed by them. 

The following is a figure of the fruit in the position in which 
it floats, the buoyant sepals upwards. 




Fig. 1. A seed of Isoptera borneensis, in the position in which it 
floats. */•> nat. size. 

Deprived of the corky sepals, the fruits within 60 hours, 
sink however dry at the starting of the experiment. 

In Note no. -L of this series (Journ. Straits branch Koy. As. 
Soc. no. 81, 1920, p. 75) an account was given of the floating fruit 
*of Vatica Wallicliii, Dyer (Paehynocarpus Wallichii, King) wherein 
the buoyant tissue is the fruit-wall, i.e. the same end is attained, 
but by different means. 

It is not possible to regard water-distribution as in any way 
ancestral in the order; but. it appears in Vatica as an ultimate 
modification at the end of a series which has lost the advantage 
of height and thereby lost the wind that does not reach a small 
tree deep in high forest: and it would seem to be connected with 
fruiting before the tree is of any great height in Isoptera borneensis; 
for the tree commences to fruit at the early age of six years (fide 
van Eomburgh and Eidley). But though Vatica Wallicliii and 
Isoptera borneensis use water as. a means for the distributing of 
their seeds they have little else in common, being wide apart in 
their order. 

The embryo of Isoptera borneensis is very like that of some 
Shoreas, say of 8. oostata, in being grooved down the sides and in 
•end-view, as figured here; but both its cotyledons reach the apex 
of the fruit-cavity, though the outer is so much the larger that it 
possesses anything from 240 to 280 degrees of the circumference 
at the equator of the seed. 

Jour. Straits Branch R. A. Soc, Xo. 86 1922. 



2S2 NOTES ON DIPTEROCARPS. 



Fig. 2. Embryo of Isoptera borneensis seen from the end showing 
the outer cotyledon folded over the placentar cotyledon. y 2 liat. size. 

The vitality of the seed is not great. The fruit floats and 
germinates floating if the purpose of floating has not been achieved' 
by a stranding in some new spot. Probably the end of germinated 
floating fruits arrives very quickly and the seedling perishes: it is 
heavier than water, and falling from the fruit sinks. 

In germination the fruit -wall ruptures at no constant place, 
but in response to the pressure of the variable young plant within 
and not at any weak lines in the wall. Here are four diagrams 




Figs. 3 — 6. Diagrams of the position of the cracking of the fruit- 
wall in the germination of the seed of Isoptera borneensis. No. 3 is the 
most usual way. No. 4 is not uncommon being No. 3 as it were incom- 
plete; No. 5 is No. 4 oblique,; No. 6 is the reverse of No. 3. 

showing the cotyledons in transverse section: the outer cotyledon 
in germination has a tendency to flatten' itself, which tendency 
pushes chiefly right and left, and is fortified by a similar tendency 
in the inner or placentar cotyledon; this results further in a second 
direction of pressure, — towards the part of the wall where the 
placenta is, i.e. upwards in the diagrams. Under these pressures 
the wall gives way, first as a rule on the right and on the left, 
and either later near the placenta, or (diagram 4) not at all. The 
commonest form of splitting is that in diagram 3, the third, last 
and often not extensive, crack being close against one side of the 
attachment of the placenta to the wall. 

In diagram 5 is a case where the lobes of the placentar 
cot}dedon were unequal and the splitting unusually oblique. 

If the fruit is split into two, as in diagram 4, the two parts 
are nearly halves. Here are approximate measurement in degrees 
of. a circle of six fruits split into. two: — 

173° 

-I Qty placenta attached about the middle of the smaller part.. 

180° 
^ n o placenta attached about the middle of one of the parts.. 



180' 
189" 



placenta attached about the middle of the larger part. 

Jour. Straits Branoa 



NOTES ON DIPTEROCARPS. 283 

9 01 ° 

-jkqo placenta attached about the middle of the larger part.. 



187° 
173° 

180° 
180° 



do. 



placenta attached at 45° from the centre of one half. 



When the fruit wall is split into three parts after the manner 
of diagram 3, ascertained measurements were 

120°^136° 124° i \112° 125° y \110° 

84^ 124 u 125° 

138°^84° 162°^93° 131°j^l20 c 

• 138° 105° ioy° 

It is easy to understand what happens in these seeds from 
these few measurements. Take the diagrams, which have purposely 
been oriented for the sake of this explanation; the pressure of the 
embryo is greater transversely than in any other direction and 
results in the giving way of the fruit-wall at either side : if the 
giving way occurs at points more or less diametrically opposite, 
the pressure needs no further cracking: but if the first cracks 
appear rather to the lower side of the diagrams, then the embryo 
continuing to grow produces a new crack more or less mid way 
upon the larger part, that is generally in the neighbourhood of the 
attachment of the placenta. If as in diagram 6 the crack is too 
much to the upper side then a third crack must appear upon the 
lower or larger part to allow of the germination proceeding. I 
measured only two fruits of this type and I found them: — 

106 97 

127Y127 146Y117 

This method of fruit-splitting, easy to demonstrate in Isotoma 
bomeensis, is characteristic of the greater part of the order. It 
is not dehiscence, for the product of fertilisation in the order never 
ceases growing from the moment of fertilisation to the time when 
the produced plant dies: the embryo grows into the seed and 
devours its albumen, which done it is normally cast from the parent 
tree, not quiescent as so many seeds are, but still growing, and in 
the course of its growth it ruptures the fruit-wall as described. 
Under abnormal conditions it may not be cast from the parent 
tree, and then germinates suspended (van Eomburgh). 

If only we knew the workings of the process by which the 
tree cuts off nutriment from its offspring, we should know the 
strength of the barrier preventing vivipary from being anything 
but a phenomenon exhibited by few and peculiar Phanerogams. 

R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



-284 NOTES ON DIPTEROCARPS. 

As far as is known, it is universal for the Dipterocarps to 
possess in the ovary three chambers and six ovules, two in each : 
one ovule only in all -normal eases matures. One flower only, shall 
we say, in 10,000 matures fruit. It is remarkable then, that the 
production of the six ovules to each flower should be so constant, 
and it suggests an ancestry which had not winged fruits as so many 
modern Dipterocarps have, because six seeds carried away together 
■on the wind would be too heavy a load for -efficient wind-distribution 
and, settled together, would compete unprontably. Wind-distri- 
bution appears, therefore, a less ancient phenomenon than their six 
ovules, but yet it is so general as to be characteristic of the order. 
It is easiest to consider it as eo-aeval in the order with its separ- 
ation from something more ancient, and to consider the absence 
of it to be subsequent or secondary. Isotoma has lost it, — has 
taken to water-distribution as an alternative. Vatica Wallichii has 
done the same. Some species of Shorea such as S. Thiseltoni, 
some of Dwxjobalanops, some of Vatica, the species of Balaflocarpus, 
and the species of P achy no carpus hold their own producing fruits 
Aery heavy for wind to lift them, and are distributed through small 
-distances by being rolled or carried along the floor of the forest. 
They too have lost their wings. If we think of the evolution of the 
-order as suggested it is of the greatest importance to understand that 
the splitting of the fruit-wall is not along definite lines, that is to 
say there is in it no sign of a pre-Dipterocarp dehiscent condition 
when six seeds might mature and need for the sake of efficiency that 
they be scattered singly. 

Against this line of argument it has to be admitted that some 
species of the genus Vatica possess weak lines in the walls of 
their fruits where rupture occurs. The lines seem tertiary how- 
ever, and are being studied. 

The cotyledons of Isotoma borneensis contain chlorophyll in 
abundance before germination, and on germination are exposed to 
to the light and held, like the cotyledons of most species of Shorea, 
npon short petioles. 



Notes on Dipterocarps. 



No. 8. On some large-fruited species, and in particular 

upon the effects of the pressure of the embryo 

against the interior of the fruit-wall. 



By I. H. Buekill. 

Dipterocarps with large fruits that are not wind-distributed 
occur in the genera DryooaJanops, Shorea, Balanocarpus, Vatica, 
Pacliynocarpus and Valeria. By the kindness of Dr. F. W. Fox- 
worthy, I have had material of some of them for study, and one 
Balanocarpus maxim us, King, was the subject of Note no. 5 of this 
series (Jour. Str. Br. Roy. As. Soc. no. 81, 1920, p. 3')c I am 
adding in this note observations upon Shorea Tliiseltoni, King, and 
Vatica Ridley ana, Brandiis, and also a few remarks upon a 
Dryobalanops which has the Malay name of " Koladan." 

The weight of a fruit of Shorea Tliiseltoni from the Weld Hill 
Forest Reserve, Kuala Kumpur, is found to be about 5.5 grammes; 
that of Vatica Eidleyana from tree no. 815 in the Botanic Gardens,. 
Singapore, about 12.5 grammes. Neither is wind-distributed: but 
falls to the floor of the forest where it may be carried through 
small distances by rolling or bv animals. 






Fig. 1, a fruit of Shorea Tliiseltoni; figs. 2 and 3, fruits of Vatiea 
Bidleyana. All % nat. size. 

Slw?*ea Tliiseltoni as one of a small number of species in the- 
genus whose seeds contain oil as well as starch. That having been 
noticed, an analysis was requested from the Department of Agri- 
culture, Federated Malay States and Straits Settlements, and 
kindly made through the good offices of Mr. L. Lewton-Brain by 
Mr. R. 0. Bishop. The following is his report on seeds submitted 
to him from the Weld Hill Forest Reserve. " A certain number 
of the kernels were found to be mouldy and were excluded: the 
remainder were sampled and dried. The dry kernels were extracted 
for oil-content. The residue from oil extraction was examined 
for albuminoids and ash. Results: — 



Jour. Straits Branch R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



~286 



NOTES ON DIPTEEOCABPS. 



. . 34.8 per cent 

..19.5 (29.9 on dry kernel) 

..0.72- (4.5 albuminoids) 

.. 1.56 



Kernel. Moisture 

Oil . . . 

Nitrogen 

Ash .. 

Dry residue after oil extraction 

Nitrogen . . . . 1.33 per cent (8.3 per cent albuminoid) 

Ash 2.87 

Organic and volatile 97.13 

The oil immediately after extraction was liquid and with a 
green colour. It solidified on standing overnight and had the 
appearance of a tallow with a distinct odour of cocoa butter. The 
fat was found to have a verv low acid value, the actual fio-ure being 
0.83." 

The embryo has its cotyledons slightly unequal as in the 
following drawings where two are seen from the placentar side: 
the outer cotyledon is seen to be by a little the larger and alone to 
reach the very apex of the fruit-cavity. Great irregularity was 
found in the embryo: for instance in figure 4 one lobe of the 
placentar cotyledon is crossed partially to the wrong side of the 
dissepiment , and in figure 9 the two cotyledons are seen to be 




Figures 4 and 5. Two embryos of Shorea TMseltoni removed from the 
seed coats. No. 4 is slightly abnormal in that one or the lobes of the 
placentar cotyledon has trespassed upon the room of the other lobe. % 
nat. size. 

uneven. Normal expanded cotyledons are as in figures 6 and 7: 
in outline they are quite typical of the genus Shorea. Figures 8 
and 9 represent the seedling, figure 8 a normal individual, — but 






Figures 6 and 7, the expanded cotyledons of a seedling, No. 6 is the 
placentar cotyledon seen from the side towards the outer cotyledon; fig. 
7 is the outer' cotyledon from outside. Figures 8 and 9 two seedlings, the 
latter abnormal as a result of injury (? insect-puncture) at the point of 
the arrow. All y 2 nat. size. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NOTES ON DIPTEKOCARPS. '287 

figure 9 one in which a lobe of the outer cotyledon has suffered 
injury (the arrow indicates the place), and its arrested growth has 
given the other lobe and the lobe of the placentar cotyledon in 
contact an opportunity for expansion beyond the normal. That 
this should happen is indicative of the pressure set up within the 
fruit, — the pressure which continued is also the cause of the rup- 
ture of the fruit-wall in germination, however at that period with 
a small amount of altered tension, due to the outer layer of the 
fruit wall contracting in drying somewhat more than the inner. 

In my study of germinating Dipterocarps I have found no 
exactly similar case of a tendency in the ruptured fruit to gape 
and therefore it must be described in detail. The lines of rupture 
are variable in place, as in Isotoma (vide this Journal above) and* 
are quite clearly brought about by the pressure of the growing 
embryo; but when they have been produced, the drying of the 
outer layer of the fruit-wall continues the tearing and causes the 
split wall to assume the appearance which is represented in figures 
12, 13 and 11. This is not a hygroscopic action; and therefore 
no soaking of the seed brings the edges of the gaping crack together. 
Obviously it greatly facilitates the escape of the young plant from 
the imprisoning fruit-wall. 





Figures 10 and 11, sections through the fruit of Shorea Thiseltoni, 
showing the packing of the cotyledon-lobes, and the places where in these 
cases the fruit-wall was split. 

The fruit of Shorea Thiseltoni germinates without resting, 
and in germination the lines of splitting commence at the apex of 
the fruit, and extend downwards. The most usual course of 
events is for there to be three splits, and for two of them to 
extend to the base, whereon a panel of the fruit-wall is free and 
forced out. This panel is usually rather less than one third of the 
•circumference: but there is great variability. The variability is 
accompanied by a great variability in the relative size of the lobes 
of the two cotyledons; and may be considered as a consequence of 
it, as has been suggested in the note upon Isotoma oomeensis; and 
the most unusual forms of splitting were found to occur with 
unusual twisting or unequal development in the cotyledons. 

The fruits sink in water, and may germinate submerged;* 
•doubtless if such should happen in nature germination would be 

* Lewkowitsch, (Chemical technology and analysis of Oils, Fats and 
Waxes, ii, London, 1914, p. 601) has a statement that submersion of the 
fruits of Dipterocarps is resorted to in Borneo in the preparation of Tang- 
kawang oil because it prevents germination. This reason appears wholly 
incorrect: but submersion by killing the caterpillars and grubs which so 
freely devour the embryo within the fruits may prevent loss in manu- 
facture. 

R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



288 



NOTES ON DIPTEROCARPS. 



followed very quickly by death. An experiment was made with 
six fruits in order to see if submergence inhibited the splitting of 
the fruit wall : apparently it did not ; for all the six germinated in 
six days under water. The splitting is the work of the germinat- 
ing young plant pushing itself free. 






Figures 12, 
of gaping. 



13 and 14. Three empty fruits showing various degrees 



The petioles of the cotyledons elongate in germination so 
much as to attain 2-7 cm. pushing the radicle out to the soil before 
they free themselves from the fruit-wall. They possess abundant 
chlorophyll. 

Leaving Shorea Thiseltoni. attention will now be directed to 
Vatica Bidleyana, Brandis. 

This species grows wild in the Botanic Gardens, Singapore. 
It flowered in Januar}", 1921, and bore ripe fruits from near the 
end of the year into the first quarter of 1922; — flowering had lasted 
a couple of weeks, but fruit-fall lasted three months. The con- 
siderable weight of the fruits has already been remarked: it 
remains to call attention to the circumstance that their growth 
from flowering to maturity takes twice as long as that of the- 
smaller and closely allied V. Wallichii. 




Figure 15. A seedling of Vatica Bidleyana in germination, the stalks 
of the cotyledons pushing the plantlet into the soil. The outer cotyledon 
is towards the observer; above it a little of the placental- cotyledon is 
visible. Figure 16, the placentar cotyledon from the surface in contact 
with the outer cotyledon. Figure 17, the outer cotyledon from outside- 
All % mat. size. 

The placeutar cotyledon is the larger and fills the lower part 
of the fruit-cavity to the exclusion of the outer cotyledon; but it 
shares equally the upper part of the cavity. The result is that 
its bulk is nearly twice that of the outer cotyledon. In Balanocar- 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NOTES ON DIPTEKOCAKPS. 289 

pus maximus the placentar cotyledon occupies the basal part of the 
cavity of the fruit and the outer cotyledon the apical; and they are 
of nearly equal bulk : in Vatica Wallichii, they are also of nearly 
•equal bulk and they share the fruit-cavity equally, but side by side 
instead of as in Balano carpus the one above the other: but in 
Vatica Ridleyana with inequality, the placentar cotyledon occupies 
the basal and shares the apical part. 

There is enwraping neither in Vatica Ridleyana nor in Vatica 
Wallichii; and the cells in both are gorged with starch. The young 
plant after emergence is singularly similar in the two, the leaves are 
exactly alike, even to the 6-8 large glands upon the lower surface 
at the looping of the veins, surrounded by 'the {richest green, of 
chlorophyll. Unlike the fruits of Vatica Wallichii, the fruits of 
Vatica Ridleyana do not float in water, not even if dried. 

In germination the fibrous fruit-wall splits from the apex 
downwards along pre-determined lines, possibly along one line to its 
base and for a short way only along others: the radicle is thrust 
out by the elongation of the petioles of the cotyledons, as in Vatica 
Wallichii, Chorea robusta, the genus Dipt ero carpus. The blad'es 
of the cotyledons never leave the fruit-cavity, but develop a little, — 
very little — chlorophyll where they become exposed to the light. 

The lines where the fruit-wall is split in germination, can be 
seen beforehand upon the outer side of the fruit, as they are 
depressed and free from the elsewhere abundant lenticels. The 
fruit-wall is thinner at them and the cell-structure differs. 

These lines are usually three, but may be four and may be 
five in number. In studying the flower when it was available in 
January, 1921, (see this Journal 1 p. 276), five-locular ovaries were 
not observed ; but as their presence was not suspected, no search 
was made for them : it was onty when, twelve months later, the 
fruit was ripe that their existence was suggested by finding five 
lines of splitting in a small percentage of the fruits. 

Out of 263 fruits, 201 had three lines, 57 had four lines, and 
5 had five lines. 

It is most interesting that when the fruit shows four depressed 
lines upon the outside, three only as a rule are burst open, so that 
out of 17 fruits with four lines,, set to germinate together, 15 were 
split along three and 2 only along four lines. Of the first fifteen 
in 13 the line which was not split, was that close to the placenta. 

Four fruits with five depressed lines, set to germinate at the 
same time likewise became split along three only of the lines, and 
again a line not split was that closest to the placenta. 

That these lines are the places where the carpels are connate 
into the ovary admits of doubt because in fruits with four lines, the 
placenta is rarely central upon any one of the valves. The develop- 
ment must be followed out to demonstrate that it is as one would 
expect. The fruit-wall is composed of brown parenchymatous cells, 
white sclerenchyma fibres and a margin of cork with numerous 
powdery lenticels. 

R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



•290 NOTES ON DIPTEROCARPS. 

The sclerenehvma fibres are in bundles of 8-3'0 and anastomose : 
but not across the lines where the fruit-wall is ruptured. In their 
absence at these spots lies the weakness which associated with a 
slightly lesser thickness, locates the rupture of the dead tissues 
under the pressure of the growing seedling within. 

A comparative study of the distribution of these sclerenehvma 
fibres in the fruit-wall of the Dipterocarps, and above all of their 
relationship to the way in which the young plant makes it way out, 
seems to be most desirable; but it will be a long time before suffi- 
cient material for it can be got together. 

Before the fruit-wall gives way, the growing embryo has 
endured a period of compression: and if the distribution of the 
pressure is made abnormal, it stows itself in a modified way. 
Insect-punctures and other forms of injury to the fruit-wall change- 
this pressure: and a slightly greater resistance to being pushed 
against the wall in the placentae of the tree 815 appears to be the 
force which leads to so many of that tree's fruits curving as in 
figure 2 above. In these curved fruits the placenta is along the- 
less convex side, and the dorsal cotyledon almost always just ex- 
cludes the placentar from the apex of the fruit cavity. In a more- 
or less straight fruit the embrvo in side view is thus : — 




both cot}dedons reaching the apex, but the placentar alone the base.. 
But with the pressure abnormal and particularly if the injury has 
passed through the fruit wall reaching the embryo as for instance 
a Hemipteron's tongue is generally meant to do, various changes 
affecting sometimes one side, sometimes another side of the embryo., 
appear; the embryo may then be unilateral or the dorsal cotyledon 
may have lost position or the placentar coyledon as in the two 
further diagrams here following. In the one the placentar coty- 
ledon seems to have sustained a set back; and in the other the 



dorsal, the results of which have been in the one to produce an em- 
bryo closely similar to that of Vatica Wallichii (see Jour. Str. Br. 
Roy. As. Soc. no. 81, p. 76, figures 2'09-212), and in the other an 
embryo suggesting somewhat that of Balanocarpus maximus (see p. 
4 of the same). 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NOTES OX DIPTEEOCAEPS. 



291 



The lesson to which these observations seems to point, is that 
the embryo of Dipterocarps possesses a considerable amount of 
plasticity. 

This note closes with a few remarks upon the Malayan 
Dryobalanops known as " Koladan/' * a member of its genus which 
uses the wind in no way for the transport of its fruits. They are 
as here drawn, and in germination the wall is split along three lines 





Figure 18. A fruit of Koladan, showing an obliquity by no means 
uncommon, the placentar side being smaller than the other/ Figure 19 
the same seen from the end showing which of the cracks usually it 
forced open the most: the placenta is uppermost. 

in exactly the same way as in Dryobalanops aromatica. The 
embryo is further as in that species (vide No. 4, Jour. Straits 
Branch Roy. As. Soc., No. 81, 1920, p, 56) and so also is the young 
seedling. It was not remarked of that species; but may now be 
remarked after stucling Koladan somewhat, that the seedling has a 
great tendency to force rupture along two lines and to come to the 
light by pushing aside a panel of the wall which is diametrically 
•opposite to the placenta. 




Figure 20. A seedling of "Koladan" in the position in which is 
throws off its seedcoats and the fruit wall. 

Figure 21 shows the fruit wall in broken dotted lines imposed over 
an outline of a seedling in germination to indicate where the greatest 
pressure appears to occur. 

* Dryobalanops sp. — Koladan, Foxworthy in Malayan Science Bulletin, 
vol. I, 1921, p. 76. 



-R A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



New and Rare Malayan Plants, 

Series XII. 



By H. N. Eidley. 

The forest of the Malay Peninsula still continues to supply to 
the botanist many new and interesting species: and it will doubtless 
be many years before it becomes difficult to add to the list of our 
flora. The following additions continue the series published in the 
Journal of the Straits Branch of the Boyal Asiatic Society. Some 
of them are of plants collected by myself in Selangor, and in a short 
but productive excursion to Bukit Tangga in Xegri Sembilan in 
December 1920, and to the Semangkok Pass in January 1921. 
Others were collected by Mr. H. C. Eobinson, C. B. Kloss and Mr. 
Seimund in various parts of the Peninsula. 

The Bukit Tangga locality is 14 miles from Seremban where 
there is a small rest house situated at the top of the pass to Jelebu. 
The hill behind the bungalow rises to about 2,400 feet elevation 
and is densely afforested to the top. Although generally speaking 
this area has a flora closely resembling that of the Selangor hills, 
it contained quite a number of novelties which are certainly absent 
from Selangor. Many years ago Mr. Cantley had a collector in 
this district and it was probably near here that he obtained a 
number of plants never since collected. 

POLYGALACEAE. 

Polygala (Chamaebuxus) pulchra, Hassk. Flor. XXY. .142. 
Beibl. 32. 

A slender woody shrub about 4 feet tall. Leaves membranous 
thin, oblong-lanceolate; nerves slender, 9 pairs; 8 in. long, 3 in. 
wide; petiole .25 in. long. Eacemes short, about 1 in. long, 
pendulous. Sepals 2, outer ones short, one saccate ovate acute, 
tin 1 other smaller ovate, green petaloid. Sepals ovate round, .25 in. 
• long. Petals 2, short, oblong blunt ; keel 4-lobed, fleshy, not 
crested. All white tinted yellow. Capsule obovoid orbicular, 
deeply refuse, not winged except at the tip, green tipped purple or 
nearly all purple violet, .2 in. long, .3 in. wide. Seed subglobose, 
aril scarlet. 

Uab. In hill Avoods, Xegri Sembilan, Bukit Tangga, Ridley. 
Selangor, Giirtiug Bidai, Ridley. Also in Java and Sumatra. 

This species is quite distinct, especially in life, from P. vene- 
nosa in its slender woody stem, its thinner leaves, short racemes not 
elongating to 5 inches long or more, the smaller flowers with small 
obovate rounded petaloid sepals and the smaller capsule not winged 
along the sides. It is not so striking a plant as the great succulent 
P. venenosa so common and conspicuous in our forests, nor are the 
flowers so brightly coloured in spite of its name. 

Jour. Straits Branch. 



NEW AND BARE MALAYAN PLANTS. 293 

MELIACEAE. 

Turraea breviflora Ridley, n. sp. 

A glabrous shrub. Leaves thin membranous, alternate, lanceo- 
late acuminate cuspidate, narrowed and cuneate at the base, nerves 
about 10 pairs distinct beneath; 6.5 in. long, 2 in. wide; petiole .3 
in. long. Flowers 3 or 4 on a very short .1 in. long axillary pubes- 
cent raceme, green; pedicels very short. Bracts minute ovate. 
Sepals connate at base with 5 short acute points. Petals 5, linear 
blunt, .25 in. long. Stamen-tube stout cylindric, shorter than 
petals with rather long filaments alternating with the anthers from 
the top of the tube ; anthers elliptic 10, sessile with a long terminal 
process. Disc short and thin, lining the base of the tube. S 4 tyle 
rather stout, hairy. Stigma capitate. Ovary conic hairy. 

Hab. In woods; not common. Singapore, Serangoon, Ridley 
9114; Selangor, Ulu Selangor, Goodenougli T0612; Ranching, 
on limestone rocks, Ridley. 

This species is very unlike the others of the genus in its very 
short green flowers, but there are a few in Africa which resemble it 
to some extent. The fruit has not been collected and till it is 
known it would be better to leave this plant in the genus Turroea 
.to which at least it is nearest. 

RHAMNACEAE. 

Zizyphus pernettyoides Ridley, n. sp. 

A spiny creeper with slender stems covered with scattered 
brown hairs. Leaves ovate acuminate, base round obscurely crenu- 
late, coriaceous sparsely hairy on the edge, nerves 3, prominent and 
reticulations conspicuous when dry; .5 in. long, .25 in wide; 
petiole very short hairy, spines straight slender .25 in. long. 
Flowers .1 in. wide, greenish yellow in axillary fascicles .of three 
in upper axils; pedicels very short .1 in. long. Sepals 5, triangular 
ovate with a few long hairs at the tips. Petals 5, half as long, 
spoon-shaped, clawed with an elliptic blunt limb. Stamens 5, very 
slender wrapped in the petals. Disc fleshy filling the tube. Ovary 
sunk in the disc with 2 short stigmas. 

Hab. Lankawi, Dayang Bunting, Robinson 6193. Creeper; 
flowers greenish yellow, December 7, 1916. 

A remarkable little plant with the smallest leaves of any 
Zizyphus known to me. 

MYRTACEAE. 
Eugenia alata Ridley, n. sp. 

Tree, glabrous; branches 4-angled and winged in the upper 
part with 4 low wings along the angles. Leaves thinly stiff cori- 

■R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



294 NEW AND BARE MALAYAN PLANTS. 

aceous, elliptic acuminate cuspidate; nerves 14 pairs prominent 
beneath, secondaries nearly as prominent, intramarginal nerve .1 in. 
from the edge, midrib prominent beneath; 6 to 8 in. long, 2.5 to 5 
in. wide; petiole thick, grooved, above. Corymb compound, cymes 
4 in. long and wide. Flowers numerous, congested at the branch 
ends ; branches flattened, 4-angled. Calyx and pedicel club-shaped 
.2 in. long. Corolla small calyptrate. Stamens short and rather 
few. 

Hdb. Selangor, Semangkok Pass, track to Bukit Tegala, 
Ridley. 

The flowers were in young condition and may perhaps when 
fully developed be larger. In one tree the inflorescence bore 
numerous bodies like round flattened lobed fruits; these proved to 
be flowers aborted by a number of galls in the ovary. The petals 
appear to be completely joined together so that it belongs to the 
calyptrate section, the curiously angled and winged branches and 
inflorescence branches is different from any other species I have 
seen. 

ARALIACEAE. 

Trevesia rufo-setosa Eidley n. sp. 

A shrub with the habit of Trevesia sundaica Miq. Leaf pal- 
mate of seven lobes, base cordate, lobes more or less elliptic shortly 
cuspidate, edges undulate with short upcurved thorns, above 
glabrous except the nerves, and centre red-hairy and covered with 
small raised dots apparently hair bases ; nerves 9, two on the lowest 
lobes, whole about 12 inches long and wide, the lobes [cut down 
for 9 inches, and 3 to 4 inches wide, the lowest pair dilate on the 
lower edge at the base; petiole stout at the base and narrower up- 
wards, 2 feet long, densely covered with red brown bristly hairs 
nearly .2 in. long. Inflorescence 8 in. long, flexuous, s^out with 
a few short branches densely covered with similar hairs. Flowers 
unisexual on the same inflorescence .25 in. across with pedicels .4 
in. long in umbels subsessile on the branches. Bracts linear acu- 
minate caudate, very narrow .5 in. long. Catyx obconic densely 
red hairy; limb very short and obscure, lobed. Corolla stellate, 
spreading, lobes 5, triangular hairy beneath, coriaceous. Stamens 
5, glabrous; filaments thick at base as long as the corolla; anthers 
large ovate cordate. Style in female flowers rather tall cylindric; 
stigma, bifid with two short lobed oblong arms recurved. Ovary 
5-celled. 

Hob. Hill forests. Selangor, Semangkok Pass at 2500 feet 
alt., Ridley. 

Nearest to T. Beccarii Boerlage, of Sumatra; but the dense- 
indumentum of red brown hairs flattened at the base and acuminate 
covering the petiole and the whole of the inflorescence except the 
inner face of the petals, stamens, style and disc, is very distinct.. 
The few stamens, 5 only, is also unusual. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW AND BARE MALAYAN PLANTS. 295- 

RUBIACEAE. 

Tarenna calcarea Eidley, n. sp. 

A shrub with white shining branches. Leaves membranous 
ovate cuspidate with a long point drying black ; base cuneate ' r 
nerves 4 to 5 pairs; 4 to 5 in. long, 2 to 3 inches wide; petiole 1 
in. long, slender. Stipules short, broad, triangular with short 
points. Cymes 1.5 inches long, terminal, lax, few-flowered; pedun- 
cles .25 inches long. Bracts short lanceolate acute. Calyx very 
small under .05 in. long, cup-shaped with 5 short acute points. 
Corolla-tube cylindric, rather thick, .12 inches long, lobes oblong, 
blunt nearly as long; anthers acuminate nearly as long as the 
sepals. A little white hair at the base of the corolla-lobes. 

Hab. Limestone rocks. Perak, Ipoh, Ridley. 

Its set of Tarennas are somewhat cHosely allied and' this is- 
nearest to T. adangensis Eidley, but the leaves are larger and 
thinner and the corolla rather small, the throat being only sparsely 
white hairy. Nearly all of the set are inhabitants of limestone 
rocks and each area of limestone seems to have a distinct species or 
variety. 

Pavetta indica Linn. 

This species was based mainly on a drawing of Eheede's Hortus 
Malabaricus v. p. 19, t. 20. and in the Flora of British India, nearly 
all the Pavettas with large corymbs are put underneath Pavetta 
indica as the species intended by Linnaeus or as varieties of it. It 
seems to me however, that there are a good many distinct species 
included in Pavetta indica Hook, fil., Flora of British India ili.. 
p. 150. 

I make out the following species. 

Pavetta indica var. canescens. P. canescens, Wallich Cat. 6181,. 
Singapore. 

Bush; branches softly velvety hairy. Leaves thin, lanceolate 
narrowed to the base with the nerves and sometimes the whole leaf 
beneath softly thinly hairy 6 to 8 in. long, 1.75 to 3 in. wide; 
petiole 1 to 1.25 in. long. Corymbs 2 in. long, 3 in. wide on a 
peduncle 2 inches long or less, pubescent. Stipules ovate with a 
long terete point. Flowers white; pedicels slender .1 in. long, 
pubescent. Calyx very small, cup-shaped with very short points 
pubescent. Corolla-tube .5 in. long, slender, lobes oblong blunt,. 
.1 in. long. Style .6 in long. 

Hab. Singapore, Wallich ; Kranji, Eidley 2880. Malacca, 
Griffith. Negri Sembilan, Johol. Selangor, Ginting Sempah,. 
Robinson and Kloss. Perak, Gunong Hijau, Mohamed Haniff and 
Mohamed Nur, 2451, flowers shorter. Changkat Mentri, Kloss 
6510, nearly quite glabrous. 

R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



296 NEW AND RARE MALAYAN PLANTS. 

Var. typica. 

Similar but glabrous. Leaves smaller. Flowers shorter, co- 
rolla-tube much thicker. 

Hob. Pedis, Chuping, Ridley 14991. 

P. tomentosa Roxb. ex Smith in Eees Cyclop. XXVI. No. 2. 

P. indica var. tomentosa Hook. fil. Fl. Brit. Ind. iii. 150 

(in part). 

Shrub ; stem, underside of leaves and inflorescence densely soft 

velvety tomentose. Leaves thickly membranous drying black, above 

sparsely hairy; midrib tomentose elliptic-lanceolate, 3 to 5 inches 

long, 1.5 to 1.75 in. wide; nerves 9 pairs not distinct above; petiole 

1 inch long. Stipules ovate cuspidate, tomentose. Inflorescence 

on short lateral leafy branches and terminal, branches 3 inches 

long. Corymb 3 inches wide; pedicels rather slender, .25 in. long. 

Calyx small; limb short with 5 short acute points. All tomentose. 

'Corolla-tube .12 to .25 in. long; lobes oblong, subacute .1 in. long 

•or less. Fruit globose, .15 inches through when dry. 

Hob. Singapore, Changi. Johor, Batu Pahat and Sedenak. 
Malacca, Maingay, Griffith, Cuming 2304; near the town of 
Malacca, Ridley. 

Distrib. India. 

P. graciliflora Wall. Cat. 6178. P. petiolaris Wall. Cat. 6186. 

Glabrous shrub about 6 feet tall. Leaves thin, elliptic-lanceo- 
late cuspidate acuminate, base long narrowed; nerves 8 pairs in- 
arching well within the margin, 7 in. long, 2 inches wide; petiole 
slender .5 in. to 2 in. long. Stipules triangular blunt. Inflores- 
cence borne on lateral branches, 6 to 8 inches long, base except for 
a pair of leaves usually smaller at the top. Corymbs many flowered, 
3 to 4 in. wide, lax. Pedicels very slender, filiform .25 to .5 in. 
long. Calyx very small; limb cup-shaped Avith 5 minute points. 
Corolla pure white, tube slender, .75 in. long, lobes oblong blunt, 
narrow .12 in. long. Style .5 in. longer. Fruit globose pear- 
shaped, grey green to black, .25 in. through. 

Hab. Common in forests; a very pretty shrub. Malacca, 
Chabau forests, Griffith. Negri Sembilan, Bukit Tangga at 2000 
ft. alt., Ridley. Selangor, Menuang Gasing, Kloss; Sempang, 
Ridley 15663, a form with lanceolate leaves 4 in. long, .75 in. wide; 
Ointing Sempah, Ridley. Perak, Ulu Bubong, Kunstler 10202; 
Temengoh; Tapah. Penang, Wallich and Maingay. Ivelantan, 
Chaniug, Ridley. Kedah, Kedah Peak, Robinson and Kloss 6119. 

This species was referred by King to var. polyantha Hook, fil., 
— a distinct Indian plant. Wallich had a specimen from Finlayson 
in flower, No. 6178, and one from Penang in fruit 6186, and did not 
recognise them as the same thing. The plant varies chiefly in the 
size of the leaves. A plant obtained by me in Kelantan has leaves 
nearly 12 in. long, and 3.75 in. wide, and the pedicels are much 
shorter than in the type. 

Jour. Straits Branch ; 



NEW AND RARE MALAYAN PLANTS. 297 

P. pauciflora Eidley, n. sp. 

A small glabrous tree. Leaves thin, elliptic lanceolate, long 
acuminate, acute, long narrowed to the base ; nerves 6 pairs in- 
arching ; 4 to 6 in. long 1 , .5 to 1.5 in. wide; petiole slender, .5 in. 
long. -Stipules triangular, cuspidate. Corymb very lax, 1.5 in. 
long with three very slender branches one inch long bearing cymes 
of three or more flowers on filiform pedicels .5 in. long. Bracts at 
base of branches stipuliform rather large. Calyx-tube subglobose 
with 4 short lobes. Corolla white, tube very slender .5 in. 
long, lobes 4, oblong blunt, .2 in. long. Stamens as long; anthers 
linear twisted. Style projecting for .5 in. long. Stigma, gradually 
clavate. Fruit globose crowned with the tubular calyx. 

Hal). Dense forests on limestone rocks. Selangor, Batu 
Caves, Dec. W2i\, Ridley. 

Allied to P. graciliflora Wall, but differing in the lanceolate 
leaves with very much smaller cymes and fewer flowers, more 
slender and smaller, and anthers as long as the corolla-lobes. 

Psychotria lanceolaria Eidley, n. sp. 

Slender shrub, glabrous. Leaves lanceolate acuminate, long 
narrowed to the base, membranous; nerves 10 pairs, slender forming- 
bold arches within the margin, 6 in. long, 2 in. wide; petiole very 
slender 1.5 in. long. Stipules ovate acuminate, .12 in. long. Cyme 
1 in. wide and as long; peduncle .25 in. long; branches few and few 
flowered; bracts and branch bases large like the stipules. Flowers 
small on very short slender pedicels. Calyx cup-shaped with 4 
short ovate acute points. Corolla .1 in. long, tube longer than calyx 
silky within, lobes as long as tube oblong blunt. Fruit .2 in. long, 
globose, very obscurely 4-ridged. 

Hob. Selangor, Batu Caves, Eidley. 

Near P. riiinuti flora Eidley and rostrata but the larger flowers 
and differently shaped calyx distinguishes it from the former and 
the narrow leaves and more condensed cyme from the latter. 

Psychotrea atroviridis Eidley, n. sp. 

Shrub 12 in. tall; stem hairy. Leaves oblanceolate-obovate, 
coriaceous glabrous; midrib prominent, nerves 11 pairs prominent 
on both sides, 7 in. long, 4.25 in. wide; petiole .5 in. long, thick. 
Stipules oblong. Cymes 3, terminal 1 in. across. Peduncle 2 in. 
long. All puberulous. Flowers many, white, very shortly pedi- 
celled. Calyx cup-shaped with 5 short ovate blunt lobes. Corolla- 
tube as long, lobes oblong, blunt. Fruit ellipsoid slightly flattened 
with 12 ribs, .25 in long. 

Hob. Negri Sembilan, top of Bukit Tangga, at 2500 it. alt.. 
Ridley. 

Allied to P. siipulacea but quite dwarf, almost stemless, the 
leaves larger and the inflorescence puberulous. 

R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



•29S NEW AND EAEE MALAYAN PLANTS. 

Cephaelis melanocarpa Ridley, n. sp. 

Shrubby plant 3 feet tall, glabrous. Leaves narrow oblan- 
eeolate acuminate cuspidate, long narrowed to the base; nerves 20 
pairs, curved ascending, paler beneath; 8 in. long, 2 in. wide; 
petiole slender, 1.5 in. long. Stipules broad blunt oblong-ovate. 
Peduncles stout, white and fleshy in fruit, 2 to 3 in. long. Bracts 
lanceolate, keeled and cuspidate 1 in. long. Flowers not seen. 
Fruit black elliptic narrowed to the base, .25 in. long. Seed flat- 
tened, ellipsoid' with both edges keeled and a central rib, making in 
fruit when dry 1 ribs. 

Hob. Xes^ri Sembilan, forests near the top of Bukit Tangga 
Ridley. 

Dried specimens much resemble C. singapurensis Eidley but 
the lanceolate mucronate bracts distinguish it and in life the swollen 
-white peduncle and black, not pale blue^ fruits distinguish it readily. 

Spermacoce Linn. 

This genus was originally based on several species of small 
herbs from S„. America and two Asiatic ones of which one, Sper- 
macoce liispida, occurs in our area, but lately this latter with a 
number of other Asiatic species has been separated from the 
American ones under the name of Borreria, while the Spermacoce 
sarmeniosa Bl. is separated under the name of Diodia sarmentosa 
Sw. It is not rare in the Malay Peninsula, and occurs also in 
Banca, Java and Sumatra, and also in S. America whence it lias 
probably been introduced into Asia. Diodia differs from Borreria 
in the cocci of the fruit, not dehiscing on the inner face. Of 
Borreria we have the following species in the Malay Peninsula. 

1. Borreria latifolia Iv. S.chum. in Mart. Ft. Brazil., vi. 63. 

This was the plant described by me by error as Diodia sar- 
meniosa in Joum. Roy. As. Soc. S. Br. 73, p. 1-15. It first appeared 
in Singapore in 1915, and curiously no specimens have been seen 
from any other part of the Old World. It is a native of S. America. 

2. B. hispida K. Solium, in Engl. Pflanzenfam. iv. -1, p. 144. 

Spermacoce liispida Linn. Sp i . PL 102. 
This is common all over the Peninsula and occurs in India and 
the Malay islands. It does not appear to have been met with in S. 
America and is the only species with pink flowers. 

3. B. laevicaulis Ridley. Bigelovia laevicaulis Miq., Fl. Ind. 

Bat. ii. 335. Spermacoce stricta King, in Journ. As. Soc. 
Beng. p. 90, 189, not of Linnaeus. 
Common in the Malay Peninsula and occurring in Bombay 
and Java. 

4. B. setidens Ridley. Bigelovia setidens Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 

ii. 336. 
Common all over the Malay Peninsula and occurring in Java. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW AND RAEE MALAYAN PLANTS. 299 

5. B. pilulifera Ridley, n. sp. 

Slender erect, branched herb with few branches 14 in. tall; 
stems angled, filiate along the angles. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, 
narrowed to the base, rather fleshy, glabrous, pale beneath; nerves 
5 pairs, 1 in. long, .4 in. wide; petiole .1 in. long; 2> shorter leaves 
usually at the base of the heads. Stipules very short, with short 
bristle. Heads .25 in. through, numerous bristles between the 
flowers. Calyx glabrous bifid. Corolla very short, white. Capsule 
obovoid. Seed rather large ellipsoid, dark brown, very obscurely 
reticulate. 

Hob. Roadsides, Selangor, Klang Gates, Ridley. 

6. B. parviceps Ridley, n. sp. 

Very slender erect herb, simple or with one or two branches; 
stems, angled with, low wings, glabrous, IS in. tall. Leaves in simple 
pairs lanceolate acute and narrowed to the base sprinkled with white 
hairs above, paler and scabrid beneath, .5 in. long, .25 in. wide; 
nerves 3 pairs sparsely hairy beneath; no petiole. Stipules very 
short with very numerous setae. Heads .12 in. through; flowers 
small with fewer and shorter bristles than the last. Calyx glabrous, 
bifid. Corolla white, very short. Capsule smooth glabrous. Seeds 
•ellipsoid, dark brown, smaller than the preceding and deeply pitted. 

Hob. Roadsides, Negri Sembilan, Bukit Tangga Pass, Ridley. 

MYRSINACEAE. 

Embelia subcordata Ridley, n. sp. 

Slender climber; branches covered with red brown glandular 
hairs. Leaves distichous, oblong-lanceolate, blunt base broad sub- 
cordate, chartaceons, densely gland-dotted beneath glabrous except 
the hairy midrib; nerves very faint, about 10 pairs, 1.5 in. long, .6 
in. wide; petiole hairy very short under .1 in. long. Flowers minute 
in axillary fascicles of 2 to 5; pedicels puberulous, .025 in. long. 
Calyx-lobes 5, ovate blunt, glabrous with 8 red glands outside. 
Corolla twice as long, lobes ovate, blunt, glabrous except the ciliate 
tip. Anthers oblong ovoid with -i warts on the back. Pistil 
glabrous. 

Hab. iSelangor, (Semangkok Pass on the track to Fraser's hill, 
Ridley. 

This species has the appearance of E. pulchella of Siam, but 
the flowers are much smaller and almost completely glabrous. 

APOCYNACEAE. 

Ervatamia pauciflora Ridle}-, n. sp. 

Shrub about 8 feet tall ; bark pale whitish. Leaves thin mem- 
iDranous elliptic, blunt cuspidate, base narrowed, 7 inches long, 3 
in. wide; nerves 10 pairs; nervules invisible; petiole .75 in. long. 

H. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



300 NEW AND KAKE MALAYAN PLANTS. 

Cvmes in upper axils; peduncle .25 in. long; pedicels .5 in. long-.. 
Flowers white, 2 to 3 in a cyme. Calyx-lobes separate half way 
down oblong blunt, edge ciliate, whole calyx .1 in. long. Corolla- 
tube cvlindrie .5 in. long, lobes linear blunt. Stamens small* 
anthers oblong not apiculate. Style very slender. Follicles oblong 
narrowed and acute at both ends falcate, 1.25 in. long, .5 in. thick. 

Hob. Mountain forests^ Selangor, Ginting Sempah, Ridley. 

Yar. minor Bidley. 

Leaves 4 in. long, 1 in. wide with about 8 pairs of nerves;, 
petiole .2 in. long. Peduncle .1 in. long; pedicels .2 in. long. 
Calyx .8 in. long. Corolla-tube .6 in. long; lobes linear blunt, .25 
in. long. 

Jiab. Negri Sembilan, Bukit Tangga at 2400 ft. alt., Ridley. 

Allied to E. jasminiflora Bidley, but the flowers are smaller 
with shorter corolla-tube and small stamens. 

ASCLEPIADACEAE. 

Hoy a citrina Bidley, n. sp. 

Stout, long, pendent plant. Leaves thick, fleshy stiffly coria- 
ceous ovate, base broad, round, subcordate ; nerves three conspicuous 
when dry with about 4 pairs of lateral nerves from the central nerve- 
broken up into reticulations large and lax, 4 to -1.5 in. long, 3 in. 
wide; petiole very thick .75 in. long. Peduncles stout, 2.24 in. 
long; raceme thickened lengthening to over 1 in. long with very 
numerous close set broad bracts. Pedicels .6 in. long. Flowers 3 
in. wide; sepals ovate blunt. Corolla-lobes triangular ovate acute, 
light yellow. Corona pinkish red, lower lobe long acute, lanceolate. 

Hab. Limestone precipices, Selangor, Batu CaA^es, Ridley. 
Perak, L T lu Bubong on a tree in jungle, Kunstler 10316; Batu 
Kurau, Scortecltini 1626. 

The Perak plants were referred by King and Gamble to H.. 
parasitica Wall, from which they differ in the ovate cordate leaves,, 
with three distinct nerves from the central one of which rise about 
4 pairs of lateral nerves quickly broken up into reticulations. The 
flowers are very similar in both species except in colour, these being- 
yellow with a red corona; those of H. parasitica pinkish white with 
a white corona, the corolla-lobes in this species are also triangular- 
acute, not cordate. 

Cynanchum Seimundii Bidley, n. sp. 

Herbaceous climber, glabrous except inflorescence. Leaves thin 
membranous, ovate acute, base cordate ; nerves 6 pairs, 6 in. long & 
in. wide; petiole 3 in. long or smaller. Corymbs axillary; peduncle 
1.5 in. long. Flowers about 20; pedicels .5 in. long puberulous. 
Calyx-lobes very short, rounded ovate. Corolla .25 in. across, tube 
very short, lobes valvate lanceolate acute, spotted at the tips. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW AND BARE MALAYAN PLANTS. 301 

Corona flesh}' at base attached to the corolla above with lanceolate 
refuse lobes shorter than the stamens. Anthers square, truncate with 
3 inflexed points. Pollinia pendulous oblong with a long slender 
pedicel. 

Hab. Pahang, Kwala Tahan, Seimund. 

LOGANIACEAE. 

Gaertnera ovata Ridley, n. sp. 

Woody shrublet. Leaves glabrous, broadly obovate, shortly 
cuspidate, base narrowed gradually ; nerves 9 pairs prominent 
beneath, 9 in. long, -i in. wide; petiole winged to the base, .25 in. 
long, stout. Stipules connate rather large with a broad lanceolate 
point. Peduncles below the leaves slender, 3 in. long with 2 
branches and distant stipules forming a tube with the midribs pro- 
minent and ending in mucros as long as the tube, slender acute. 
Cymes small 1 in. long with about 6 short branches, the lowest under 
.5 in. long. Flowers sessile about 4 in a small head at the end of 
each branch. Calyx short, cup-shaped with very short points. 
Corolla .1 in. long, tube thick shorter than the lobes, the lobes ob- 
long round at tip, white, hairy at mouth of tube. 

Hab. Selangor, Semangkok Pass, Ridley. 

Gaertnera rigida Ridley, n. sp. 

Low shrub about 3 feet tall, quite glabrous. Leaves stiff, rigid 
drying grey, coriaceous, lanceolate acuminate, long narrowed to the 
base, smooth shining above with prominent midrib, beneath minutely 
papillose all over; nerves 8 or 9 pairs with the nervules and reticula- 
tions prominent beneath, 9 in. Jong, 3.5 inches wide; petiole 1.25 
inches long-flattened above and slightly winged to the base. Stipules 
-.75 inches long, forming a tube split on lower face half way down and 
prolonged into a lanceolate bifid point above. Inflorescences borne 
on long lateral branches 9 inches long bare except for a pair of 
narrow lanceolate acuminate leaves -1 in. long, .75 inches wide at the 
top subtending the inflorescence. Cymes 1 in. long of 3 branches. 
Calyx-lobes very short. Flowers not seen. Fruit globose or double 
with one or two seeds .25 in. through. 

Hab. Dense forest, Negri Sembilan, Bukit Tangga, base of 
hill, Ridley. 

I was unable to find flowers of this species : in foliage it 
resembles G. lanceolata Ridl., but the inflorescence is very short. 

CONVOLVULACEAE. 

Ipomoea Pes-Caprae Roth. 

I was surprised to find a considerable sized patch of this sea- 
shore plant on a track leading to a saw-pit at Bukit Tangga. It was 
flowering and fruiting well. I have seen it some way from the sea 

R. A. Soc, Xo. 86 1922. 



302 NEW AND RABE MALAYAN PLANTS. 

on a sandy bank on the railway near Kota Bliaru in Kelantan, but 
never before as far from the sea shore as at Bukit Tangga, about 
35 miles away. It is probable that a cart load of seasand contain- 
ing seeds of this convolvulus had somehow been sent to this spot r 
and the seeds had germinated and grown on a sandy spot near the- 
stream edge where 1 found it. 

CVRTANDRACEAE. 
Didissandra castaneaefolia Eidley, n. sp. 

Stem 3 in. tall. Leaves oblong to lanceolate-oblong, base- 
narrowed minutely unequally cordate, edge coarsely serrate, mem- 
branous glabrous above; nerves 15 pairs and midrib coarsely hairy 
beneath 5.5 to 7 in. long, 1.75 to 8 in. wide; petiole 1.75 to 3 in. 
long, coarsely hairy. Peduncles 4 in. long, coarsely hairy. Flowers- 
in a terminal cyme of 3. Bracts linear-oblong, .12 in. long. 
Sepals lanceolate acuminate, blunt .3 in. long. .1 in. wide, hairy. 
Corolla .75 in. long sparsely short hairy, lobes small, limb A in. 
wide (when dry). 

Hab. Pahang, Kwala Teku, Seimund. 

I have no clue as to the colour of the flowers of this species 
which is most nearly allied to D. glabrescens Eidley, but it is much 
more hairy and has more and smaller flowers. 

Didymocarpus castaneaefolia Eidley, n. sp. 

Stem erect, woody over -1 in. long, .2 in. thick corky. Leaves 
chartaceous lanceolate elliptic subacute, base cuneate, edge closely 
serrate, glabrous above except the midrib and nerves in young- 
leaves; nerves about 25 pairs parallel, sunk above inarching with- 
in the margin, 5 in. long, 2 in. wide; petiole .5 in. long, hairy. 
Scapes 7 in. long hairy, in upper axils with about 5 flowers, the- 
lower pair distant from the terminal ones. Bracts narrow lanceo- 
late linear, green hairy A in. long. Pedicels .25 in. long, purple 
hairy. Sepals lanceolate-acuminate .12 in. long. Corolla 1.5 in- 
long, tube cylindric at base gradually dilate upwards, limb .5 in. 
wide, lobes blunt rounded. Capsule 2.5 in. long, narrow, cylindric. 

Ilab. Mountains at 5, OCX) ft. Perak. Gunong Inas, Yapp 
Jf3'8. 

Allied to I), venusta but the leaves more cloely serrate and 
distinctly petioled. 

Loxocarpus minimus Eidley, n. sp. 

Small stemless herb. Leaves 2' or 3 ovate to oblong-lanceolate- 
or oblanceolate, densely white silky all over, .5 to .75 in. long, .2 
to .25 in. wide; petiole .5 in. long or less. Peduncle 1.5 in. long- 
slender, silky bearing one to two flowers at the top. Pedicel .1 in. 
long. Bract small linear. Sepals lanceolate .10 in. long, silky. 
Corolla hardly longer campanulate, .2 in. long, light blue-violet r 

J our. Straits Branch. 



NEW AND RARE MALAYAN PLANTS. 303- 

sub-regular, hairy outside. 'Style longer; stigma large, round. 
Capsule ovoid beaked, hardly longer than calyx, splitting on the 
upper edge. (Seeds oblong acute, pitted reticulate, dark green. 

Hob. On two damp rocks in the forests, Negri Sembilan,. 
Bukit Tangga, Ridley. 

This remarkable little plant differs from the typical Loxocarpi 
in the short regular corolla and ovoid capsule which however, de- 
hisces normally on the upper edge. 

Cyrtandra patula Ridley, n. sp. 

A big spreading shrub about 6 feet tall, bark corky wrinkled 
transversely pale, below glabrous; young parts tomentose. Leaves 
opposite, chartaceous oblanceolate acute, base long-narrowed blunt, 
edge serrate, glabrous above; nerves slender 15 pairs and midrib 
hairy beneath; young leaves thickly tomentose, 11 to 12 inches 
long, 4 inches wide: petiole thick .2.5 to .5 in. long, when young" 
densely tomentose eventually glabrous. Cyme A in. long with 
about 7 or 8 flowers, silky hairy. Bracts small, hairy. Pedicels 
.1 to .2 in. long. 'Calyx tubular with 5 very slender points silky 
hairy, .1 in. long, yellowish. Corolla .5 in. long, campanulate, 
lobes rounded hairy outside, dull white with brown mottling in the 
throat. Stamens white; anthers connivent. Fruit .5 in. long, 
slender cylindric, narrowed to the style. 

Hab. Xegri Sembilan, Bukit Tangga. In muddy streams in 
dense forest behind the Bungalow, Ridley. 

Allied to C. bataviensis Clarke of Java. 

ACANTHACEAE. 

Ebermaiera Iongispica Ridley, n. sp. 

Herb over 12 in. tall, quite glabrous. Leaves rather thin,, 
broad lanceolate, narrowed to both ends; nerves 18 pairs parallel; 
6 in. long, 2 in. wide; petiole slender, 2 inches long. Inflorescence 
racemose, racemes solitary axillary solitary or 2 to 4 in a panicle, 
with peduncle 3 inches long. Flowers numerous distant. Bracts 
ovate or oblong blunt foliaceous,, petioled, .25 in. long and .12 in. 
wide. Pedicel .1 in. long. Sepals lanceolate acuminate. Co- 
rolla .75 in. long, tube narrow cylindric at base, .25 in. long, 
gradually dilate to limb, .5 in. long, dull pink outside, and within 
tube, limb lobes blunt, .1 in. long, white. Stamens 4, diadelphous. 
shorter than tube. Style included; stigma bifid. Capsule oblong 
.15 in. long. 

Hab. Woods, Negri Sembilan, Bukit Tangga. Selangor, Ulu 
Gombak, Ridley. 

The only plant this seems to be at all near is E. Griffith ion a 
which has the same kind of broad oblong bract-. 

R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



304 NEW AND RARE MALAYAN PLANTS. 

Strobilanthes latebrosa Ridley, n. sp. 

Big- spreading shrub 8 feet tall, glabrous. Leaves chartaceous, 
ovate-lanceolate cuspidate blunt, base decurrent on petiole, edge 
undulate; nerves 10 pairs, secondary nerves almost as conspicuous; 
9 in. long, 4= in. wide; petiole 1.5 in. long. Flower heads solitary 
or in threes axillary or on short lateral shoots, l.$5 in. long; 
peduncle .3 in. long. Bracts numerous, large leaflike, outer ones 
ovate 1 in. long, .5 in. wide, inner ones linear-lanceolate blunt, 
narrower, hairy, all green. Corolla 2< in. long, 1 in. across the limb, 
white, tube slenci'er, C3dindric at base .5 in. long, above abruptly 
dilated, urn-shaped, lobes short, round. Stamens enclosed in tube. 
Capsule .75 in. long subacute, not dilated at tip, 4-seeded. Seeds 
rounded ellipsoid. 

Ha~b. Negri Sembilan, Bukit Tangga forests, Ridley. 

Allied to a Javanese plant named 8. grandis, Clarke in Herb. 
Kew, collected by Forbes. 

Strobilanthes leucopogon Eidley, n. sp. 

Shrubby branches angled glabrous. Leaves chartaceous, lan- 
ceolate acuminate narrowed to a blunt sub-truncate base, edge 
slightly undulate; nerves 7 pairs, elevate, transverse nervules few, 
sub-horizontal elevate beneath; 6 in. long, 2 in. wide; petiole 
under .1 in. long. Eacemes in terminal axils, on branches .5 in. 
long with a pair of much reduced leaves at their bases 1.5 in. long, 
cylindric. Bracts ovate-oblong blunt, .15 in. long, .08 in. wide 
covered with long white spreading hairs, corolla-lobes narrow 
linear spathulate, white hairy, shorter than sepals. Corolla .75 in. 
long pure blue, tube at base slender then funnel-shaped; lobes sub- 
equal, mouth A in. across. 

Had. Kedah, Lanka wi Islands, Dayong Bunting, Robinson 
6196; flowers pure blue. 

This is nearest to 8. niveus, Craib. 

Barleria siamensis Craib, var. glabrescens Eidley, n. var. 

Plant much smaller in vegetative part> than the type, 12 in. 
tall, glabrescent. Leaves oblong acuminate rather abruptly, tip 
blunt, 3.5 in. long, 1.5 in. wide, glabrous above, roughly appressed 
hairy on nerves and nervules beneath; petiole roughly hairy. 
Flowers 2 in. long. Bracts ovate hairy on nerves "but much more 
glabrous than in type. 

Hob. Kedah, Lankawi Islands, Dayong Bunting, Robinson, 
Nov. 1916. 

The type of this, B. siamensis, Craib in Kew Bull., 1911, p. 
4j37, was collected at Doi Sutep at 2,300 to 2,500 feet. It attains 
the height of 5 feet, the leaves 8 in. long by 3 in. wide with a 
longer acuminate point and the whole plant is much more hairy. 
The Lankawi plant is dwarf er with smaller leaves, more glabrous. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW AND RARE MALAYAN PLANTS. 305 

Gymnostachyum Robinsonii Ridley, 11. sp. 

Stem shortly creeping, ascending, woody, 2 in. long. Leaves 
elliptic-ovate to round blunt, base shortly decurrent on the petiole, 
scabrid above and beneath ; midrib above and beneath and 5 pairs 
of nerves scurfy pubescent 1.2(5 to 2.25 in. long, 1.1 to 1.75 in. 
wide; petiole flattened .5 to 1.25 in. long. Eaceme 3 in. long, 
sometimes branched, pubescent, slender. Flowers solitary about 
10 in the raceme. Bracts narrow linear pubescent .1 in. long. 
Calyx shorter, lobes linear acuminate with broader base, very nar- 
row pubescent. Corolla .4= in. long, puberulous. 

Hah. Ivedah, Lankawi islands, Davong Bunting, Robinson,. 
\No\. 1916. 

Allied to G. diversifolium but the flowers much smaller. 

Eranthemum candidum Ridley, n. sp. 

Glabrous simple, shrubby plant. Leave? lanceolate acuminate 
at both ends, membranous; nerves 8 pairs ascending, 5 to 6 in. 
long, 1.5 to 2 in. wide; petiole .75 in. long. Raceme 6 in. long; 
peduncle 6 to 9 in. long. Flowers distant, solitary or paired: 
pedicels .1 in. long ; bracts lanceolate acuminate from a broad base 
shorter. Calyx puberulous; lobes linear acuminate, .1 in. long 
Corolla pure white, tube .5 in. long, base cylindric then about 
midway thickened upwards ; lobes elliptic blunt .5 in. long, by .25 
in. w r ide subequal. Stamens in the base of the dilate portion of 
the tube. 

Hab. Forests by the stream at Flu Gombak, Selangor, 
Ridley.^ 

This is allied to E. Kingianum but has smaller corollas and 
pedicelled flowers. 

Justicia Robinsonii Ridley, n. sp. 

Shrubby, glabrous except inflorescence. Leaves chartaceous 
lanceolate acuminate, base cuneate ; nerves I pairs, 7 to 10 in. long, 
2 to 3 in. wide ; petiole .5 in. long. Raceme solitary or paired ter- 
minal, subsessile 1 in. long ; rachis pubescent. Bracts ovate acute 
sessile .2 in. long, acute puberulous. Flowers crowded, subsessile. 
Sepals 5, lanceolate linear acuminate, pubescent, Corolla .25 in. 
long, tube thick cylindric, little longer than sepals, dirty white 
spotted purple, upper limb shorter than lower limb, woody, blunt, 
lower 3-lobed, lobes^ rather broad blunt. Stamens 2 ; anther-cells 
not parallel, shortly prolonged below, slightly shorter than the co- 
rolla. Style very slender, filiform. Capsule .5 in. long, lower half 
fawn-colour pustulate, seeds strong retinacula. 

Hab. Keclah, Lankawi islands, Davong Bunting and Burau, 
Robinson 6191. Shrubby plant. Flowers dirty white spotted 
purple. 

R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



306 NEW AND BARE MALAYAN PLANTS. 

Justicia microcarpa Ridley, n. sp. 

A thin, weak plant, glabrous. Leaves lanceolate ovate thm, 
very shortly bluntly narrowed to base; nerves ID pairs 6 in. long, 
2 in. wide; petiole 1.75 in. long. Racemes solitary axillary and 
terminal, 2 in. long. Flowers crowded, secund. Bracts lanceo- 
late acuminate slightly shorter than the calyx. Sepals linear acu- 
minate. Corolla .3 in. long, cream with pink spots in the mouth. 
Fruit .4 in. long. Seeds 4, ovoid, flat acute, pustular. 

Hah. iSelangor, Batu Caves, Ridley. 

Allied to J. nber but smaller, weaker with differently coloured 
flowers and very small fruit with seeds of a different shape. 

Sphinctacanthus malayanus Ridley, n. sp. 

Shrub about 2 feet tall ; stems pale fawn colour. Leaves mem- 
branous, lanceolate acuminate, base cuneate, glabrous above, spar- 
ingly short hairy beneath especially on the midrib; nerves 8 pairs 
ascending and inarching 6 to 8 in. long, 1.5 to 2.75 in. wide; petiole 
.5 in. long. Panicle racemiform, 7 in. long, with many short 
branches .5 in. long to .75 in. in fruit, all hairy; peduncle 3 to 4 
in: long. Flowers white, 2 to 7 on a branch. Bracts very small 
lanceolate. Sepals free to base lanceolate subulate .08 in. long. 
Oorolla .2>5 in. long, tube cylinclric limb 2-lipped, upper lip oblong 
bilobed longer than the lower lip. iStamens 2 in the mouth of the 
tube ; anthers elliptic ; cells equal and parallel. Style as short. 
Fruit base solid, .25 in. long above ovoid acute, hairy. Seeds 4, 
round, flat, strongly pustular, pale. 

Hah: Xegri Sembilan, forests on Bukit Tangga, Ridley. 

LORANTHACEAE. 

Elytranthe tubaeflora Ridley, n. sp. 

Stems stout, pale emitting long creeping and rooting suckers. 
Leaves stiffly coriaceous ovate to lanceolate-acute, base round; 
nerves about 6 pairs usually invisible; 3 to 3.5 in. long, 1.75 to 
2.5 in. wide; petiole thick, .25 in. long. Raceme short, 1 in. long, 
about 8-flowered; pedicels .1 in. long. Bracts 3, lower one lanceo- 
late, upper smaller, ovate acute, all shorter than corolla-tube. Co- 
rolla 3 in. long gradually dilate upwards, trumpet-shaped, .5 in. 
across at the mouth, lobes 6, narrow-linear lanceolate acute .75 in. 
long. Stamens 6, very narrow as long as corolla-lobes, anthers 
basifixed. 'Style longer; stigma ovoid. 
Hah. Perak, Gunong Inas 5,5 ( 0O at feet, Yapp 501. 

URTICACEAE. 

Ficus patens Ridley, n. sp. 

Large spreading shrub ; branches hairy with large pith. 
Leaves large ovate cordate, lobes at base round; nerves 3 from base, 
2 outer with about 7 nervules running to the edge, midrib with 6 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW AND EAEE MALAYAN PLANTS. 307 

pairs of nerves almost opposite, tran verse nervules and reticula- 
tions prominent beneath, above sparsely seabrid hairy, nerves 
densely hairy, beneath shortly bristly hairy on nerves and reticu- 
lations, under-side paler than upper; 11 in. long, 9 in. wide; petiole 
hairy sheathing at base 3 in. long. Figs globose roughly hairy .5 
in. through. Peduncle very short. Bracts 3, small ovate, connate 
hairy. Umbilicus short blunt. Bracts small. Female flowers 
stalked with 4 spathulate petals, dark purple when dry. Achene 
oblique round, stalked as long as petals; style long, slender lateral 
towards the top. Male flowers not seen. 

Flab. Selangor, Ginting Sempah; Semangkok ; near Ran- 
ching, Xegri Sembilan, Bukit Tangga Pass, Ridley. 

This plant is very common along the roads in low jungle in 
Selangor and Negri Sembilan at about 1 to 4,000 feet alt., but 
comparatively rarely produces figs. It is a very large spreading 
shrub with the lower parts of branches bare, about 20 feet tall. It 
is allied to F. fulva but has cordate leaves except in the young 
state and very different flowers. 

Elatostemma inaequilobum Eidley, n. sp. 

Herb ; stem slender succulent, long creeping ascending to a 
foot tall, glabrous. Leaves alternate with no trace of the second 
one of the pair, thin inaequilaterally lanceolate long acuminate,. 
base very unequally bilobed, larger lobe rounded, edge crenate, ser- 
rate in the upper half, trinerved the outer pair looped with the 
nervules joining them, 4.5 in. long, 1.5 in. wide or less; petiole 
.1 in. long or less. Female heads .12 in. through on slender fili- 
form peduncles .2 in. long axillary. Flowers numerous shortly 
pedicelled. Sepals 3, very narrow linear caudate with a broader 
base. Achene ellipsoid, strongly tubercled. Male plants not seen. 

Hob. Selangor, Ginting Sempah, Eidley, Bobinson and Kloss. 
Tonkin, Bocks on edge of torrents, Mount Bausi, Balansa 2562. 

This is a very distinct plant of which we have only females. 
The completely alternate leaves and small heads with very narrow 
sepals and slender peduncles are unlike those of any other species 

1 have seen. The leaves in the Tonkin plant are much smaller 
than in the Selangor one, which with the long rhizome is over 2 
feet long. 

ORCHIDACEAE. 

Thrixspermum iodochilus Bidley, n. sp. 

■Stem 4 in. long, 2 in. wide; sheaths strongly ribbed. Leaves 
coriaceous, oblong-linear, 3 to 5 in. long, .5 in. wide. Peduncle 

2 in. long. Baceme flat 1.5 in. long or more. Bracts flat, boat- 
shaped. Flowers on pedicels slender .3 in. long. Sepals and 
petals triangular lanceolate at base with very slender tails, .75 in. 
long, ochre yellow, not spotted; spur short blunt, .12 in. long r 
pink. Lip violet, narrow, tongue-shaped .25 in. long. 

R A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



308 NEW AND EAEE MALAYAN PLANTS. 

Jlab. Negri Sembilan, Bukit Tangga Pass, on trees, Ridley. 

This lias quite the habit of T. arachnites, but apart from the 
colouring of the flowers, the peculiar long slender lip distinguishes 
it clearly. 

APOSTASIACEAE. 
Neuwiedia ocrea Ridley, n. sp. 

Stem below leaves 1.5 in. long. Leaves 7 or 8 elliptic, long 
acuminate. 10 in. long, 2.25 in. wide; petiole 1 in. long, strongly 
ribbed. Raceme 5 in. long. Bracts at base lanceolate acuminate 
-75 in. long above .5 in. long, terminal ones .2 in. long all but the 
lowest hairy and conspicuously nerved. Flowers about 40, buff 
colour, glandular hairy ; pedicels hairy .1 in. long. Sepals and 
petals .5 in. long lanceolate with small caudicles at tip. Petals 
narrower than sepals, keeled ; keel hairy. iStamens 3 ; anthers ob- 
long; filaments free at the top below connate with the style. Style 
curved, stout, shorter than the stamen with a rather large stigma. 
Ovary ellipsoid narrowed at both ends, hairy. 

Hal). Very rare, one plant only found on Bukit Tangga, 
Negri Sembilan at 2,000 feet. 

Very distinct from all other species in its pubescence and buff- 
ochre flowers. Nearest to N. Zollingeri. 

SCITAMINEAE. 

Kaempferia cyanescens Ridley. Elettariopsis cyanescens Rid- 
ley in Jour. Straits Branch Roy. As. Soc. 41, p. 31. 

Rhizome short, stout. Leafy stems 2 feet 3 in. tall, slender, 
glabrous. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, long acuminate thin, base 
gradually narrowed blunt, 6 in. long, 1.215 in. wide; petiole very 
short or none ; ligule ovate blunt .12 in. long. Flowers appearing 
with the leaves in a basal tuft an inch long ; peduncle .25 in. long. 
Bracts lower ones ovate, upper ones lanceolate, 5 in. long, reddish- 
white. Ovary .1 in. long pubescent. Calyx slender tubular, 
spathaceous split on one side more than half way down with 3 small 
points 1.5 in. long. Corolla-tube 2 in. long, slender, lobes lanceo- 
late acute, thin, white, 1 in. long, .12 in. wide. Staminodes lanceo- 
late-acute as long but broader, white. Lip large obovate rather 
long-clawed, bilobed, violet veined with white. Anther white hairy. 

Hal). Negri Sembilan, Bukit Tangga. Common on the hill 
behind the bungalow to the top. 

This plant was collected first by Mr. Napier who brought me 
a specimen, the flower of which was of poor condition and I put 
it down as Eletariopsis. Having now seen plenty in the same 
locality I see it is a Kaempferia and re-describe it. 

Alpinia campanaria Ridley, n. sp. 

Tall plant. Leaves oblong cuspidate acuminate, glabrous ex- 
cept the ciliate edge, 2 feet long, 5 in. wide narrowed to base; 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW AND BARE MALAYAN PLANTS. 309 

petiole 4 in. long, glabrous, ligule oblong .4 in. long. Eaceme 
stout pubescent velvety, 11 in. long; flowers distant: peduncles 1.2>5 
in. long, stout velvety. Bracts lanceolate, the lowest 2.25 in. long, 
upper ones broad and short, .5 in. long, silky. Involucral bracts 
cupular-campanulate .4 in. long .5 in. wide, silky containing 4 round, 
silky bracts each with a single flower on short silky pedicel. Calyx 
campanulate, silky with obscure points, white .5 in. long and as 
wide. Ovary small, silky. Corolla silky, tube .5 in. long, lobes 
oblong blunt, buff with white knobs at the top. .6 in. long. Lip 
broad obovate convolute, 1.5 in. long, 2 in. wide when expanded, 
white with a yellow base, and red bars. ^Stamen filaments broad 
linear, anther yellow, oblong, no crest. Staminodes large, broad, 
rhomboid with acute points at base of filaments. 

Bab. Negri Sembilan, Bukit Tangga, at 2,400 feet alt., 
Ridley. 

This is distinctly allied to .1. javanica which it somewhat re- 
sembles in the form of bracts and flowers, but the inflorescence is 
laxly racemose. 

Alpinia Seimundii Eidley, n. sp. 

Stem slender, sheaths and petiole pubescent. Leaves lanceo- 
late acuminate with a long point, base narrowed unequal, midrib at 
back pubescent, 12 in. long, 2 in. wide; petiole .25 in. long, ligule 
oblong round silky. Panicle 5 in. long, pubescent with tufts of 
hairs below the branches; branches distant .5 in. long, usually 1- 
flowered. Bracts persistent broad, tubular with a rounded mouth 
silky .5 in. long. Calyx entire tubular dilate upwards with 3 small 
points, nearly .5 in. long silky. Corolla-tube slightly longer; lobes 
oblong blunt hairy .5 in. long. Lip obovate trilobed, .4 in. long" 
and .3 in. wide, base narrowed, slender, lobes 2 rounded, median 
smaller bifid at tip with two slender points, 3 strong red nerves 
running to the tip of the midlobe and one shorter on each. side. 
Staminodes very short obscure points at the base of the stamen. 
Stamen, filament rather slender; anther cells elliptic pointed below,. 
hairy on the back. 

Hob. Pahang, Kwala Teku, Seimund. 

This has remarkably small flowers for the Catimbium section. 
It is apparently nearest to .4. multica. 

Amomum spiceum Eidley, n. sp. 

Plant forming a very large tuft of leafy stems 6 feet tall. 
Leaves narrow linear oblong acuminate narrowed to base, IS in. 
long, 1 in. wide ; ligule oblong, tip round entire, adnate to petiole. 
Flower spikes at base, 8 in. long peduncle 1 in. long, velvety as is 
rachis. Bracts erect lanceolate acuminate, edges hairy, papery 3 
in. long, .5 in. wide, uppermost 2 in. long. Spikelets about a dozen 
consisting of three papery bracts containing a solitary flower. 

R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



310 NEW AND EAEE MALAYAN PLANTS. 

Calyx spathaceous split in front, 1.5 in. long, buff. Corolla-tube 
.as short, upper lobe broad oblong, 1.5 in. long, blunt, lower ones 
linear, buff. Lip large obovate entire, yellow finely punctate red 
on both sides at the base. Stamen shorter than corolla-lobes; fila- 
ment longer than anther. Anther oblong, crest of two recurved 
horns with a small central process. Ovary silky. 

Hab. Negri Sembilan, Bukit Tangga, abundant at 2,000 feet 
alt., in thick forest, Ridley. 

ARACEAE. 

Amorphophallus elegans Ridley, n. sp. 

Tuber small, flattened, globose, 3 in. through. Leaf, petiole 
slender mottled grey green, 1 to 2 feet tall, limb green, of 3 
branches, outer pair rebranched; petiolules 3 inches long, leaflets 3 
to -1 oblong, long cuspidate, base cuneate inaequilateral, nerves 11 
pairs, secondary nerves nearly as conspicuous, all joining an intra- 
marginal nerve, 6 in. long, 1.5 in. wide, cusp 1 in. long; secondary 
petiolules .12 in. long. Peduncle slender, 3 feet tall, mottled grey 
green, and pink with scattered light green blotches. iSpathe nar- 
row lanceolate acute, 5 in. long, pale green with small dark green 
blotches. Female portion of spike .5 in. long, green with yellow 
sessile stigmas. iMale portion cylindric, 3 in. long. Stamens 
white; anther-cells pink. Appendage rugose cylindric, 4 in. long, 
white. 

Hab. Mountain woods, Negri Sembilan, Bukit Tangga, Rid- 
ley. 

Pothos Iorispatha Ridley, n. sp. 

'Climber, stem slender woody, internodes 1 in. long. Leaf 
thinly subcoriaceous, inaequilateral lanceolate long-acuminate; 
nerves numerous inconspicuous intramarginal .5 in. from the edge, 
base narrowed; 12 in. long, 3 in. wide; petiole 1.5 to 3 in. long, 
narrowly winged to the top, knee obscure, base shortly sheathing. 
Peduncle slender 1.25 in. long. iSpathe narrow, strap-shaped 
acuminate acute, 4 inches long, A in. wide, dark green. Spadix 
narrow cylindric, 3 in. long, .K2 in. through; peduncle .25 in. long. 
Bracts bluntly triangular at top, strongly keeled beneath. Sepals 
small, blunt triangular, hooded. Stamens shorter. Ovary oblong 
subquadrate at top. Stigma small circular. 

Hab. Limestone cliffs, Selangor, Batu Caves, Ridley. 

The leaves are thinner in texture than in most species and the 
spathe is strap-shaped. 

PALMAE. 

Areca latiloba Ridley, n. sp. 

Stem simple 4= to 5 feet tall, .5 in. through. Leaves three feet 
or more long with few broad sigmoid rhomboid lobes, broad at the 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW AND BARE MALAYAN PLANTS. 311 

'base, very long acuminate at the tip with 10 to 12 prominent nerves 
1 foot long, 3 in. wide, the top pair very unequal. Spadix 9 in. 
long; branches slender in pairs on short .2 in. peduncles below, 
solitary above. Male flowers .18- in. long. Sepals very small, 
round. Petals lanceolate acute. Stamens 3, filaments connate at 
"the base. Female flowers one on each branch or only on the middle 
branches. Sepals ovate acute. Petals broad oblong blunt A in. 
long. Fruit 1 in. long, .5 in. through, thin, fibrous coat. 

Hdb. Mountain forests, Negri Sembilan, Bukit Tangga at 
'2,400 feet alt., Ridley. 

This is distinguished from Areca pumiJa Bl. by its smaller 
size, more slender stem, and broad sigmoid leaflets, resembling 
those of Pinanga canina. 

Pinanga glaucescens Ridley, n. sp. 

A dwarf palm. Leaves 3 feet or more long, lobes very broad, 
■oblong-lanceolate, long-acuminate with () to 12 prominent nerves, 
glaucous beneath 1-4 in. long, 3.5 in. wide, terminal pair connate 
.at base for 6 inches, separate at top for 7 inches, with numerous 
terminal teeth, midrib spotted brown, young leaves maculate with 
'darker spots. Spadix erect with two or three branches, stout 
peduncle 1.5 in. long; branches 4 in. long. Flowers spirally ar- 
ranged. Sepals in female round, short. Fruit black on a red 
spadix ellipsoid, .5 in. long; -Stigmas short sessile. Seed ellip- 
soid A in. long sparsely ruminate. 

Hab. Mountain forests Negri Sembilan, Bukit Tangga at 
■2,400 feet alt., Ridley. 

This species is near P. Scortechinii; but it is a shorter palm 
with much broader lobes, to the leaves. 

PANDANACEAE. 
Pandanus pilaris Ridley, n. sp. 

Short bushy plant. Leaves dark green 8 feet long, 1 in. wide, 
•3-nerved linear acuminate with numerous very small thorns on the 
edges and 3 nerves in the upper part. Peduncles stout 8 in. long, 
•obscurely 3-angled at the top with a broad lanceolate bract over 6 
in. long. Male unknown. Female head globose, 4 in. through. 
Ovaries cylindric angled, nearly 1 in. long, .18 in. through slightly 
curved, acute. Stigma linear on the underside running to the tip. 

Hab. Mountain forests 2,000 feet alt., Negri Sembilan, Bukit 
Tangga, Ridley. 



JR. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



New or Noteworthy Bornean Plants 

Past II. 



By Elmer D. Merrill. 

Director, Bureau of Science, Manila. 

This account of Bornean plants is continued from page 201: 
of the Journal for this year, No. 85. 



LEGUMINOSAE. 

Derris Loureiro. 
Derris pachycarpa sp. nov. 

Frutex scandens, glaber (floribus ignotis) ; ramis lenticellatis ;- 
foliis 20 — 30 cm. longis, foliolis 7 vel 9, elliptieo-ovatis vel oblongo- 
subcaudato-acuminatis, nervis utrinque circiter 10. tenuibus ; in- 
fructescentiis 10 — 18 cm. longis; leguminibus brunneis, nitidis,, 
laevibus, oblongis vel oblongo-elliptieis, inflatis. 4.5 — 7 cm. longis, 
2.2 — 3.5 cm. latis, usque ad 1 cm. crassis, suturis superioribus 
anguste crasseque alatis Tel carinatis, inferioribus rotundatis vel 
obseurissime carinatis ; seminibus solitariis, oblongo-ellipsoideis vel 
oblongis, 2.5 cm. longis. 

A scandent woody vine apparently glabrous (flowers un- 
known), the branches brown or reddish-brown, lenticellate, smooth 
or somewhat rugose, the branchlets somewhat angled or compressed 
when dry. Leaves 20 to 30 cm. long; leaflets 7 or 9, elliptic-ovate 
to oblong-elliptic, chartaceous, smooth, shining, brownish-olivace- 
ous, the lower surface somewhat paler than the upper, 7 to 12 cm. 
long, 3 to 6 cm. wide, the apex conspicuously and rather abruptly 
acuminate, the acumen often subcaudate, blunt, up to 1.5 cm. long, 
base rounded ; lateral nerves about 10 on each side of the midrib, 
slender, not prominent, the reticulations obscure; petiolules 7 to- 
9 mm. long. Infructescences 10 to 18 cm. long. Pods oblong to 
oblong-elliptic, inflated, brown, smooth, shining, 4.5 to 7 cm. 
long, 2.2 to 3.5 cm. wide, up to 1 cm. thick, the upper suture nar- 
rowly and very thickly winged or carinate, the lower one rounded 
or very obscurely carinate, the upper wing at most 3 mm. wide. 
Seeds solitary, oblong-ellipsoid or oblong, 2.5 cm. long. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima, near Sandakan, Bamos 
1250 (type), 1257, October, 19'20. In thickets and in forests at 
low altitudes. A species well characterized by being entirely gla- 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAX PLAXTS. 313 

brouSj so far as known, and in its inflated, obscurely winged, or 
sometimes merely carinate pods which very strongly resemble those 
of Pongamia pinnata Merr. 

Canavalia Adanson. 
Canavalia bracteolata sp. nov. 

Suffrutieosa, seandens, partibus junioribus et subtns foliis 
ferrugineo-pubeseentibus : petiolis perspicue ferrugineo-pubeseen- 
tibus ; foliolis ovato-ellipticis vel ellipticis, membranaceis vel char- 
taeeis, acuminatis, T — 9 cm. longis : racemis longe pedunculitis, 
floribus 3 cm. longis, glabris, bracteolis binis ellipticis mem- 
branceis 8 — 10 mm. longis instructis; leguminibus angnste 
oblongis, compressis, leviter pubescentibus. 12 cm. longis,, 15 — IS 
mm. latis. seminibus circiter 12, ellipticis, eompre.-sis, 8 mm. 
longis, atro-brunneis, obscure variegatis. 

A suft'rntescent vine, the younger parts and the lower surface 
■of the leaflets conspicuously ferruginous-pubescent. Branches 
terete, smooth, glabrous, about 1 mm. in diameter, pale or brownish 
when dry. Leaves 3-foliolate, their petioles ferruginous-pubescent, 
3 to 5 cm. long ; leaflets ovate-elliptic to elliptic, .membranaceous 
to chartaeeous, T to 9 cm. long, 3 to 5 cm. wide, rather abruptly 
.■acuminate, the acumen broad and distinctly apiculate, base usually 
-obtuse, the upper surface olivaceous, glabrous or nearly so except 
the somewhat pubescent midrib, the lower surface ferruginous- 
pubescent on the midrib, nerves and reticulations ; lateral nerves 
about 8 on each side of the midrib, distinct. Inflorescences long- 
peduncled, 4-0 to 50 cm. long, when young more or less ferruginous- 
pubescent, in a<j'e glabrous or nearly so. Flowers purplish-pink, 
mostly in the upper 10 cm., about 3 cm. long, somewhat fascicled 
on the thickened nodes, their pedicels slender, pubescent, about 5 
mm. long, the calyces subtended by 2, elliptic, subpersistent, mem- 
branaceous, distinctly nerved bracteoles which are about 10mm. long, 
>6 mm. wide, sparingly pubescent, and rounded at the apices. 
Calyx rather strongly curved, the tube about 12 mm. long, base 
•cuneate, the upper lip entire, ovate, T mm. long, the low T er lip 3- 
lobed. the lateral lobes oblong-ovate, 5 mm. long, subacute, the 
middle one similar but slightly longer. Limb of the standard ob- 
ovate, 2.5 cm. long. 2\ cm. wide, obscurely auricled at the base, the 
claw < mm. long ; wings oblong-elliptic, nearly equalling the 
standard, about 8 mm. wide, obtuse, conspicuously auricled at the 
base, the claws 1 mm. long; keel equalling the wings, oblong- 
obovate, inequilateral, rounded, scarcely falcate, the inner margin 
"in the median part conspicuously toothed, base inequilateral, ob- 
tuse, not auricled. Filaments glabrous, the free parts 6 to 7 mm. 
long; anthers ellipsoid, 1.2 mm. long: staminal tube distinctly 
geniculate near its base. Ovary linear, pubescent, stipitate : ovules 
about 15 ; style glabrous, (3 to 8 mm. long. Pods flattened, about 
12 cm. long, 15 to 18 mm. wide, about 1 mm. thick along the upper 

Jl. A. Soc, Xo. 86 1922. 



311 NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 

suture, the marginal keels scarcely exceeding the upper suture iu 
height, valves coriaceous, somewhat acuminate, sparingly ferru- 
ginous-pubescent, slightly horizontally sulcate between the seeds ;. 
seeds about 12, elliptic, compressed, 8 mm. long, dark-brown when 
dry, obscurely mottled. 

British North Borneo, Sandakan, Ramos 1511 (type), Septem- 
ber, 1920. In damp thickets at low altitudes. The same species 
is represented by Native Collector 367, 169-3, Bur. Sci. from the 
vicinity of Kuching, Sarawak. A species well characterized by its 
ferruginous indumentum: its conspicuously bracteolate flowers; 
and its compressed, comparatively narrow, transversely sulcate, 
sparingly ferruginous-pubescent pods, the keels along the upper- 
suture being exactly marginal. 

OXALIDACEAE. 

SarcDtheca Blame. 
Sarcotheca pirmata sp. nov. 

Frutex scandens, inflorescentiis exceptis subglaber ; ramis 
brunneis, giabris, striatis, 8 mm. diametro, ramulis junioribus 
puberulis; foliis circiter 50 cm. longis, foliolis 7, chartaceis, ellip- 
tico-ovatis vel obkmgo-elliptieis, 14 — 27 cm. longis, acuminatis,, 
basi late rotundatis vel obscure cordatis. nervis primariis utrinque 
12 — 15, subtus perspicuis ; inflorescentiis anguste paniculatis, axil- 
laribus, 5 — 7 cm. longis, subcinereo-puberulis ; floribus 4 mm.. 
longis; sepalis oblongo-ovatis, acutis, puberulis. 

A woody vine, the branchlets and inflorescences sparingly 
pubescent. Branches brown, striate, glabrous, about 1 cm. in dia- 
meter. Leaves pinnate, up to 5'0 cm. long; leaflets 7, elliptic-ovate- 
to oblong-elliptic, ehartaeeous, 14 to 27 cm. long, 7 to 11 cm. wide, 
the base rounded or that of the lowermost leaflet sometimes ob- 
scurely cordate, apex shortly acuminate, the upper surface olivace- 
ous, smooth, shining, the lower surface somewhat paler, the midrib 
and nerves brownish; lateral nerves 12 to 15 on each side of the 
midrib, curved-ascending, prominent on the lower surface, not 
anastomosing but directly joining the somewhat cartilaginous mar- 
gins, the reticulations distinct; petiolules 5 to 7 mm. long. In- 
florescences axillary, 5 to 7 cm. long, narrowly paniculate. Mowers 
about 4 mm. long, white, their pedicels 2 to 4 mm. in length, joint- 
ed. Sepals 5, oblong-ovate, acute or sometimes acuminate, brown 
when dry, pubescent. Petals elliptic to oblong-elliptic, obtuse, 
glabrous, 3.5 to 4 mm. long. Stamens 10, their filaments nearly 
free, the younger ones up to 2.5 mm. in, length, the alternating 
shorter cues 1 to 1.5 mm. long. Ovary composed of 5 oblong- 
carpels about 1.5 mm. long, somewhat pubescent, united below. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima, near Sandakan, Ramos- 
lli-85, October. 1920. On dry forested slopes at low altitudes. A 
species well characterized by its large pinnate leaves and its ample 
leaflets. 

Jour. Straits Branch, 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNE AN PLANTS. 315 

RUTACEAE. 

Evodia Forster. 

Evodia punctata sp. nov. 

Arbor parva, partibus junibribus einereo-puberulis ; ramis 
glabris, teretibus, 1 — 5 mm. diametro, ramulis plus mimisve com- 
pressis ; foliis 3-foliolatis, foliolis oblongoeUipticis vel elliptico- 

ovatis, ehartaeeis, olivaeeis, utrinque eoncoloribus, nitidis, 9 — 15 
cm. longis, utrinque angustatis, basi acutis, apice acuminatis, sub- 
tus perspicue atro-punctato-glandulosis, nervis utrinque 12 — 15,.. 
distinctis; infructescentiis lateralibus, pedunculatis, pyramidato- 
paniculatis, 15 cm. longis, fructibus obovoideis, 8 — 10 mm. lougis, 

A nearly glabrous shrub or small tree about 5 m. high, the 
very young parts cinereous-pnberulent. Branches pale-brownish, 
terete, smooth, about 5 mm. in diameter, the branchlets and 
petioles rather dark-brown. Leaves 3-foliolate, their petioles 3 to- 
6 cm. long : leaflets oblong-elliptic to elliptic-ovate, chartaceous,. 
olivaceous, shining, of about the same color on both surfaces, 9 to- 
15 cm. long, 1 to 6 cm. wide, subequally narrowed to the acuminate 
apex and acute base, the lower surface conspicuously black-punc- 
tate-glandular ; lateral nerves 12 to 15 on each side of the midrib, 
spreading, slightly curved, rather obscurely anastomosing, the reti- 
culations lax, not prominent. Infructeseences lateral, peduncled, 
about 15 cm. long, the branches few, spreading, the lower ones up 
to 7 cm. long. Fruits obovoid, the cocci 8 to 10 mm. long, slightly 
compressed and slightly inequilateral, verrucose when dry, the apex 
broadly rounded, base subacute. Seeds black shining, ellipsoid,. 
5 to 6 mm. long. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima, near Sandakan, Ramos 
12S9, October, 19&0. In damp forests at low altitudes. A species 
in many respects closely resembling the Philippine Evodia ternata 
Merr., well characterized, however, by its unusually large fruits. 

Evodia bintoco Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 50, ed. 3, 1 (1STT) 
93; Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 197. 
Evodia mindanaensis Merr. in Philip. Forestrv Bur. Bull. 1 

(1903) 25. 
British North Borneo, Kudat, Agama 1017, November, 1920,. 
near the seashore. Widely distributed in the central and southern 
Philippines, Mindoro, Sibuyan, Tablas. Panay, Leyte, Bohol, Min- 
danao, and Basilan, but not previously recorded from outside of 
that Archipelago. 

MELIACEAE. 
Chisochiton Jussieu. 
Chisochiton brachyanthum sp. nov. 

Arbor parva, partibus junioribus plus minusve pubescentibus ; 
foliis alternis, 25 — 60 cm. longis. foliolis 6 — 12, oblongis vel 
oblongo-ellipticis, subeoriaceis, olivaeeis, utrinque nitidis, 8 — 16- 

R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



.316 NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNE AN PLANTS. 

cm. longis, abrupte subcaudato-acuminatis, nervis utrinque 10 — 13, 
supra leviter impressis, subtus valde perspicuis ; inflorescentiis 
anguste paniculatis vel sub^piciformibus, 40 — 51) cm. longis, ramis 
paucis, brevibus, supra obsoletis et floribus superioribus fascicu- 
latim dispositis; floribus circiter 13 mm. longis, 4-meris; calyce 
truncato; petalis glabris, -1, in dimidio inferiore cum tubum coalitis; 
tubo in partibus superioribus extus adpresse hirsuto-ciliato, intus 
glabro, crenato; antheris 4 vel 5, 1 mm. longis; fructibus juniori- 
bus dense ferrugineo-pubescentibus. 

A small tree, the younger parts more or less pale ferruginous- 
pubescent, branches terete, dark-brown, glabrous, the ultimate 
branchlets about 5 mm. in diameter. Leaves alternate, 25 to 60 
•cm. long, the rachis brown, sparingly pubescent or ultimately gla- 
brous ; leaflets 6 to 12, oblong to oblong-elliptic, subcoriaceous, 
pale-olivaceous to somewhat brownish when dry, shining on both 
surfaces, 8 to 16 cm. long, 4 to T cm. wide, rather abruptly caudate- 
.acuminate, the acumen up to 2 cm. long, blunt, base usually 
rounded, glabrous on both surfaces or the midrib and nerves 
beneath sparingly appressed-pubescent ; lateral nerves 10' to 13 on 
each side of the midrib, spreading, obscurely anastomosing, very 
prominent on the lower surface. Inflorescences narrowly pani- 
culate or subspiciform, 40 to 50 cm. long, the branches few, distant, 
spreading, the lower ones up to 7 cm. long, usually much shorter, 
the upper ones obsolete and the flowers fascicled along the rachis. 
Flowers 4-merous, about 1-3 mm. long, sessile. Calyx cup-shaped, 
truncate, about 1.8 mm. in diameter. Petals 4, linear, about 12 
mm. long, 1.8 mm. wide, glabrous, obtuse, united for the lower 
half with the staminal tube. Staminal tube cvlindric, about 12 
mm. long, 1.8 to 2 mm. in diameter, somewhat appressed-hirsute 
in the upper part, crenate at the apex, the anthers 4 or 5, 1 mm. 
in length, inserted just below the rim and with a few ciliate hairs 
on the back. Ovary ovoid, appressed-pubescent; style pubescent 
in the lower half; stigma subcapitate, 0.5 mm. in diameter. Disk 
"O. Very young fruits densely ferruginous-pubescent, obovoicl. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima and Sibuga, near Sandakan, 
Ramos 1252 (type), 1106, 1899, October, November, and Decem- 
ber, 192'0. In primary forests at low altitudes, with the local 
Malay name bunga tauan. A species allied to Chisochiton amdbilis 
iMiq., but differing, among other characters, in its shorter 1-merous 
flowers. 

Chisochiton kinabaluense sp. nov. 

Arbor, inflorescentiis caulinis exceptis glabra vel subglabra; 
foliis alternis, 40 — 50 cm. longis, foliolis 8 — 10, oppositis, oblongis, 
chartaceis, subolivaceis, nitidis, 14 — 20 cm. longis, tenuiter 
acuminatis. basi inaequilateralibus, acutis, nervis utrinque circiter 
12, subtus perspicuis; inflorescentiis caulinis, anguste paniculatis, 
circiter 10 cm. longis, ramis paucis, patulis, inferioribus circiter 
7 cm. longis; floribus 4-meris, brevissime pedicellatis, racemose 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 317 

dispositis, 2.7 cm. longis, extus leviter adpresse pubescentibus ; 
ealyce cupulato, truneato, 2 mm. diametro; petalis 4, liberis, tubo- 
extus o-labro, intus leviter pubescente ; antheris 5 vel 6, anguste 
oblongis, 2 mm. longis, dorso leviter pubescente; ovario oblongo,. 
adpresse pubescente. 

A tree glabrous or subglabrous except the inflorescence:-, the 
ultimate branchlets dark-brown, terete, about 5 mm. in diameter. 
Leaves alternate, 40 to 50 cm. long; leaflets 8 or 10, opposite, ob- 
long, chartaceous, subolivaceous when dry, shining, 14 to 20 cm. 
long. 5 to 8 cm. wide, rather slenderly but bluntly acuminate, bast 
more or less inequilateral, acute ; lateral nerves about 12 on each 
side of the midrib, prominent on the lower surface, scarcely anasto- 
mosing, the reticulations rather lax, distinct. Inflorescences fas- 
cicled on woody tubercles on the trunk, narrowly paniculate, about 
40 cm. long, somewhat pubescent, the branches few, spreading, the 
lower ones about 7 cm. long. Mowers 4-merous, very shortly pedicell- 
ed and racemosely arranged on the ultimate branchrets, about 2.7 
cm. long. Calyx cup-shaped, truncate, 2 mm. in diameter, sparingly 
appressed-pubescent. Petals 4, free, sparingly appressed-pubescent 
outside, obtuse, the apical part 2 to 2.5 mm. wide. Staminal tube 
glabrous outside, sparingly pubescent inside, about as long as the 
petals, irregularly and shortly toothed at the apex; anthers 5 or 6, 
narrowly oblong, 2 mm. in length, slightly pubescent on the back. 
Ovary oblono-, appressed-pubescent; style slightly pubescent. Disk 
0. 

British North Borneo, Kiau and Minitindok Gorge, Mount 
Kinabalu, up to an attitude of about 1,400 m., Mrs. Clemens 10116 
(type) 10:219, 10J+90, Xovember, 1915. The inflorescences are 
detached, but the field label with Xo. 1'0490 indicates that they 
are borne near the base of the trunk. My specimen of this number 
shows three inflorescences attached to a woody tubercle 1.5 cm. in 
diameter. • - 

Aphanamixis Blwme. 

Aphanamixis sumatrana (Miq.) Harms in Engl, and Prantl 
Xat. Pflanzenfam. 3/4 (1896) 296. 
Amoora sumatrana Miq. Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bot. 4 (1868) 
35; C. DC. in DO. Monog. Phan. 1 (1878) 581. 

British Xorth Borneo, near Sandakan, Villa mil 266, Agama 
413, Clemens 11775, Bamos 11 28: Sarawak, Fox worthy 123. Im 
forests at low altitudes. Malay Peninsula, Sumatra. 

Aglaia Loureiro. 

Aglaia baramensis sp. nov. § Heamia. 

Arbor, partibus junioribus inflorescentiisque dense ferrugineo- 
pubescentibus, indumento stellato ; foliis alternis, 20 — 28 cm. 
longis, foliolis 9 — 13, lanceolatis, subcoriaceis, 7 — 14 cm. longis, 
acuminatis, basi cuneatis, nervis utrinque 15 — 17, vetustioribus 

R. A. Soc, Xo. 86 1922. 



318 NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 

utrinque glabris; panicuhs 20 — 25 cm. longis, dense ferrugineo- 
pubescentibus; multifloris, floribus 5-meris, brevissime pcdicellatis, 
subracemose dispositis ; ealvee circiter 1.5 mm. diametro, lobis 
orbiculari-ovatis ; petalis liberis; tubo stamineo 5-fido. 

A tree, the younger parts, young leaves, and inflorescences 
densely ferruginous-pubescent, the indumentum short, more or less 
stellate. Leaves alternate, 20 to 28 cm. long, the petiole and 
rachis more or less ferruginous-pubescent, in age glabrous or near- 
ly so; leaflets subeoriaceous, lanceolate, 9 to 13, opposite or the 
lower ones suhalternate, 7 to 14 cm. long, 1 to 1.8 cm. wide, nar- 
rowed upward to the acuminate apex and below to the usually 
cuneate base, the upper surface grayish or brownish, glabrous, the 
lower surface rather dark-brown, when young stellate-tomentose, 
ultimately glabrous; lateral nerves 15 to 17 on each side of the 
midrib, prominent on the lower surface, curved-anastomosing, the 
reticulations obscure; petiolnles 2 to 3 mm. long. Panicles ter- 
minal and in the uppermost axils, 2<0 to 2'5 cm. long, densely 
ferruginous-pubescent, the branches more or' less spreading, the 
lower one 3 up to 10 cm. long. Flowers numerous, shortly pedi- 
cellecl, subracemosely arranged on the ultimate branchlets. Calyx 
-about 1.5 mm. in diameter when spread, the lobes- orbicular-ovate, 
0.7 mm. long, usually obtuse, densely ■ pubescent. Petals obovate, 
free, about 2 mm. long. Staminal tube 5-cleft; anthers 5, very 
short, at the tips of the lobes. 

Sarawak, Baram, Lio-Matu, Major J. C. Moulton 19 (= 2768 
Native Collector Bur. Sci.), October 30, 1914, and at the same 
locality, Moulton 6112, October 15, 1920. A species strongly 
characterized by its subcoriaceou.--, narrow, lanceolate leaflets, in its 
vegetative characters radically differing from all previously des- 
cribed species of this section. The staminal tube is divided nearly 
to the base into 5, free, obovate segments. 

BURSERACEAE. 

Santiria Blume. 

Santiria samarensis Merr. in Philip. Jour. Sci. 10 (1915) 
Bot. 31. 
British North Borneo, Sebuga, near Sandakan, Ramos 1801 , 
December, 1920. In damp forests at low altitudes. Previously 
known only from the Philippines, where it occurs in southern 
Luzon, Palawan, Leyte, Samar and Mindanao. Canarium caudati- 
folium Merr. and C. crassifolium Merr. are both synonyms. 

Canarium Linnaeus. 

Canarium pseudocommune Hochr. PI. Bogor. Excicc. (1904) 60. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima, near Saudakan, Ramos 

1698, November, 1920. In damp forests at low altitudes. The 

original description was based on specimens cultivated in the 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW OR XOTE WORTHY BORNE AN PLANTS. 319 

'botanic garden at Buitenzorg, Java; it seems probable that it was 
introduced there from Borneo. 

DICHAPETALACEAE. 

. Dichapetalum Thouars. 
Dichapetalum holopetalum Merr. in Philip. Jour. Sci. 17 
(1980) 271. 
British North Borneo, Batu Lima near Sandakan, Ramos 
1296, 1750, October and November, 1980. In forests at low alti- 
tudes. The specimen conform closely with the Philippine (Min- 
danao) type. 

EUPHORBIACEAE. 

Glochidion Forster. 

'Glochidion lancisepalum sp. nov. § Hemiglocliidion. 

Frutex g-laber, ramulis tenuibus, plus minusve angulatis ; f oliis 
•chartaceis vel subeoriaeeis, lanceolatis vel oblongo-lanceolatis, 11 — ■ 
20 cm. longis, apice tenuiter acuminatis, interdum falcatis, basi 
cuneatis, subtus minutissime verruculosis, nervis utrinque circiter 
5, adscendentibus ; floribus f asciculatis ; 9 paucis, sepalis 6, lanceo- 
latis, 2 mm. longis ; ovario globoso, 3-locellato ; stylis cylindraceis, 
2.5 mm. longis, basi baud constrictis; $ antheris 3, connatis, 2 
mm. longis, sepalis laneeplatis, 2.5 mm. longis, exterioribus accres- 
•centibus. 

A glabrous, apparently dioecious shrub, the ultimate branches 
slender, about 1 mm. in diameter, somewhat angled. Leaves char- 
taceous to subcoriaceous, lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, 11 to 20 
cm. long, 2.3 to 5 cm. wide, narrowed upward to the slenderly 
acuminate apex, the acumen frequently falcate and rather abruptly 
narrowed below to the cuneate base, the upper surface olivaceous, 
smooth, the lower surface paler and very minutely verruculose when 
dry; lateral nerves about 5' on each side of the midrib, rather 
sharply ascending, distinct, obscurely anastomosing, the primary 
reticulations slender, rather lax; petioles 2 to 3 mm. long; stipules 
acicular, about 4 mm. long. Flowers axillary, fascicled, the pistil- 
late ones few, their pedicels up to 6 mm. long. Sepals 6, lanceo- 
late, about 2 mm. long, acute or somewhat acuminate, the alternat- 
ing ones slightly narrower than the others. Ovary globose, gla- 
brous, 3-cellecl, about 0.8 mm. in diameter. Style cylindric, 2.5 
niiii. long, about as thick as the ovary, not contracted at the base, 
very shortly 3-lobed at the tip. Staminate flowers apparently 
somewhat abnormal, their pedicels up to 1 cm. in length, frequent- 
ly supplied with one or two lanceolate bracteoles, the outer three 
sepals lanceolate, acuminate, about 2.5 mm. long, accrescent and 
attaining a length of 4.5 mm., the inner three lanceolate, not 
exceeding 3 mm. in length. Stamens 3, united, the anthers about 
2 mm. long, the connectives slightly produced. 

E. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



320 NEW OR NOTE WOE THY BORNE AN PLANTS. 

Sarawak, Upper Baram, Lio-Matu, Major J. C. Moiilton 671J+ 
(type), 6071-4, October 12 and 15, 1920. Altitude about 160 m. 
A species strongly cbaracterized by its lanceolate, slenderly 
acuminate, few-nerved leaves, and it- lanceolate sepals. The type 
presents pistillate flowers only, the other numbers cited staminate 
flowers only, the latter for the most part being abnormal in their 
accrescent outer sepals. 

Oalearia Zollinger and Moritzi. 
Cialearia stenophylla sp. nov. § Eugalearia. 

Frutex, ramulis intlorescentiisque pubescentibus; foliis lineari- 
lanceolatis vel lanceolatis, 10 — 25 cm. longis, 1 — 2.5 cm. latis, basi 
acutis, apice obscure acuminatis, nervis utrinque 10 — 15, distan- 
tibus, arcuato-anastomosantibus, perspicuis : racemis terminalibus, 
3 — 5 cm. longis, fructibus 1-locellatis, leviter adpresse pubescenti- 
bus, 6 — 7 mm. longis, 8 — 10 mm. latis. 

A shrub, the branehlets rather densely pubescent with short, 
brownish hairs, the branches terete, glabrous, grayish or brownish.. 
Leaves linear-lanceolate to lanceolate, subcoriaceous, 10' to 25 cm. 
long, 1 to 2.5 cm. wide, greenish'-olivaceous, slightly shining, 
glabrous on both surfaces, the base acute, gradually narrowed up- 
ward to the somewhat acuminate apex; lateral nerves 10 to 15 on 
each side of the midrib, curved, arched-anastomosing, prominent 
on the lower surface, the reticulations lax, distinct; petioles 2 to 4 
mm. long. Fruiting racemes terminal, 3 to 5 cm. long, rather 
densely pubescent. Fruits dark-brown when dry, sparingly ap- 
pressed-pubeseent, 6 to 7 mm. long, 8 to 10' mm. wide, 1-celled, 
their pedicels ferruginous-pubescent, about 5 mm. long. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima, near Sandakan, Ramos 
1542, November, 1920. In forests at low altitudes. A very 
strongly marked species, readily distinguishable from all previously 
described forms by its very narrow, elongated, lanceolate leaves. 

Galearia sessiliflora sp. nov. § Eugalearia. 

Frutex, ramulis intlorescentiisque exceptis glaber; foliis char- 
taceis, oblongo-elliptieis, 18 — 2'5 cm. longis, perspicue acuminatis, 
basi pier um que leviter asymmetricis, rotundatis vel subacutis, ner- 
vis utrinque 5 — 8, subtus valcle perspicuis; inflorescentiis 2 folia 
subaequantibus, floribus sessilibus, fasciculatis ; calycis lobis ovatis r 
1 mm. longis, pubescentibus ; petalis glabris, spatulatis vel oblongo- 
obovatis, &.5 — 3 mm. longis, rotundatis, leviter cucullatis; ovario 
dense pubescente. 

A shrub about 2 m. high, glabrous except the somewhat pubes- 
cent branehlets and inflorescences, the branches terete, grayish or 
brownish, 2 to 2.5 mm. in diameter. Leaves chartaceous, oblong- 
elliptic, 1(8 to 25 cm. long, 4 to 9 cm. wide, greenish-olivaceous, 
slightly shining, the base rounded or subacute, usually somewhat 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 321 

inequilateral, the apex rather prominently acuminate; lateral nerves 
5 to 8 on each side of the midrib, somewhat impressed on the 
upper surface, very prominent on the lower surface, the reticula- 
tions lax, very prominent; petioles 5 to 12 mm. long, pubescent 
when young, ultimately glabrous. Pistillate inflorescences ter- 
minal, about as long as the leaves, the flowers sessile, fascicled. 
Calyx appressed-pubescent, 5-lobed, the lobes ovate, acute, about 1 
mm. long. Petals glabrous, oblong-obovate to spatulate, 2.5 to 3 
mm. long, the limb rounded and cucullate, the narrower ba G al part 
1 mm. in length. Ovary densely pubescent, 2-celled; styles very 
short. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima, near Sandakan, Ramos 
1312, October, 19(20. In damp forests at low altitudes. A species 
apparently most closely allied to Galearia phlebocarpa Miq., well 
characterized by its spatulate to oblong-obovate, slightly cucullate 
petals, and its sessile flowers. 

Homonoia Loureiro. 

Homonoia javerasis (Blume) Muell.-Arg. in Linnaea 34 (1865) 
■200, DO. Prodr. 15/2 (1866) 1022; Pax and Hofi'm. in 
Engl. Pflanzenreich 68 (1917) 112, /'. 27. 

British North Borneo, Labuk District, Agama 1115. In 
forests at low altitudes. New to Borneo. Malay Peninsula and 
Java to the central and southern Philippines southward to Timor 
and Xew Guinea. 

Matlotus Loureiro. 

'Mallotus blurneanus Muell.-Arg. in Linnaea 34 (1865) 195, DC. 
Prodr. 15/2 (1866) 978; Pax in Engl. Pflanzenreich 63 
(1911) 157. 

British North Borneo, Kudat, Agama 106S, in dry forests at 
low altitudes. Sumatra, Java. 

Mallotus moritzianus Muell.-Arg. in DC. Prodr. 15/2 (1866) 
971 ; Pax op. cit. 152. 

British Xorth Borneo, Tawao, Wood 906, September, 1920. 
In level places along the Kumpung Eiver. Java. 

Actephila Blume. 

Actephila dispersa (Elm.) Merr. in Philip. Jour. S'cL 4 (1909) 

Bot. 276. 
Pimeleodendron dispersum Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 1 (1908) 

308. 
British Xorth Borneo, Sandakan, Ramos 11+51, Wood 930, 
October, 1920. In damp forests at low altitudes. This species is 
widely distributed in the Philippines (Luzon, Palawan, Leyte, 

R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



322 NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAX PLANTS. 

Siargao, Dinagat, Mindanao), but should be critically compared 
with ActephiJa gigantifolia Koord. of Celebes. The genus is new 
to Borneo. 

Cieistanthus Hooker f. 

Cleistanthus megacarpus C. B. Eob. in Philip. Jour. Sci. 6 
(1911) Bot. 323. 

British North Borneo, Bettotan Kiver, J. Agwma 716, June 9 r 
1919. In forests at low altitudes. Previously known only from 
the Philippines, where it is widely distributed from Mindoro to- 
Negros, Samar, and Mindanao. 

Omphalea Linnaeus. 
Omphalea bracteata (Blanco) Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 230.. 
Tragia bracteata Blanco PI. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 480. 
Omphalea phUippinensis Merr. in Philip. Jour. Sci. 3 (1908) 
Bot. 236. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima, near Sandakan, Ramos 
lJf-53. In forests at low altitudes. Previously known only from 
Luzon, the third species found in Borneo, all three also occurring 
in the Philippines. 

ANACARDIACEAE. 

Melanochyla Hooker f. 
Melanochyla ferruginea sp. nov. 

Arbor parva, ramulis et petiolis et inflore.-centiis et subtus 
foliis dense f errugineo-pubescentibus ; foliis coriaceis, ellipticis vel 
oblongo-ellipticis, 18 — ±2 cm. longis, apice plerumque late rotun- 
datis, basi acutis, supra olivaceis, glabris, minute puncticulatis. 
subtus pallidioribus, molliter pubescentibus, nervis utrinque cir- 
citer 2*2, patulis, valde perspicuis; paniculis angustatis, circiter 30 
cm. longis; floribus 5 — 6 mm. longis, dense f errugineo-pubescenti- 
bus; calycis tubo 3 mm. longo, lobis subacutis, 1.5 mm. longis; 
petalis oblongis, 4 — 5 mm. longis, crassis, dense ferrugineo-pubes- 
centibus, partibus apicalibus reflexis intus glabris. 

A small tree the branchlets, petioles, inflorescences, and the- 
lower surface of the leaves on the midribs and nerves densely ferru- 
ginous-pubescent. Branches terete, sparingly lenticellate, brown- 
ish, glabrous, 5 to 6 mm. in diameter. Leaves coriaceous, elliptic 
to oblong-elliptic, 18 to 42 cm. long, 7 to 17 cm. wide, the apex 
broadly rounded or somewhat refuse, base acute, the upper surface 
olivaceous, glabrous except for the more or less hirsute midrib^ 
supplied with numerous, scattered, minute pits, the lower surface 
paler than the upper, conspicuously and softly pubescent, the in- 
dumentum dense only on the midrib; petioles 1.5 to 2.5 cm. long r 
densely ferruginous-pubescent; lateral nerves about 22 on each 

Jour. Straits Branch; 



NEW OE NOTEWORTHY BORNE AX PLANTS. 323 

side of the midrib, spreading, very prominent on the lower surface. 
Panicles narrow, about 30 cm. long. Flowers 5 to 6 mm. long, 
densely ferruginous-pubescent, the calyx tube about 3 mm. in 
length, the lobes oblong-ovate, subacute, coriaceous, 1.5 mm. long. 
Petals oblong, 4 to 5' mm. long, thickened, densely ferruginous- 
pubescent on both surfaces except on the inner surface of the re- 
flexed apical part. Filaments 2 mm. long, densely ferruginous- 
pubescent. Anthers narrowly oblong, 1 mm. long. Rudimentary 
•ovary densely ferruginous-villous. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima, near Sandakan, Ramos 
1J94> November, 19>20. In damp forests along small streams at 
low altitudes. A species manifestly allied to Melanochyla becca- 
riana Oliv., but with larger, more numerously nerved leaves and 
very much smaller, rather congested flowers. In Oliver's species 
the flowers exceed 1 cm. in length. It is possible that the present 
species may be the same as the form characterized by Oliver as 
var. brevifiora, the flowers of this form being described as from \ 
to \ of an inch in leno-th. 



3 



Semecarpus Linnaeus f. 
Semecarpus borneensis sp. nov. 

Frutex vel arbor parva, ramis glabris, ramulis patule ciliatis; 
foliis subcoriaceis, in siccitate pallidis, nitidis, ellipticis vel ob- 
longo-ellipticis vel obovato-ellipticis, 10 — 20 cm. longis, breviter 
•obtuse acuminatis, basi acutis, supra glabris, subtus glaucescenti- 
bus, ad costam nervosque longe ciliatis, nervis primariis utrinque 
10 — 11, perspicuis, curvatis, secundariis rectangularibus ; inflores- 
centisque $ axillaribus, usque ad 20 cm. longis, subracemosis vel 
depauperato-paniculatis, perspicue ciliatis; floribus breviter pedi- 
•cellatis, subglomeratis, bracteis anguste oblongis, 2 — 3 mm. longis, 
perspicue rufo-ciliatis. 

A shrub or small tree, the branchlets, inflorescences, and leaves 
on the midrib and nerves conspicuously filiate with spreading hairs. 
Branches glabrous, terete, gra3ush-brown. Leaves subcoriaceous, 
pale when dry, shining, elliptic to oblong-elliptic or obovate-elliptic, 
10 to 20 cm. long, 5 to 8 cm. wide, apex shortly and obtusely acu- 
minate, base acute, not decurrent, the upper surface glabrous, the 
lower somewhat glaucous, the ciliate spreading hairs scattered on 
the midrib and lateral nerves; lateral nerves 10 to 11 on each side 
•of the midrib, prominent, rather spreading, curved, anastomosing, 
the primary reticulations leaving the nerves at right angles, pro- 
minent, the ultimate free ones rather distinct; petioles 1.3 to 2 
cm. long. Staminate inflorescences axillary, solitary, subracemose 
or depauperate-paniculate, 6 to 20 cm. long, conspicuously ciliate, 
the. hairs spreading, those on the younger parts rufous. Flowers 
crowded at the nodes in small glomerules, their pedicels 1 mm. 
long or less. Bracts narrowly oblong, 2 to 3 mm. long, conspicu- 
ously riifous-ciliate, the bracteoles similar, smaller. Calyx about 

R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



324 NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 

2 mm. in diameter, the lobes ovate, acute or acuminate, 0.8 mm. 
long, ciliate. Petals oblong-elliptic, 2 mm. long. 

British North Borneo, Rosop, near Kudat, Agama 1061, No- 
vember 15, 19'20. On dry slopes, altitude about 20 m. A species- 
allied to Semecarpus glauca Engl., from which it is distinguished 
by its much shorter, axillary not terminal, usually racemose rather 
than paniculate inflorescences, larger leaves, and other characters. 

Semecarpus oblanceolata sp. nov. 

Frutex erectus, simplex, circiter 1 m. altus, inflorescentiis 
puberulis exceptis glaber ; foliis oblanceolatis, subcoriaeeis, circiter 
75 cm. longis, 13 cm. latis, supra olivaceis, nitidis, glabris, subtus 
pallidioribus, minute scaberulis, apice breviter acuminatis, deorsum 
gradatim angustatis, basi obtusis, 1 — 1.5 cm. latis; nervis primariis 
lateralibus utrinque circiter 30, utrinque valde perspicuis, nervis 
secundariis inter primarios transversis, angulo recto aheuntibus, 
ultimis obseuris, liberis ; paniculis $ terminalibus 20 cm. longis, 
puberulis ; floribus 5-meris ; sepalis petalisque extus puberulis, 
petalis elliptico-ovatis, 2.5 mm. longis. 

An erect, apparently unbranched shrub about 1 m. high,, 
glabrous except the puberulent inflorescences, the stems pale-brown 
when dry, about 1 cm. in diameter, sparingly lenticellate. Leaves 
crowded at the apices of the stems, coriaceous or subcoriaceous,. 
oblanceolate, about 75 cm. long, 13 cm. wide, the upper surface 
olivaceous, shining, glabrous, the lower surface paler but scarcely 
glaucous, minutely scabrid, the apex shortly and sharply acuminate, 
gradually narrowed in the lower three quarters to the abruptly 
rounded base which is but from 1 to 1.5 cm. in width, the midrib, 
lateral nerve.:', and reticulations very prominent on both surfaces, 
the nerves about 30 on each side of the midrib, the reticulations 
lax, the primary ones leaving the nerves at right angles, the ulti- 
mate veinlets obscure, free ; petioles stout, angular, about 1 cm. 
long. Staminate panicles terminal, erect, about 20 cm. long, all 
parts puberulent, the lower branches up to 12 cm. in length, their 
subtending bracts narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, about 5 mm. 
long. Buds obovoid, their pedicels about 1 mm. long. Calyx 
puberulent, 5-lobed, the lobes triangular-ovate, acute, 0.5 mm. long. 
Petals 5, elliptic-ovate, somewhat acuminate, 2.5 mm. long, 
puberulent externally, rather distinctly nerved and reticulate. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima, near Sandakan, Ramos- 
7-7/7, November, 1920. On steep forested slopes near streams at 
low altitudes. A species very closely allied to the Philippine Seme- 
carpus subsessilifolia Merr. ; in habit, size and appearance of its 
leaves closely approximating the latter species, differing in its 
much more lax reticulations, the nerves and midribs prominently 
raised on both surfaces, the lower surface of the leaves minutely 
but distinctly scabrid. 

Jour. Straits Branch. 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 325 

HIPPOCRATEACEAE. 

Salacia Linnaeus. 

Salacia nitidissima sp. nov. 

Frutex scandens, glaberrimus ; ramis ramulisque minute lenti- 
•eellatis ; foliis coriaceis, elliptico-ovatis vel oblongo-ellipticis, utrin- 
(]iie nitidis, 8—15 cm. longis, basi acutis, a pice obtuse acuminatis, 
nervis utrinque 8 — 10, perspicuis; noribus paucis, axillaribus, 9 — 
11 mm. diametro, sepalis orbieulari-ovatis, rotundatis, 2 mm. dia- 
metro, petalis ellipticis vel elliptico-ovatis, 5 — 5.5 mm. longis, disco 
crasso, 3 m-m. diametro, rilamentis latis, circiter 1 mm. longis. 

A glabrous scandent vine, the branches reddish-brown to some- 
what grayish with numerous small lenticels, the ultimate branch- 
lets about 1.5 mm. in diameter. Leaves opposite, coriaceous, 
elliptic-ovate to oblong-elliptic, rather pale when dry and pro- 
minently shining on both surfaces, 8 to 15 cm. long, 3 to 5.5 cm. 
wide, entire, the margins somewhat recurved, subequally narrowed 
to the acute base and the bluntly acuminate apex, the acumen up 
to 1 cm. long; lateral nerves 8 to 10 on each side of the midrib, 
rather prominent on the lower surface, distinct ; petioles 8 to 10 
mm. long. Flowers few, in axillary fascicles, 9 to 11 mm. in dia- 
meter, their pedicels 3 to 4< mm. long, subtended by few broadly 
ovate bracteoles about 1 mm. in length. Sepals 5, orbicular-ovate, 
rounded, about 2 mm. in diameter, glabrous. Petals elliptic to 
elliptic-ovate, rounded, 5 to 5.5 mm. long. Disk about 3 mm. in 
•diameter, thick. Stamens 3, their filaments flattened, about 1 mm. 
long, scarcely exceeding the disk, the anthers transversely oblong. 

British North Borneo, Sibuga, near Sandakan, Ramos 1860, 
December, 1920. In open forests at low altitudes. A species ap- 
parently most closely allied to Salacia maingayi Laws., but with 
more numerously nerved, blunt-acuminate leaves and longer petioles. 
The flowers, a3 in Lawson's species, are fascicled, few in number, 
but not borne on tubercles. 

Salacia oblongifolia Blnme Bijdr. (1825) 220. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima near Sandakan, Ramos 1561, 
1690. In secondary forests at low altitudes. Previously known 
■only from Java, the specimens agreeing very closely both with 
Blume's description and with Javan material. 

ICACINACEAE. 

Phytocrene Wallich. 

Phytocrene anomala sp. nov. 

Frutex scandens' hirsutus ; foliis chartacei^, oblongis vel ob- 
longo-oblanceolatis, integris, acuminatis, basi rotundatis cordatis- 
que, nervis utrinque 8 — 10, subtus valde perspicuis ; inflorescentiis 

,R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



326 NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 

6 et 9 globosis, axillaribus, solitariis, pedunculitis, 8 8 mm. 
diametro, floribus 4-meris, bibracteolatis, bracteolis linearis, bir- 
sutis ; i'ructibus junioribus oblongo-elhpsoideis, 2 cm. longis, den- 
sissime adpresse reflexeque hirsutis. 

A seandent woody vine, the branchlets and leaves on the lower 
surface rather prominently hirsute. Branches up to 5 mm. in 
diameter, grayish, ultimately glabrous,, the younger branchlets 
about 1.5 mm. in diameter, with two types of indumentum : pale A 
short, numerous, spreading hairs; and scattered, longer, purplish 
ones. Leaves ehartaeeous, oblong to broadly obloiig-oblanceolate, 
entire, the upper surface olivaceous, glabrous or nearly so or the 
midrib somewhat hirsute, the lower surface paler and conspicuous- 
ly hirsute on the midrib, nerves, and reticulations, the margins 
entire, or obscurely denticulate in younger leaves, narrowed upward 
to the somewhat acuminate apex and below to the rather abruptly 
rounded and distinctly cordate base; 1 lateral nerves 8 to TO on each 
side of the midrib, very prominent on the lower surface as are the 
reticulations; petioles hirsute, 10 to T3 mm. long. 'Staminate in- 
florescences axillary, peduncled, solitary, globose, the heads about 
8 mm. in diameter, their peduncles hirsute, about TO mm. long, the- 
staminate flowers numerous, crowded, 2-bracteolate, the bracteoles 
linear, 3 to 4 mm. long, densely hirsute. Flowers funnel-shaped, 
about 3 mm. long, somewhat hirsute, 4-lobed, the lobes ovate to- 
elliptic-ovate, acute, about 1.3 mm. long. Stamens 4, their fila- 
ments about 2 mm. in length ; anthers elliptic-oblong, 1 mm. long. 
Pistillate inflorescences axillary, solitary, glabrous, the young fruits 
ovoid to oblong-ellipsoid, narrowed at both ends, about 2 cm. long, 
densely hirsute with renexed, appressed, brown, stiff hairs, the 
calyces similar to those of the staminate flowers, somewhat accres- 
cent and 5 to 6 mm. in length. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima and Sibu'ga, near Sandakan, 
Bam os 1SJ+S, 1508, 153 J/, (type), October, November, and Decem- 
ber, 1920. In secondary forests at low altitudes. Sarawak, Upper 
Baram, Lio-Matu, Moulton 6703-25, October, 1920. A remark- 
able species, not only on account of its vegetative characters, but 
also on account of its solitary, globose, axillary, peduncled stamin- 
ate heads, in this last character differing radically from all pre- 
viously known representatives of tne genus. 

lodes Bin me. 

lodes philippinensis Merr. in Philip. Jour. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot,. 
241. 

British North Borneo, Sapang and Batu Lima, near Sandakan, 
Yates JO, Ramos HIO. In tbickets and secondary forests at low 
altitudes. The material exactly matches lodes philippinensis- 
Merr. which is common in the central and southern Philippines,, 
southern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, in all or most islands. 

Jour. Straits Branch^ 



NEW OR NOTE WORTH Y BORNE AN PLANTS. 327 

ELAEOCARPACEAE. 

Blaeccarpus Linnaeus. 

Elaeocarpus brevipes sp. nov, 

Arbor circiter 8 m. alta, pubescens ; i'oliis breviter petiolatis T 
oblongis, chartaceis vel subcoriaceis, usque ad IT cm. longis, acu- 
minatL-, basi obtusis vel subacutis, margine perspicue distanter 
serratis, nervis utrinque circiter 12, subtus perspicuis ; stipulis 6 — 
7 mm. longis, palmatim laciniatis ; racemis usque ad 12 cm. longis, 
multifloris, floribus 4 — 5 mm. longis, sepalis extus adpresse pubes- 
centibus; petalis obovatis, glabris, laciniis numerosis. 

A tree about 8 m. high, more or less softly pubescent. Bran- 
ches terete, smooth, ultimately glabrous, brown, the branchlets 
softly pubescent with short hairs. Leaves oblong, chartaceous *to 
subcoriaceous, olivaceous, somewhat shining, 11 to 17 cm. long, 5 
to 7 cm. wide, the apex acuminate, base obtuse to subacute, mar- 
gins rather conspicuously serrate in the upper one-half to two- 
thirds, entire below, the upper surface glabrous or slightly pubes- 
cent on the midrib, the lower surface rather uniformly pubescent 
with short hairs ; stipules pubescent, deciduous, orbicular to obo- 
va.te in outline, 6 to 7 mm. long, palmatelV laeiniate, the lobes 7 
to 9, usually extending to about the middle ; petioles pubescent, 7 
to 10 mm. long. Racemes axillary, more or less fascicled, 6 to 12 
cm. long, pubescent. Flowers numerous, white, 4 to 5 mm. long, 
their pedicels 5 to 8 mm. long. Sepals 5, oblong-ovate, acute,, 
sparingly appressed-pubescent, 4 to 5 mm. long. Petals equaling 
the sepals ; glabrous, obovate, the fimbriae about 25, extending to 
about the middle. Stamens about 30, the anthers blunt, 1.8 mm. 
long. Ovary pubescent.; style 2 mm. long, pubescent below. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima, near Sandakan, Wood 952 T 
October To, 1920. In damp forests at low altitudes. A species 
manifestly allied to Elaeocarpus gdmbir Becc, differing especially 
in its rather conspicuously toothed not entire leaves. 

TILIACEAE. 

Grewia Linnaeus. 

Grewia pyriformis sp. nov. 

Arbor parva, inflorescentiis exceptis glabra; foliis coriaceis, 
nitidis, oblongo-ellipticis vel elliptico-ovatis, 20 — 3)5 cm. longis, 
basi late acutis vel rotundatis, leviter asymmetricis, obscure 3- 
nerviis, apice obtuse acuminatis, nervis utriuque 6 — 10, valde per- 
spicuis; paniculis axillaribus terminalibusque, pubescentibus, 8 — 12 
cm. longis; f ructibu ; pyriformibus, glabris, 3 cm. longis, endo- 
carpio osseo, mesocarpio nbroso. 

A small tree, glabrous except the inflorescences, the branches 
reddish-brown or grayish, somewhat rugo-e when dry. Leaves 

R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



-328 NEW OE NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 

coriaceous, oblong-elliptic to elliptic-ovate, 20 to 35 cm. long, 9 to 
14 cm. wide, entire, brownish-olivaceous to greenish-olivaceous 
when dry, shining on both surfaces, the base broadly acute to round- 
ed, somewhat 3-nerved, the axillary glands when present not beard- 
ed, the apex broadly acuminate; lateral nerves, including the basal 
pair, 6 to 10 on each side of the midrib, somewhat ascending, 
curved-ana:- tomosing close to the margin, prominent on both sur- 
faces, the primary reticulations rather lax, distinct, subparallel; 
petioles 1.5 to 2.5 cm. long. Panicles axillary and terminal, in 
fruit 8 to 12 cm. long, somewhat pubescent. Fruits obovoid or 
pyriform, smooth, brown when dry, glabrous, about 3 cm. long, the 
endocarp hard, bony, the mesocarp fibrous. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima, near Sandakan, Ramos 
1704 (type), U88, 1622, October and November, 192-0. In damp 
forests at low altitudes. A species manifestly in close alliance with 
the Philippine Grewia stylocarpa Warb., from which it is easily 
distinguished by its much larger fruits. 

Neesia Blame. 

Neesia synandra Mast, in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 1 (1874) 352, 
Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 14 (1875) 504; King in Jour. 
As. Soc. 60 (1891) o(] [Mat. Fl. Malav Penin. 1 (1891) 
165]. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima, near Sandakan, Bamos 
1640, November, 192'0. The specimen is in fruit and so L not 
directly comparable with my material of N. synandra Mast, from 
the Malay Peninsula and Penang. The vegetative characters, how- 
ever, seem to be an exact match for Penang material, coll. Fox. 
The fruits are described as from 6 to 9 inches long and 4 to 5 
inches in diameter and further as ovoid-conic, much as in the 
Javan Neesia altissima Blume. The fruits of the present species, 
not quite mature, are ellipsoid, when fresh 30 cm. long and 18 cm. 
in diameter, when dry about 20 cm. long and 10 to 12 cm. in dia- 
meter. The leaves attain a length of 50 cm. and a breadth of 25 
cm. It may represent a distinct species, but more and complete 
material of both Neesia synandra Mast., and N. altissima Blume 
will be necessary to determine this point. 

Boschia Korthals. 

Boschia griffithii Mast, in Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 14 (1875) 5€3, 
/. 15, f. 29-39, t. 16, f. 40-42; King in Jour. As. Soc. 
Bengal 60 (1891) oh | Mat. Fl. Malav. Pen. 1 (1891) 
164]. 
British North Borneo, Batu Lima, near Sandakan, Ramos 
1794. In forests at low altitudes. All the known species of this 
genus are represented in the herbarium of the Bureau of Science. 
The present species was previously known from the Malay Penin- 
sula and Sumatra. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BOBNEAN BLANTS. 319* 

STERCULIACEAE. 

Sterculia L in naeus. 

Sterculia trichopetiolata sp. hov. 

Frutex eirciter 2 m. altus, petiolis densissime ferrugineo- 
hirsutis exceptis glaber vel suhglaber ; ranmlis eirciter 5 nim. 
diametro; foliis oblanceolatis vel obi ongo- oblanceolatis, chartaceis r 
utrinque glabris nitidisque, 27 — 12 em. longis, tenuiter caudato- 
acuminatis, deorsum gradatim angustatis, basi acutis, nervis utrin- 
que 18 — 20, subtus valcle perspicuis ; stipulis membranaceis, anguste 
oblongo-lanceolatis, 1.5 — 2 cm. longis, margine ciliatis; paniculis 
glabris, eirciter 25 cm. longis, raniis patulis. inferioribus 5 cm. 
longis, bracteis cadnceis, 6 — 10 mm. longis: floribus $ eirciter 11 
mm. longis, extns glabris, lobis triangulari-ovatis, acutis, erectis vel 
ptatulis, baud coherentibus, 4 mm. longis, intus birsutis ; antheris 
10: follicnlis oblongis, 5 — 8 cm. longis, rostrato-acuminatis, extus 
densissime ferrugineo-pubescentibus, intus glabris. 

A shrub about 2 m. high, glabrous or nearly so except the very 
densely ferruginous-hirsute, somewhat thickened petioles, the ul- 
timate branches brownish, terete, glabrous, sparingly lenticellate, 
about 5 mm. in diameter. Leaves crowded at the apices of the 
branchlets, oblanceolate to oblong-oblanceolate, chartaceous, olivace- 
ous, glabrous and shining on both surfaces, 27 to 42 cm. long, 6 to 
12 cm, wide, the apex slenderly caudate-acuminate, gradually nar- 
rowed below to the acute base: lateral nerves 18 to 20 on each side 
of the midrib, somewhat curved, arched-anastomosing, very promi- 
nent on the lower surface as are the lax primary reticulations: 
petioles about 1 cm. long, very densely hirsute with stiff spreading 
ferruginous hairs 2 to 3 mm. in length; stipules membranaceous, 
•narrowly oblong-lanceolate, obtuse or acuminate, 1.5 to 2 cm. long, 
about 4 mm. wide, their margins ciliate, otherwise glabrous or near- 
ly so. Panicles glabrous, in the uppermost axils, in anthesis about 
25 cm. long, the branches spreading, the lower ones about 5 cm. 
in length, when young the primary branches subtended by mem- 
branaceous, oblong-ovate to lanceolate, caducous bracts, 6 to 10 
mm. in length. Staminate flowers about 11 mm. long, glabrous 
outside, the tube somewhat cup-shaped, about 6 mm. long, rounded 
or obtuse at the base, the lobes 5, triangular-ovate, acute, erect or 
spreading, not at all cohering, hirsute inside, about 4 mm. long. 
Anthers about 10, 1.2 mm. long, the globose head about 2.5 mm. 
in diameter, the glabrous androphore 2 mm. in length. Follicles 
oblong, 5 to 8 cm. long, about 2 cm. wide, very densely ferruginous- 
pubescent externally, glabrous internally, rostrate-acuminate, base 
narrow, the pericarp subcoriaceous. Seeds 2 to 5, dark-brown, 
ellipsoid, about 12 mm. long. 

British North Borneo, Batu lima, near Sandakan, Ramos, 1702 
(type), Agama 1030, November, 1920. On steep forested slopes 
at low altitudes. A species belong in the group with Sterculia 

R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



330 NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 

spatulaia Warb., in general appearance very similar to S. yatesii 
Men*., differing from the latter in its very densely ferruginous- 
hirsute petioles, in its flowers being glabrous, and in its shorter 
perianth lobes which do not at all cohere and are not at all arched. 



DILLENIACEAE. 
Actinidia Lindley. 

Actinidia latifolia (Gard. & Champ.) comb. nov. 

Heptaca latifolia Gard. & Champ, in Hook. Jour. Bot. Kew 
Miscel. 1 (1849) 243. 

Actinidia Championi Benth. Fl. Hongk. '(1861) 26; Dunn in 
Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 39 (1911) 407. 

Kadsura pubescens Miq. Fl. Tnd. Bat. Suppl. (1861) 620. 

Actinidia miquelii King in Jour. As. Soc. Bengal 59-2 (1890) 
126, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 5 (1896) t. 176. 

British North Borneo, Mount Kalawat, Mrs. Clemens 11166, 
December 11, 1915. 

The specimen, in fruit, matches Teysmann k229 from Lam- 
pongs. Sumatra, a cotype of Mi quel's Kadsura pubescens, and 
King's collector 51fS7 from Perak, which were kindly loaned to me 
by Col. A. Gage, Director of the Botanic Garden, Calcutta, for 
examination. Dunn,* in his revision of the genus Actinidia, states 
that there does not appear to be any distinction to be drawn between 
,4. championi and A. miquelii; I agree with Mr. Dunn after com- 
paring Chinese and Malayan Material. The oldest valid specific 
name is that supplied by. Heptaca latifolia Gard. & Champ. Fukien 
and dvwangtung Provinces, China, Hongkong, Formosa, Indo- 
China, M'alay Peninsula, Sumatra. The genus is new to Borneo.' 

Saurauia Willdenoiv. 
Saurauia amplifolia sp. nov. 

Frutex vel arbor parva, pedicellis fioribusque leviter pubes- 
centibus exceptis glabra, ramulis ultimis 6 — 8 mm. diametro, paleis 
panels crassis laneeolatis adpressis instructis; foliis chartaeeis, ob- 
longo-ellipticis vel oblongo-oblanceolatis, 45 — 55 cm. longis, usque 
ad 21 em. ktis, supra laevibus, subolivaceis, nitidis, subtus pallidiori- 
bus, apice acutis vel breviter acuminatis, basi acutis, margine dis- 
tanter dentieulatis, nervis utrinque 15 — 19, subtus perspicuis; 
fl.oribus plerisque fasciculatis, fasciculis canlinis vel in ramis 
vetustioribus, pedicellis tenuibns, leviter pubescentibus, usque ad 
1.5 cm. longis; floribus 5-meris, 1.4 cm. diametro, sepalis ellipticis, 
4.5 mm. longis, oxtus leviter pubescentibus; staminibus circiter 20; 
ovario ovoideo, leviter pubeseente, stylis 3 liberis. 

Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 39 (1911) 394-410. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 331 

A shrub or small tree glabrous except the sparingly pubes- 
cent pedicels and flowers, the ultimate branchlets 6 to 8 mm. in 
•diameter, gray or dark-brown and with few appressed, lanceolate, 
acuminate scales 1.5 to 2 mm. in length. Leaves chartaceous oblong- 
elliptic to oblong-oblanceolate, 45 to 55 cm. long, 15 to 20 cm. 
wide, the upper surface greenish-olivaceous, somewhat shining, the 
lower paler, apex acute or shortly acuminate, narrowed, below to the 
acute base, the margins distantly but rather conspicuously denti- 
culate or sometimes erenate, the slightly projecting teeth being 
foirmed by the ex current nervules; lateral nerves 15 to 19 on each 
side of the midrib, prominent on both surfaces, especially so beneath, 
.and on the lower surface with occasional, widely scattered, appressed, 
linear-lanceolate scales, arched-anastomosing close to the margin, 
the primary reticulations lax; petioles often rather stout, about 3 
cm. long. Flowers chiefly in large, very dense fascicles on the 
trunk and larger branches below the leaves, the pedicels often very 
numerous, up to 100 or more in a fascicle, sometimes few and but 
8 or 10 or even fewer in a fascicle, the pedicels slender, sparingly 
pubescent, up to 1.5 cm. long. Flowers about 1.4 cm. in diameter, 
the sepals elliptic, obtuse or rounded, about 4.5 mm. long, sparingly 
pubescent externally. Corolla lobes 5 to 6 mm. long, 2.5 to 4 mm. 
wide, the apex somewhat inequilateral. Stamens about 20. the 
filaments and anthers 2 mm. in length. Ovary ovoid, slightly 
pubescent; styles 3, free, 3.5 mm. long. Fruit globose, glabrous 
about 8 mm. in diameter. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima and Sibuga, near Sandakan, 
Ramos 121^5 (type), 1829, Agama lOJ^-5, November and December, 
1920. On damp forested slopes at low altitudes. A species well 
characterized by being nearly glabrous throughout; by its very 
large, smooth, glabrous leaves; and by its densely fascicled flowers, 
the flowers being for the most part borne on the trunk and larger 
branches, many fascicles being from 3 to 5 cm. in diameter and 
often presenting 100 or more pedicels. 

THEACEAE. 
Gordonia Ellis. 

Gordonia graodiflora sp. nov. 

Arbor circiter 12 m. alta; foliis brevipetiolatis, coriaceis, ob- 
longo-ellipticis, usque ad 18 cm. longis, breviter obtuseque acumi- 
natis, basi rotnndatis vel leviter cordatis, margine crenulatis; 
floribus permagnis, 10 ad 11 cm. diametro; capsulis junioribus 5 
ad 6 cm. longis, apiculato-acuminatis. 

A tree about 12 m. high, the stout branchlets and the lower 
surfaces of the leaves somewhat pubescent. Leaves subsessile, 
coriaceous, oblong-elliptic, 14 to 18 cm. long, 6 to S cm. wide, 
shining, margins crenulate, apex very broadly and obtusely acu- 
minate, base somewhat narrowed and abruptly rounded or slightly 

H. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



332 NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 

cordate, the midrib very prominent beneath, the lateral nerves- 
slender, about 15 on each side of the midrib. Flowers white,. 
axillary, solitary, 10 to 11 cm. in diameter. Sepals coriaceous,- 
broadly ovate to orbicular-ovate, rounded, glabrous or slightly 
pubescent, 1.5 to 2 cm. long and somewhat accrescent in anthesis. 
Petals obovate to oblong-obovate, 4 to 5 cm. long, somewhat 
pubescent externally. Stamens very numerous, free, the filaments 
glabrous, up to 3 cm. long; anthers 3 to 3.5 mm. long. Ovary 
pubescent. Style slender, glabrous, up to 2.5 cm. long. Immature- 
capsules 5 to 6 cm. long, apiculate-acuminate, sulcate. Seeds 
winged. 

British North Borneo, Bosab, near Kudat, Castro 972, Novem- 
ber 14, 1920. On dry slopes, altitude about 50' m. A species well' 
characterized by its unusually large subsessile leaves and by its 
very large flowers. 

In this connection the species described by 'me from Amboina: 
as Gordonia rumpliii Merr. Inter. Herb. Amb. (1917) 368 is mani- 
festly identical with the form described by Miquel as Laplacea am- 
boinensis. The synonymy should be as follows : 

Gordonia amboinensis (Miq.) comb. nov. 

Laplacea amboinensis Miq.- Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat, 4 (18'68)- 
114. 

Haemocliaris amboinensis Burkill in Jour. Str. Branch Bov. 
As. Soc. 76 (1917) 141, 158. 

Gordonia rumpliii Merr. Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 368. 

I agree with Burkill's expressed opinion* that the Malayan 
species of TIaemocliaris (Laplacea) should be placed in Gordonia. 
In discussing this particular species Mr. Burkill treated it as 
TIaemocliaris rather than Laplacea. I can find no reference to its 
previous treatment under TIaemocliaris. 

FLACOURTIACEAE. 

Taraktogenos Kurz. 

Taraktogenos grandif lora sp. nov. 

Arbor circiter 10 m. alta, ramulis et subtus foliis ad costam 
nervosque pubescentibus ; foliis oblongis, coriaceis, 25 — 35 cm. 
longis, abrupte acuminatis,basi subrotundatis,leviter inaequilatera- 
libus, nervis utrinque 10' — 12, subtus valde perspicuis, petiole* 
6 — 8 mm. longo, floribus $ 3 — 4 cm. diametro, cymis axilkribus, 
paucinoris; sepalis 8, orbicnlaribus vel obovatis, 1.5 — 2 cm. longis; 
petalis 9- — 12, usque ad 10 mm. longis, leviter flmbriatis; staminibus 
numerosis. 



*Burkill, I. H., Gordonia, Journ. Str. Branch, Roy. As. Soc. 76. (1917) 
133-159, fig. 1 5. 

Jour. Stvaits Brauck 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 333 

A tree about 10 m. high, the young branches and the leaves 
beneath on the midrib and nerves more or less ferruginous- 
pubescent, otherwise glabrous or nearly so. Branches terete, gray- 
ish or brownish. Leaves oblong, coriaceous, brown or brownish 
olivaceous when dry, somewhat shining, 25 to 35 cm. long, 8 to 11 
cm. wide, apex abruptly acuminate, the acumen about 1 cm. long, 
'base sub rounded, slightly inequilateral; lateral nerves 10 to 12 on 
each side of the midrib, very prominent on the lower surface, 
curved-anastomosing, the primary reticulations prominent, sub- 
parallel; petioles 6 to 8 mm. long, stout, somewhat pubescent:; 
stipules oblong-lanceolate, coriaceous, about 1 cm. long, 3 mm. wide. 
Male flowers white, 3 to 4 cm. in diameter, in axillary few-flowered 
•cymes, the peduncles stout, about 1 cm. long, the pedicels about 1.5 
cm. long. Sepals 8, orbicular to obovate, rounded, glabrous, 1.5 
to 2 cm. long, the outer smaller than the inner ones. Petals 9 to 
12, orbicular to obovate, unequal, 7 to 10 mm. long, 5 to 8 mm. 
wide, more or less fimbriate, the thick basal scale somewhat pubes- 
cent, sulcate, 3 to 4 mm. long, 2 to 3.5 mm. wide. Stamens very 
numerous, the filaments 1 cm. long; anthers elliptic, 4 mm. long, 
3 mnii. wide. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima, near Sandakan, Wood 960, 
October 10, 1920. In clamp forests at low altitudes. A remark- 
able species not only in its very large flowers, but also in its numer- 
ous sepals and petals. In spite of the fact that the 1 pistillate flowers 
and fruits are unknown it is clearly a TaraMogenos. 

Casearia Jacquin. 
Casearia borneensss sp. nov. 

Arbor parva, glaberrima; foliis integris, oblongo-ovatis, utrin- 
que nitidis concoloribus, 12 — 20 dm. longis, 6 — 9 cm. latis, sub- 
coriaceis, acute acuminatis, basi acutis, epunctatis, nervis utrinque 
•circiter 8, perspicuis, reticulis conf ertis, utrinque distinctis ; petiolo 
1 — 1.5 cm. longo; fructibus axillaribus, plerisque fascioulatis, 
ovoideis, 1.8 — 2.5 cm. longis, pedicellatis. 

A small, entirely glabrous tree, the branches terete, smooth. 
.Leaves entire, oblong-ovate, 'Subcoriaceous, brownish-olivaceous and 
conspicuously shining on both surfaces when dry, subcoriaceous, 12 
to 20 cm. long, 6 to 9 cm. wide, apex acutely acuminate, base acute, 
not punctate; lateral nerves about 8 on each side of the midrib, 
rather prominent, the reticulations close and distinct on both 
surfaces; petioles 1 to 1.5 cm. long. Fruits axillary, mostly fasci- 
cled, ovoid to oblong-ovoid, dark red when mature, 1.8 to 2.5 cm. 
long, dark brown and shining when dry, the pedicels about 5 mm. 
long. Persistent sepals glabrous, 2 mm. long. 

British North Borneo, near S.andakan, Ramos 1167, Wood 961 
(type), October 20, 1920< Mrs. Clemens 9499, December 2-1, 1915. 
In clamp forests at low altitudes. A species well characterized by 
being entirely glabrous and in its very entire, strongly shining, 
•densely reticulate leaves. 

R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



334 NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 

BEGONIACEAE. 

Begonia Linnaeus. 

Begonia angustilimba sp. now § Petermannia. 

Herba erecta, suffrutieosa, 40 — 90 cm, alta, partibus junioribus 
perspicue ciliatis ; foliis numerosis, chartaceis, anguste ianceolatis, 
10* — 16 cm. longis, 1 — 3 cm. latis, acoimmatis, basi abrupte rotun- 
datis, leviter cordatis, symmetricis vel leviter inaequilateralibus, 
margine irregulariter serrato-dentatis spinulosisque ; stipulis per- 
spicuis, subpersistentibus, 1.5 — 2 cm. longis, oblongo-lanceolatis, 
tennitcr acuminatis; floribns axillaribus, plerumque solitariis, S 
sepalis 2, obovoicleis, 8 — 10 mm. longis; petalis 0, pedicellis 1.5 — 2 
cm. longis; 9 breviter pedicellatis ; eapsulis aequaliter 3-alatis, 
circiter 8 mm. longis, 11 mm. latis, basi rotundatis, apice subacutis, 
omnibus partibus perspicue longe ciliatis vel ciliato-setosis. 

An erect, simple or sparingly branched, suffruteseent plant. 
40 to 90 cm. high, the younger parts rather prominently ciliate with 
elongated, spreading, brownish hairs, the older stems and branches 
glabrous, brown, rugose, about 3 nun. in diameter. Leaves numerous, 
chartaceous, narrowly lanceolate, greenish-olivaceous when dry, 
shining, the lower surface paler than the upper one, both surfaces 
sparingly ciliate on the midrib and nerves, or the upper surface glab- 
rous, straight or somewhat falcate, slightly inequilateral, 10 to 16 
cm. long, 1 to 2 cm. wide, the apex rather slenderly acuminate, base 
rather abruptly rounded, slightly cordate, equilateral or somewhat 
inequilateral, the margin irregularly toothed and spinulose in the 
upper part, the teeth obscure or wanting in the lower part: lateral 
nerves sharply ascending, about 5 on each side of the midrib, 
slender, distinct; petioles ciliate, 2 to 4 mm. long; stipules rather 
thin, 1.5 to 2 cm. long, oblong-lanceolate, slenderly acuminate, some- 
what ciliate, subpersistent. Flowers axillary, solitary or in pairs, 
white. Staminate flowers ; sepals 2, obovate, rounded, sparingly 
ciliate 8 to 10 mm. long, 6 to 8 mm. wide. Petals none. Stamens 
about 35, the anthers obovoid to oblong-obovoid, 1 mm. long, equal- 
about 35, the anthers ovoid to oblong-obvoid, 1 mm. long, equalling 
ling the filaments in length. Pedicels slender 10 to 12 mm. long, 
glabrous or very slightly ciliate. Pistillate flowers axillary, solitary, 
their pedicels about 2 man. long. Sepals 3, elliptic-ovate, subacute, 
6 to 7 mm. long, sparingly ciliate. Capsules equally 3-winged, about 
8 mm. long, 11 mm. wide, rounded at the base, the apex subacute, 
the outer upper angles of the wings subacute or rounded, all parts, 
of the capsule, including the wings, prominently ciliate with elong- 
ated, spreading, purplish or brownish setae 2 to 3 mm. in length. 
British Xorth Borneo, near Sandakan, Ramos 1388, October, 
1920. On cliffs and boulders along streams at low altitudes. A 
species strongly characterized by its narrow, elongated, often some- 
what falcate leaves, its persistent large sepals, its axillary solitary 
flowers, and its conspicuously setose-ciliate capsules. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 335 

THYMELAEACEAE. 

Linostoma Wollich. 

Linostoma pauciflorum Griff, in Calcutta Jour. Xat. Hist. 4 
(1844) 234 in nota; Gamble in Jour. As. Soc. Bengal 75 
(1912) 261. 

Psilaea dalbwgioides Miq. Fl. Ind. Bot. Snp.pl. (1861) 355. 

British Forth Borneo, Sandakan, Ramos 1799. In secondary 
forests at low altitudes. Burma, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra. The- 
genus is new to Borneo. 

MYRTACEAE. 

Eugenia Linnaeus. 
Eugenia sandakanensis sp. nov. § Jambosa. 

Arbor parva, glabra, ramis ramulisque teretibus pallide griseis, 
ramulis 2.5 mm. dianietro; foliis coriaceis,rigidis, oblongo-ellipticis, 
14 — 17 cm. longis, apice obtuse acuminatis, basi acutis vel deeur- 
rento-acuminatis, supra olivaceis, nitidissimis, minute p'uncticuiatis, 
ad costam perspieue glandnloso-punctatis, subtus pallidioribus, atro- 
punctatis, nervis utrinque 12 — 15, suibtus perspicuis, rectis, 
marginalibus perspicuis, leviter arcuatis; inflorescentiis in ramis 
sub folia, axiilaribus, depauperato-cymosis, fasciculatis, vix 1 
cm. longis; floribus 4-meris, sessilibus, sub anthesin 1.5 cm. 
diametro, alabastro obovoideo, 3 mm. diametro. 

A small, glabrous tree, the branches and branchlets terete, 
pale-gray, the ultimate branchlets 2.5 man. in diameter. Leaves 
coriaceous, rigid, oblong-elliptic, 14 to 17 qm. long, 6 to 7 cm. 
wide, subequalTy narrowed to the acute or somewhat decurren'-- 
acuminate base, and the blunt-acuminate apex, the upper surface 
olivaceous, strongly shining, minutely pitted, smooth, the midrib, 
conspicuously glandular-punctate, the nerves sligritlj impressed, 
distinct, the lower surface paler, conspicuously black-punctate ; 
lateral nerves 12 to 15 on each side of the midrib, straight, promi- 
nent, anastomosing directly with the slightly arched, equally distinct 
marginal nerves 4 to 6 mjm. from tine edge of the leaf, the reticula- 
tions slender, indistinct ; petioles stout, 5 to 7 mm. long. Inflores- 
cences from the branches below the leaves, axillary, composed of 
very short, few-flowered, fascicled, depauperate-cymose axes 7 mm. 
long or less. Flowers white, in anthesis about 15 mm. in diameter, 
the buds obovoid, 3 mm. in diameter, narrowed below into the i 
to 2 mm. long pseudostalk, sessile, subtended by a pair of minute 
bracteoles. Calyx throat in (anthesis about 7 mm. in diameter, the 
lobes 4, broadly rounded, 2 mm. long, about 4 mm. wide. Petals 
free, orbicular, punctate-glandular, 4.5 mm. in diameter. Stamens 
indefinite, their filaments 4 to 5 mm. long. 

R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



336 NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 

British North Borneo, Sandakan, Ramos 11^66, October, 1920. 
In damp forests at low altitudes. A species closely allied to the 
Philippine Eugenia ruoronervia C. B. Bob., differing in its terete 
branchlets, its longer-petioled leaves, the upper surfaces of which 
are strongly shining, not dull when dry. The flowers appear to be 
distinctly larger than in the Philippine species. 

Eugenia woodii sp. nov. § Jambosa. 

Arbor parva, glabra,, raniulis teretibus; foliis magnis, coriaceis, 
oblongo-lanceolatis, 40 — 60 cm. longis, brevissime petiolatis, apice 
perspicue acuminatis, basi rotundiatis et leviter cordatis, nervis 
utrinque 40' — 50, valde perspicuis; inflorescentiis axillaribus termi- 
nalibusque brevibus, clichotome ramosis, raniulis brevibus, ultimis 
circiter 5 mm. longis ; calyce inf undibulif ormi, tereti, circiter 2 cm. 
longx), et 1 cm. diametro, deorsum valde angustato, perspicue 
4-lobato, stylis circiter 3.5 cm. longis. 

A glabrous tree about 7 m. high, the branches terete, the ulti- 
mate ones 5 to 8 mm. in diameter. Leaves opposite and coriaceous 
oblong-lanceolate, 50 to 60 cm. long, 9 to 18 em. wide, the base 
rounded and slightly cordate, the apex prominently acuminate, the 
acumen about 3 cm. long, the upper surface grayish or olivaceous 
when dry, the lower pale; lateral nerves 40 to 50 on each side of 
the midrib, very prominent, spreading, slightly curved and astomos- 
ing with the distinct, slightly arched, marginal nerves, 3 to 5 mm. 
from the edge of the leaf; petioles very stout, 5 mm. long or less. 
Inflorescences axillary and terminal, the short peduncle and axis 
about 2 cm. long, dichotomousljy branched, the branches short, the 
ultimate branchlets about 5 mm. long each bearing a single flower 
which is subtended by 2 small bracteoles. Calyx funnel-shaped, 
about 2 cm. long, the throat about 1 cm. in diameter, the lower 
1 cm. forming a rather narrow pseudostalk, then abruptly widening, 
the lobes 4, conspicuous; style slender about 3.5 cm. long. 

British North Borneo, Bettotan Watershed, D. D. Wood 688 
(type), June 5, 1919, in flat forests, altitude about 20 meters; Batu 
Lima and Sebuga near Sandakan, Ramos 1262, 1803, 1801f, October 
and December, 1920, in forests at low altitudes. A remarkable 
species strongly characterized by its elongated, numerously and 
conspicuously nerved leaves which are slenderly acuminate at their 
apices and narrowed below to the grounded and slightly cordate bases, 
as well as by its short inflorescences and its calyx characters. 

Eugenia palawanensis C. B. Bob. in Philip. Jour. Sci. 4 (1909) 
Bot. 377. 

British North Borneo, Labuk Bay D. D. Wood 677, March 30, 
1919, in flat forests at low altitudes. Previously known only from 
Palawan. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 337 

Myrtus Linnaeus. 
Myrtus moultonii sp. nov. 

Frutex, ramulis floribusque exceptis glaber; ramulis minute 
gianduloso-verruculosis ; foliis numerosis, alternis, oppositis vel 
quaternis, crassissime coriaceis, ellipticis, utrinque rotundatis, 4 — 6 
mm. longis, margine revolutis, mervis obsoletis, subtus glanduloso- 
punctatis; floribus axillaribus terminalibusque, solitariis vel 
confertis; calycibus einereo-pubescentibus, lobis 4, ovatia, 1.5 mm. 
longis. acutis; rpetalis orbiculari-ovatis, stipitatis; staminibus 
circiter 30, 5 — 6 mm. longis. 

A shrub, the branchlets, pedicels, and calyces somewhat 
cinereous-pubescent, the branches stiff, elongated, covered with 
somewhat shaggy, brownish or grayish bark, the younger ones 
somewhat glandular-verruculose. Leaves very numerous, alternate, 
opposite, or sometimes in verticils of 1, thickly coriaceous, elliptic, 
4 to 6 mm. long, 2.5 to 4 mm. wide, rounded at both ends, the 
margins re volute, the upper surface dark-olivaceous, smooth, shin- 
ing, the lower surface paler, prominently glandular-punctate, the 
midrib impressed on the upper surface, usually prominent on the 
lower surface, the lateral nerves and reticulations obsolete; petioles 
about 1 mm. long. Flowers in the upper axils and crowded at the 
tips of the branchlets, their pedicels 1 to 2 mm. long; bracteoles 2 r 
subtending the calyx, narrowly oblong, glandular-punctate, slightly 
pubescent, up to 1.5 mm. long. Calyx tube about 2 mm. long, 
pubescent, rugose when dry, narrowed below, the lobes 4, ovate, 
subcoriaceous, glandular-punctate, subacute, about 1.5 mm. long. 
Petals suborbicular-ovate, membranaceous, reticulate and glandular- 
punctate, the limb about 2.5 mm. long, the claw 1 mm. in length. 
Stamens about 30 in one row, the filaments slender, 5 to 6 mm. 
long, bent inward in bud. Ovary 3-celled; ovules numerous. 

Sarawak, Upper Baram, Gunong Temabok, Major J '.Q \ Moult on 
6747, November 2, 1920, altitude about 2100 m. The third species 
of the genus to be found in Borneo; among the species familiar 
to me most closely allied to Myrtus rufopunctata Pancli. of New 
Caledonia. 

MELASTOMATACEAE. 

Melastoma Linnaeus. 
Melastoma laevifoSium sp. nov. 

Frutex erectns, circiter 2 m. altus, obscure et parcissime 
strigillosus ; ramis ramulisque tenuibus, teretibus, ramis glabris, 
ramulis rnbro-brunneis, paleis adpressis minutis sparsis obscuris 
instructis vel sublaevibus; foliis lanceolatis, coriaceis, rigidis, 4 — 9 
cm. longis, acuminatis, basi acutis, 3-nerviis, supra olivaceis, 
laevibus, parcissime strigillosis, subtus viridibus, sublaevibus^ 
paleis minutis paucis instructis; floribus terminalibus, solitariis, 
5-meris, calyci obscure parceque paleaceo, paleis ovatis acutis 
adpressis vix 0.5 mm. longis instructo, lobis latis, brevibus, circiter 
2 mm. longis; antherarum ma jorum connectivo basi longe proclucto. 

E. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



338 NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 

An erect shrub about 2 m. high nearly glabrous throughout, 
the branches and branchlets terete, smooth, the ultimate branchlets 
reddish-brown, 1.5 mm. in diameter or less, supplied with very few 
widely scattered, appressed, ovate scales about 0.2 mm. long. 
Leaves lanceolate, coriaceous, rigid, 4 to 9 cm. long, 1 to 1.5 cm. 
wide, narrowed upward to the acuminate apex, the base acute, 
3-nerved, the upper surface olivaceous, somewhat shining, smooth, 
obscurely and very sparsely strigulcse, the lower surface paler and. 
with few widely scattered, minute, appressed scales similar to those 
on the branchlets. the midrib, nerves and reticulations reddish in 
contrast with the greenish surface; petioles slender, 7 to 10 mm. 
long, with very few minute, appressed scales. Flowers terminal, 
solitary, 5-merous, their pedicels about 1 cm. long. Calyx about 
1 cm. long, subcylindric, acute at the base, about 8 mm. in diameter, 
the lobes short, broad, subobtuse, about 2 mm. in length, the 
pedicels, tube, and lobes supplied with minute, appressed, widely 
scattered, triangular-ovate scales 0.5 mm. long or less. Petals 
oblong-obovate, about 3 cm. long, 1.5 cm. Avide, narrowed below to 
the subacute base, the apex acute or somewhat obtuse. Stamens 
unequal, the filaments of the shorter ones 9 mm. long, their anthers 
curved and about as long as the filaments, the longer filaments 12 
mm. in length, their anthers linear-lanceolate, curved, about 1.5 
cm. long, the connectives produced about 14 cm., 2 appendiculate, 
the appendages stout, 2 mm. long. Top of the ovary produced, 
about 2 mm. long around the base of the style and conspicuously 
ciliate. 

British North Borneo, Sandakan, Ramos 1132, September, 
1920. In thickets near the seashore. A species perhaps most 
closely allied to Melasloma niiidum Zoll.; differing, however, in 
numerous characters. In the genus it is well characterized by 
being nearly smooth and glabrous, the scales on the branchlets, 
petioles, pedicels, calyces, and leaves being inconspicuous, minute, 
and widely scattered, the upper surface of the leaves being entirely 
glabrous. 

Dalenia Korthals. 

Dalenia pubescens sp. nov. 

Frutex scandens, ramulis et inflorescentiis et subtus foliis 
perspicue ferrugineo- vel cupreo-stellato-pubescentibns ; foliis 
orbiculari-elLiptieis vel ellipticis, 20 — 27 cm. Jongis, coriaceis, basi 
late rotundatis, 7-nerviis, apice truncato-rotundatis vel acutis, 
])erspicue abrupteque apiculato-acuminatis, supra glabris, nitidis, 
subtus f errugineo-pubescentibus ; paniculis usque ad 1 m. longis; 
noribus numerosis; alabastro cylindrico, 1.5 cm. longo; calyce 
f-alyptraco, calyptra acuta, 5 mm. longa ; petalis 4, ovatis, acuminatis, 
5 mm. longis; staminibus fertilibus 4, antheris oblongo-lanceolatis, 
obtnsis, appendicibus ovatis, membranaceis, 0.5 mm. longis, 
sterilibus 4, minoribus, appendicibus anterioribus lineari-lanceo- 
latis, lateralibus 2 — 3 mm. longis, interioribus 5 — 6 mm. longis. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 339- 

A scandent shrub, the branches frequently emitting rootlets, 
the younger parts, inflorescences, and the lower surface of the 
leaves conspicuously ferruginous- to cupreous-stellate-pubescent. 
Branches terete, 5 to 7 mm. in diameter, the ultimate branchlets 
sometimes compressed or somewhat anguJar. Leaves opposite, 
orbicular-elliptic to elliptic, coriaceous, 20 to 27 cm. long, 15 to 18 
cm. wide, base broadly rounded and sometimes shallowly cordate, 
apex truncate-rounded to acute and conspicuously and abruptly 
apiculate-acuminate, the acumen narrow, up to 7 mm. long, the 
upper surface greenish-olivaceous, shining, glabrous, the lower 
surface ferruginous, minutely and densely stellate-pubescent ; basal 
nerves 7, the inner two pairs reaching the apex of the leaf, some- 
what impressed on the upper surface, very prominent on the lower 
surface, the transverse nerves subparallel, conspicuous; petioles 
stout, densely stellate-pubescent, 2.5 to 3 cm. long. Panicles 
terminal, peduncled, up to 1 m. long, the branches opposite, 
spreading, the lower ones up to 10 cm. in length, all parts ferrugin- 
ous- to cupreous-stellate-pubescent. Flowers numerous, their 
pedicels about 1 cm. long. Calyx, in bud, cylindric, about 15 cm. 
long, 5 mm. in diameter, glabrous or very slightly pubescent, the 
sepals entirely united into a deciduous cone, the cone acute, about 
5 mm. long. Petals 4, glabrous, ovate, acuminate, about 5 mm. 
long. Stamens 8, 4 fertile, the filaments flattened, 2.5 to 3 mm. 
long; fertile anthers oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, 6 to 7 mm. long, 
the connectives not produced, the appendages ovate, membrana- 
ceous, 0.5 mm. long, 1 dorsal and 2 anterior; sterile anthers oblong- 
lanceolate, 2 mm. long, the dorsal appendage oblong-ovate, acute, 
membranaceous, 1 mm. long, the anterior one linear-lanceolate, 
2 to 3 mm. long. Ovary 4-celled, style 4.5 mm. long. Fruits some- 
what urceolate, truncate, glabrous or slightly pubescent, about 1 
cm. long. 

British North Borneo, Kiau, Mount Kinabalu, Mrs. Clemens 
10301 (type), December 4, 1915; Batu Lima, near Sandakan, Ramos 
1585, November 5, 1920, in damp forests along small streams. 
Dalenia, up to the present, has been represented by a single known 
species, D. pulchra Korth., of Borneo. The present species differs 
from the type of the genus, not only in its pubescence, the type 
being almost glabrous, but also in its floral characters. In fact, 
the stamina! characters are so different in the present species from 
those of the tj^>e of the genus that D. putescens might, with con- 
siderable propriety, be made the type of a distinct genus. In 
1). speciosa the stamens, while dissimilar, are all fertile, the larger 
ones bisetose anteriorly and calcarate posteriorly, the connectives 
of the smaller anthers bituberculate anteriorly and very shortly 
calcarate exteriorly. In the present species, the fertile stamens 
are merely supplied with 2 membranaceous, ovate scales anteriorly, 
and a single similar one exteriorly, while the sterile anthers are* 
supplied dorsally with a very short scale, and ventrally by two 
lateral and one central thin, elongated appendages. In the size 
and shape of its leaves, in its habit, that is, the stems producing 

R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



340 NEW OE NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 

roots along the internodes, and in its calyptrate calyx, it is very 
similar to Korthals's species. The floral characters of the present 
have been worked out from nearly mature buds; they may be 
subject to slight modifications when open flowers are available. 

Dissochaeta Blume. 

Dissochaeta ramosii sp. not. § Diplostemones. 

Frutex scandens, partibus junioribus et inflorescentiis et subtus 
foliis ferrugineo-stellato-pubescentibus; foliis oppositis, ellipticis 
vel elliptico-ovatis, chartaceis, 9 — 12 cm. longis, supra glabris, 
nitidis, basi rotundatis, 5-nerviis, nervis marginalibus tenuibus, 
apice acuminatis; inflorescentiis axillaribus terminalibusque, 
cymosis, bracteis linear i-lanceolatis, 3 mm. longis; calyce 1.5 cm. 
longo, 1 cm. diametro, basi cuneato, lobis 4, brevibus, latissimis, 
rotundatis; petalis circiter 2 cm. longis; staminibus 8, fllamentis 
1.6 cm. longis, antheris majoribus 2.5 cm. longis, utrinque longe 
angustatis, setiformibus, 9 mm. longis, antheris appendiculatis 
minoribus sigmoid eis. 

A scandent shrub, the branchlets, petioles, inflorescences, and 
the lower surface of the leaves rather densely ferruginous-stellate- 
pubescent. Leaves opposite, elliptic to elliptic-ovate, chartaceous. 
9 to 12 cm. long, 4.5 to 6 cm. wide, the upper surface greenish, 
shining, glabrous or nearly so except the somewhat pubescent 
ihidrib, the lower surface ferruginous or brownish and conspicuously 
pubescent with scattered stellate hairs, base usually rounded, not 
at all cordate, 5-nerved, the marginal nerves more slender than 
the inner pair, the apex distinctly acuminate; transverse nervules 
prominent on the lower surface; petioles densely stellate-pubescent, 
1 to 2 cm. long. Inflorescences axillary and terminal, peduncled, 
cymose, the axillary ones up to 7 cm. long, the terminal ones 10 
cm.long, sometimes supplied with greatly reduced leaves, the bracts 
linear-lanceolate, about 3 mm. long, the peduncles, pedicels, and 
calyces very densely stellate-pubescent with ferruginous or brown- 
ish hairs. Calyx about 1.5 cm. long, base cuneate, the throat about 
1 cm. in diameter and with 4, very short, broad, rounded lobes. 
Petals white, glabrous, elliptic-obovate, rounded, about 2 cm. long, 
1.2 cm. wide, more or less narrowed to the subacute base. Stamens 
8, their filaments about 1.6 cm. long, the 4 longer anthers 2.5 cm. 
long, rostrate, much narrowed at both ends, the connectives not 
produced, the anterior appendages setiform, about 9 mm. long; 
shorter anthers sigmoid, the apical rostrate part recurved, the 
anterior appendages similar to those of the longer stamens. 

British North Borneo, Sebuga, near Sandakan, Ramos 1758, 
December, 1920. In open forests at low altitudes. A species most 
closely allied to Dissochaeta punctulata Hook, f., from which it 
differs especially in its much larger flowers and longer petioles and 
anthers. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNE AN PLANTS. 341 

Kibessia DeCcindolh. 
Kibessia verrucosa sp. nov. § Eukibessia. 

Arbor glabra, 4 — 7 m. alta, ramis ramulisque teretibus; foliis 
chartaceis vel subcoriaceis, elliptic is vel oblongo-ellipticis, suboli- 
vaceis, nitidis, 15 — 22 cm. longis, utrinque subaequalite^ aiigustatis,, 
basi acutis, 3-nerviis, apice obtuse acuminatis ; inflorescentiis 
axillaribus terminalibusque, subcymosis, 1 — & cm. longis ; calycis 
tubo truncato, 6 — 7 cm. longo, 5 mm. diametro, pefspicue verru- 
culoso, baud setoso, calyptra 5 — 6 mm. longa, acuta; petalis 4, 
obovatis, acutis, 6 — 7 mm. longis; fructibus obovoideis, truncatis, 
1 cm. longis, leviter verruculosis, verruculis subplanis, pentagonis, 
1.5 mm. diametro. 

An entirely glabrous tree 4 to 7 m. high, the branches and 
branchlets terete, smooth, usually brown, the ultimate branchlets 
about 2 mm. in diameter. Leaves chartaceous to subcoriaceous, 
elliptic to oblong-elliptic, subolivaceous, shining on both surfaces, 
the lower surface somewhat paler than the upper, 15 to 22 cm. 
long, 6 to 11 cm. wide, subequally narrowed to the acute and 
prominently 3-nerved base and to the blunt-acuminate apex; midrib 
and basal nerves somewhat impressed on the upper surface, very 
prominent on the lower surface, the longitudinal nerves reaching 
the apex of the leaf, a very faint pair of marginal nerves usually 
present, situated 1 to 2 mm. from the edge of the leaf, these not 
more prominent than are the primary reticulations; petioles rather 
stout, 5 to 8 mm. long. Inflorescences axillary and terminal, 
solitary or fascicled, subcymose, 1 to 2 cm. long, few-flowered. 
Calyx tube cup-shaped, truncate, 6 to 7 mm. long, about 5 mm. 
in diameter, rather conspicuously verrucose but not at all setose, 
the conical apical portion formed by the wholly united sepals 5 
to 6 mm. long, acute, deciduous. Petals apparently pale-blue, 
obovate, acute, inequilateral, 6 to 7 mm. long. Stamens 8, the 
anthers about 2.5 mm. long, inappendiculate. Fruits somewhat 
obovoid, truncate, about 1 cm. long, slightly verruculose, the ver- 
ruculae plane, scarcely or not at all elevated, pentagonal, about 
1.5 mm. in diameter. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima and in the vicinity of 
Sandakan, Ramos 1122 (t3 r pe), 1191, Villamil 11^7, Agama 1/.63; 
flowering in November, fruiting in August, October, and February. 
In forests at low altitudes. A species in its calyx characters ap- 
parently approximating Kibessia leysmanniana Cogn., but with 
entirely different vegetative characters. It is easily recognizable 
by its elliptic to oblong-elliptic leaves which are subequally narrow- 
ed at both ends and by its verruculose calyx tube which is not at 
all setose, the verruculae being plane or nearly so, sometimes 
slightly elevated in their central portions. 

Clidemm D. Don. 

Clidemia hirta (Linn.) D. Don in Mem. Wern. S'oc. 4 (1823) 
30-9; Cogn. in DC. Moimg. Phan. 7 (1891) 986. 

R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



342 NEW OR NOTEWORTHY BORNEAN PLANTS. 

Melastoma hirta Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 390. 

British North Borneo, Sandakan and vicinity, Clemens 91+61+, 
October, 1915; Yates 3, October, 1917; Castillo 590, January, 1918, 
on slopes near the sea; Foxworthy 601+, January, 1916, at the base' 
of sandstone cliffs; Wood 766, 81+8, May, 1920, on ridges; Ramos 
llSJf, in thickets and along small streams. This American species 
is thoroughly naturalized in the vicinity of Sandakan as it is in 
Singapore and in Java. 

Pachycentria Blume. 

Pachycentria constricta Blume in Flora 14 (1831) 520; Cogn. 
in DC. Monog. Phan. 7 (1891) 608. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima near Sandakan, Ramos 
1163. On trees in forests at low altitudes. Java. 

ALANGIACEAE. 

Alangium Lamarck. 
Alangium borneense sp. nov. § Marlea. 

Arbor circiter 15 m. alta, ferrugineo-pubescens ; foliis sub- 
coriaceis, oblongis, acuminatis, 15 — 23 cm. longis, basi rotundatis, 
supra glabris, subtus ad costam nervosque pubescentibus, nervis 
utrinque 10 — 14, perspicuis; cymis axillaribus 3 — 7-noris; calyce 
10-sulcato, truncato; sty lis sursum incrassatis, apice perspicue 3- 
lobatis, lobis papillatis, 2.5 mm. longis. 

A tree about 15 m. high, the branches, branchlets, and in- 
florescences densely ferruginous-pubescent. Leaves subcoriaceous, 
oblong, 15 to 23 cm. long, 6 to 9 cm. wide, pale brown when dry, 
snarply acuminate, base rounded, the upper surface glabrous, the 
lower pubescent on the midrib and lateral nerves; nervis 10 to 14 
on each side of the midrib, prominent, curved, the reticulations 
subparallel; petioles pubescent, 1 to 1.5 cm. long. Cymes axillary, 
pubescent, 3- to 7-flowered, including the flowers 4 to 5 cm. long. 
Calyx pubescent, about 6 mm. long, prominently 10-sulcate, the 
limb somewhat spreading, about 4 mm. in diameter, truncate, or 
very shallowly and obscurely toothed. Petals 5 or 6, linear-lanceo- 
late, coriaceous, densely pubescent, 2 cm. long, 2.5 mm. wide. 
Stamens 5 or 6, about 1.6 cm. long, the filaments somewhat flat- 
tened. Style about 1.5 cm. long, thickened upward, narrowly 
club-shaped, appressed-pubescent ; etygma distinctly 3-lobed, the 
lobes ovate-lanceolate, papillate, 2.5 mm. long. 

British North Borneo, Batu Lima, near Sandakan, Agama 
1022 (type) Ramos 11+51, November 1920, on steep damp forested 
slopes, altitude about 70 m. A species allied to Alangium vitiense 
(A. Gray) Harms var. tomentosum Benth., differing notably in its 
very much larger leaves, much larger flowers, prominently sulcate 
calyces, and 3-lobed styles. 



A Murut Vocabulary. 



By the late N". B. Baboneau. 

With an Introductory Note 

By G. 0. Woolley. 



The following Murut Vocabulary was compiled by the late Mr. 
X. B. Baboneau, an Officer in the British Njorth Borneo Service 
from February 1910 to December 1921, and was found amongst 
his papers after his death. The original is carefully typewritten, 
and has been revised, as there are numerous pencil additions and 
•corrections in the text. I do not know, however, whether Mr. Babo- 
neau considered that it was now as complete as he intended it to 
be. Probably not, for further research would doubtless reveal 
many native terms in place of the Malay or semi-Malay forms here 
given. 

The only 'introduction' is a pencil note on the fly-leaf "A 
Murut Vocabulary compiled with the help of various Keningau 
Muruts, intelligent and otherwise, between the Years 1911 and 
1914. X. B. B. Eundum 1914." 

The name 'Murut' though now generally adopted and un- 
derstood, was not origin all v used by the people themselves, but was 
given by Brunei Malay and other Coast people to the inhabitants 
•of the hills and Interior of this part of the country. The 'Murut' 
districts arc Keningau, Tenom and the greater part of Pen Siangan 
or Eundum Districts of the Interior, the lower Padas and Bukau 
rivers in Beaufort District, and the greater part of Province Clarke, 
which includes the Lakutan and Mengabong rivers and head waters 
of the Padas. 

So far as I am aware, no ethnologist has yet classified the 
various tribes in this area, but we can perhaps distinguish four 
main tribes, though the number of petty subdivisions, with small 
variations of dialect, is very large. A Murut, if asked his race, 
w T ould probably not state to which main tribe he belonged, but 
would give his local subdivision, generally a geographical descrip- 
tion, according to the river on wdiich he or his people lived, e.g. 
that he was a Tomani or Siliu man, i.e. that he lived on the Tomani 
•or Siliu river or that he was a ' Keningau Murut.' 

As the country has got more peaceful under European Govern- 
ment, raiding has died out and intercourse has become more free, 
tribual boundaries have tended to become obscured, and probably 
dialectical variations of language have become less accentuated, 
but a general distribution of tribes can still be given. 

•Jour. Straits Branch R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



344 A MUBUT VOCABULAEY. 

In the Western hills of Keningan District are the Kwijaus, a 
semi-Dusun, semi-Murnt tribe. On Keningan plain are the T)abai' : 
in the East, in the upper Sook, are the Bokan tribes (probably close- 
ly related to Pelnan). 

Pelnan tribes are found in the Dalit and Mesopo and Karamatoi 
districts and the head-waters of the Telankai and Penawan rivers 
i.e. the S. E. part of Keningan and the N". of Pensiangan, with 
a sub-tribe called Belarun ("Bla.dun country" on small maps) and 
from there across Tenom district to the Mengalong and Lakutan 
rivers of Province Clarke and the Eiver Bukau of Beaufort. Timu- 
gun tribes are found in the northern part of Tenom plain, on the' 
Pegalan river, and there are also few in Beaufort. 

The Semambus are a more important branch, and stretch from 
the S. E. part of Pensiangan, (when they meet with the 'Sakais' of 
Dutch Borneo, related to the Tidongs of Bulongan) through the 
Tagul, Siliu, Eundum, Selalir, Telecosan and Tomani rivers, across- 
the Padas to Bole; and perhaps to Lawas in Sarawak. At Bole, 
the people call themselves "Tagals' and when I was District Officer 
Province Clarke I do not recollect hearing them use the name 
Semambu of themselves : their dialect however is similar, and a 
Policeman who has learnt 'Murm? at Bole is soon quite at home 
amongst Pensiangan people. 

Besides these, in Province Clarke, there were some settle- 
ments of people who called themselves 'Kolor' 'Okolor' 'Unkolor' 
and said they came from Dutch rivers south of the Selalir, and, in 
the extreme ulu Padas the 'Undaio' or 'Lunclaio' ( ? = Ulun Daio, 
'Dyak men 7 ) who were closely related to the 'Muruts' of the upper' 
Limbang and Trusan rivers of Sarawak, and appeared to be very 
distinct in type and language, from either the 'Tagals' or 'Kolor.' 

For practical purposes therefore, I omit Kuijaus, as not being 
a pure race and the Lundaio, as being of Dyak kin, and classify 
our ' Muruts ' as Dabai and Timugun on the plains, with Pelnan 
and Semambu as Hill tribes. 

In conclusion, it may be of interest to give a few illustrations 
of dialect variations. Several letters appear to be commonly inter- 
changed, and these differences in pronunciation and spelling offer a 
considerable obstacle to any attempt to make a satisfactory or con- 
cise Murut-English Vocabulary. A Native, if questioned whether 
e.g. ' haguh ' or ' waguh ' is correct, will often say l eitiher will do/ 
though whether he means that each form is in use in one or other 
of the dialects or that your hearer would catch your meaning and 
excuse your ignorance of his language, is open to doubt. 

The Keningan dialect, as given in this vocabulary, seems very 
fond of initial £ m' which is often absent in the ulu Padas (Semam- 
bu). 

Jour. Straits Branch. 



A MUEUT VOCABULAEY. 345 

(K = Iveningau. T = Timugan. S = Semambu) . 

e.g. cold Iv. miesimoh' : S. asimoh. 

afraid K. ' malah ' : S. ala. 

before K. ' garing ' : T. galing. (S*. understands i galing ' 
but generally says c nagulu ' and 'naling' in Sem- 
ambu is i behind.') 

brother K. harih T. and S. halih 

between Iv. dolut T. and S. lolut 

sharp K. malais S. apais 

sharp K. meladum T. melarum S. alarum 

woman Iv. doando T. roando S. roando 

rain Iv. domassam T. &. P. rasam S. unguluh 

right (not left) K. pemidis S. pamiris 

good K. mainseu S. unsoi or atar 

small Iv. mebodok T. beloroh S. brook 

wicked Iv. meraht S. alaat 

many Iv. mamok S. aramak or asuang 

night Iv. mundum S. lundum 

sleep Iv. molong S. olong 

sun Iv. odoh S. oro or tolok 

hot Iv. melassu S. alasu 

swim Iv. nadusoh T. nadisoh S. narisoh 

your Iv. maguap T. maguab 

The Semambu dialect varies slightly on different rivers, but 
whereas Dabai, Peluan and Timugun are fairly closely related to 
eacir other, Semambu is much more distinct : though an untravellcd 
Semambu man placed in Iveningau could still gather roughly what 
was being said. Some common words are quite different, e.g. 
"'quickly' Iv. keribok, S. kapasiun : angry Iv. mangit, S. ambok: 
cloud Iv. dutoh or gaun, S. laput or gaun : Indian corn K. budit, S. 
sangun or dalai : long ago Iv. nakalaid, S. alair or awhoi : pig K. 
bawih, S. biag : skin Iv. kulit, S. kongkong. 

The final 'E? in this vocabulary is nearly mute. 

(sd.) G. C. Woolley. 



1R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



346 



A MUEUT VOCABULARY. 



Numerals. 

1 sa, dun doh. 

2 duoh. 

3 taloh. 

4 apat. 

5 limoh. 

6 enom. 

7 turok. 

8 baloh. 

9 siam. 

10 mopod. 

11 mopod om dundoh. 

12 mopod om duoh. 

20 duongopod. 

21 duongopod om dundoli. 
25 duongopod om limoh. 
30 talongopod. 

35 talongopod om limoh. 

40 apatnopocl. 

50 limongopod. 

60 onom'ngopod. 

70 turongopod. 

80 balongopod. 

90 siam'ngopod. \ 
100 matus. 
125 matus duongopod om 

limoh. 
200 duongatus. 
300 talongatus. 
350 matus limongopod. 
400 apatngatus. 



500 limongatus. 

600 onom'ngatus. 

678 omom'ngatus torongopod 
om baloh. 

700 turongatus. 

729 turongatus duongopod 
om siam. 

800 balongatus. 

900 siam'ngatus. 

930 siam'ngatus talongopod. 
1,000 saliong. 
5,000 limongaliong. 
10,000 mopod naliong. 
once igundoh. 
twice in duoh. 

3 times intaloh. 

4 times inggapat. 

5 times indimoh. 

6 times inggonom. 

7 times inturok. 

8 times imbaloh. 

9 times insiam. 
10 times inggopod. 

20 times induongopod. 
30 times intalongopod, &c. 
100 times inggatus. 
how many times? inkurra? 
" inkurra ioh saboi?" (how 
man}* times did he come?) 



a (of small, round things), 
dundoh: (of animals) sang- 
inan: (of trees) sampohun: 
(of sheets of paper, cloth, &c.) 
sampilah. 

abandon to, pauantan binan- 
tan, pinoantah : " magigidoh 
iroh, pauantan noh pagun 
nanoh ;? : they ran away and 
abandoned their village. 

able, pandei, mapandei ; maka- 
dapat. 

about, korah korah. 



above, disawat, tumampak. 

abscond to, magidoh. 

absent, kandok, kaiioh. 

abundant, mamok. 

abuse, maguras. 

accept, makiupah. 

accustomed, maindaram^ nobas.. 

acknowledge, (M) menakun. 

across, sendipag, senihkuad : 
senihkuad susungoi, across the 
river : senihkuad tidong, be- 
yond the hill. 

active, mepinit. 

add, doanofih. 



Jour. Straits Braach. 



A MUBUT VOCABULABY. 



84; 



admit (confess), (21) kena- 
kun: (to let in) makasubul, 
(iniper.) pasubuloh: " sukabi 
urubun pasubuloh assuh ill/" 
open the door and let in that 
dog. 

adopted child, tinangkanak. 

adorn oneself, membuas. 

adultery to commit, memala- 
poh : lapauluiok, to have in- 
tercourse with a person imme- 
diately after the death of one's 
husband, or wife. 

afraid, nualah : mataloh, a 
coward. 

afternoon, merundom. 

after, afterwards, taurih. 

age, tuh. 

agent, (21) wakil. 

agile, mepinit. 

ago, long, nakalaid noioh. 

agree, make an agreement 
with, (21) janji. 

ahead (in front), magagulu. 

aim at, turok. menurok. 

alike, nagundoh. 

alive, tinambiag: biag. 

all, ngai ngai. 

allow, gamah : i gamah doginu/ 
= (21) < Biar-lah bagitu.' 

almost, mem ad. 

alone, dundoh dundoh. 

also, tupoh. 

always, masarok. 

ambush, lie in, magawang. 

amok to, temobok. 

ancestors, pengadu. 

and, am, om. 

angry, mangit : inangitan, to 
incur anger. 

animal, (21) binatang. 

ankle, buningal : bulingkus, an 
anklet. 

annoy, anjahan. 

annoyed, medual goang. 

another, bokun: Atoiennuh 
bokun-ih, where are the 
others ? 

answer to, magagual, manja- 
jawab. 

E. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



ant, kilau : red ant, ' labus 
burong ' : lit. ' let go one's 
parang ' (on account of the 
pain) : white ant, (M) anai: 
the soldier ant, kalipodus ba- 
wang: (because bears eat 
their nests). 

ant-hill, punchu. 

antidote, dawar. 

apart, nataiad. 

appearance, bansa. 

approach to, clatong, datong 
memad. 

are (is), makoncloh. 

arm the, langan. 

arm (weapon), aniban. 

armed, mokondoh aniban. 

armadillo balukun : -hide, si- 
sih. 

armpit, kapilok. 

around, domipucl. 

arrange, mongusai. 

arrest, memerakab. 

arrive, somaboi, makasaboi. 

ascend, tomakad : tomakad ti- 
dong, to climb a hill : tumun 
om tomakad, up and down, 
hill. 

ashamed, moiuh. 

ashes, kauh. 

ask (inquire), mengimuat, 
imuaton. 

ask for, mikianih. 

assemble, menimpong. 

assist, indangan. 

astonished, metambungoh : 
' metambungoh aku mongining 
doginu ' : I am surprised to 
hear that. 

at, du, tio du. 

atap (of a house), tap: mena- 
rut, to sew ataps. 

attack, memalambah, nakatun- 
tuloi: (of animals, with the 
teeth ) sinam, menam : (with 
the horns, as a buffalo) men- 
angau. 

attempt, iri, mengiri. 

authority, (21) kuasa : ulun 
maiioh, a chief. 



34S 



A MUEUT VOCABULAEY. 



avenge to, sumulih. 

awake (trans.), mengadat, ka- 

datoh: (intrans.), kumalat. 
axe, (M) kapak: Panah, a 

small hatchet, a i beliong.' 



B. 



baby a, daragang. 

back the, bakorong. 

bad, meraht. 

bad-tempered, marigogut, ma- 
sarok mangit. 

bait, upan. 

balance (the remainder) , noan- 
tai. 

bale to (a boat), mengias : 
(imper.) iasih. 

bamboo, tembalang, paring. 
sumbiling : tembalang, the 
small-leaf bamboo, used in 
making hedges, &c. : sagoh, a 
piece of bamboo, for carrying 
water, also to take water from 
a stream. 

banana, punti. 

bank of river, king susungoi. 

bargain to, (M) tawar. 

bark to, menyusig. 

bark of tree, kulit tetaun. 

barrel of a gun, berongon. 

barren (0/ females), mawaluih. 

barter to, magalid. 

basket, paiauan : bongun, a re- 
ceptacle made of bark, used 
for carrying goods on the back. 

bastard a, anak pungoh. 

bat, pongit. 

bathe to, madioh. 

beads, sesigut: bungkas, long, 
oval-shaped beads : bebungal. 
round, white beads : manudi- 
rau, (lit. ' bright') tinsel, 
yellow or red: Agoh agoh, 
small white beads : Agih, 
long, octagonal. 

beak a, tinduk. 

beam a, tetaun: sumuloi, the 
beam under the floor of a 



. house, a girder: pakang, the 
beam under the roof, a rafter. 

bean a, blatong. 

bear a, bawang. 

bear (to endure), tomahan. 

bear (give birth), maganak. 

beard, jarub. 

beast, (M) binatang. 

beat to, memalambah: (v. to 
hit) : (of the pulse, &c.) 
kibnt kibut. 

beautiful, mainseu : (of per- 
sons) mapasau, mainseu. 

because, kosoi, (M) sebeb. 

become, mawal, (M ) makajadi. 

beckon to, kapoiun. 

bee, meningot. 

beetle, tapih: limunod, the 
large boring beetle. 

before (in front of), gintuong, 
gintuongan: cf. ' mentudong 
nuh talikudan, kai mentudong 
du gintuongan ku ' : stand 
behind me, not in front of me 



(of time) garing. 



akiah 



kai koh nomarah du garing 
ih ? " (why did you not tell 
me before?) 

beg to, mikianih. 

begin to,, menimpun: impun. 
at first. 

behind, talikud, talikudan. 

belch to, magilub. 

believe, mintopud, malansan: 
kai kalansan disoh magam- 
but, do not trust him, he is 
lying. 

bell, karing: kinaringan, a pa- 
rang or belt adorned with 
bells. 

belly, tinai. 

belt, (M) tali pinggan. 

bend, bent, mapikul. 

beside, tabibikan. 

bet to, mentatahan. 

betel-nut, kusob : magintat, to 
chew betel-nut. 

betrothed, manunang: moi- 
panudang, to ask in marriage. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



A MUKUT VOCABTJLAEY. 



349' 



between, dolut, (M) tengah : 
cf . ' tengah tengah nuh Ke- 
ningau Tenom om Tambun- 
an. 

beyond, senihkuacl. 

bewitched, punan. 

big, maiioh, makaluh. 

bind (e.g. a wound), bawodun. 

bird, sesirak. 

bird lime, pnlut. 

birds' nest, tambunan. 

birth (give birth to), maganak. 

bite to, kinokut, manokut: (of 
a snake) menindok, tindokun. 

bitter, mosum. 

black, maintain. 

blade (of a weapon), ladam : 
pagong, the blunt edge: la- 
dam, the sharp edge, or the 
whole blade : utin, the part 
of the blade that goes into the 
handle. 

blaze to, (of a fire), malang : 
to blaze a tree, mebatin: me- 
batin dalan, to mark a path by 
blazing trees. 

blear-eyed, mankudarudab. 

bleed to, makadah. 

blind, mnmbulan: nohlusuan, 
blind in one eye. 

blister, mampulalak: palakak. 
a blister on the sole of the 
foot, the l puru/ 

blood, dah. 

blossom, a busak. 

blossom to, menyakah, memu- 
kakah. 

blow to, simpui, menimpul: 
the nose, magingsingor. 

blowpipe, sapok: menyapok. 
to shoot with a blowpipe : 
sinapok, to be shot with a 
blowpipe. 

blue, tumau. 

blunt (0/ an edge), ka malais : 
■(of a point) ka maladum. 

board a, pinapapan, (M) papan. 

K. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



boast to, makiumpod: cf. 

( Makiumpod ioh di nakalap 

du ulu ? : he boasted that he 

had taken a head. 
boat, padau. 
body, inan. 
boil ' to, (trans.), mangsak: 

(intrans.), dumidih, menim- 

bual. 
boil a, tupas. 
bone, (M) tulang. 
bore the ears to, mentobok. 
borrow, midah, ideh. 
both, duoh duoh. 
boundary, dolud, paboboitan. 
bow to, kumong. 
bow the, (of a boat), julong. 
bowl, sarogong. 
box, (M) kaban : tiduan, a 

small box, made of bamboo. 
bracelet, dinoleh : bulingkus, 

an anklet. 
brains, otok. 
branch (of a tree), (M) dahan: 

(of a river) siang: (of a 

path) suriangan: (of the 

horns of a deer) mandan. 
brass, semaring. 
brave, banih. 
bread, (M) roti. 
break, mabak, mapandak, ma- 

potoh: (to snap) mokat: 

= (M) c putus.' 
breast, kubab, titih. 
breath, peniaw: out of breath,. 

ingus ingus. 
breathe to, meminyawa. 
bribe, (M) suap : Menakan 

suap, to take a bribe. 
bridge, apad. 
bright, manudirau. 
bring to, naibit: (imper. ibi- 

toh.) 
bring up (to rear), piarahan. 
broad, mapilah. 



550 



A MUBUT VOCABULABY. 



brother, pabukat : Akak, elder 
brother : harih, younger : in- 
law, magawang. 

bruise a, rumutom. 

brush to, isasin. 

brush a, (21) bros. 

buffalo, (21) kerbau. 

bullet, (M) peluru. 

build to, menial. 

bunch (of fruit), sampungoh, 
pungoh : (of coconuts), sam- 
papah. 

burn to, mesurob, moboh : one- 
self, melinseu : melinseu ka- 
rindohj to burn one's finger. 

burnt (of wood &c), uclus. 

burst to, lumapat. 

bury to, nalobong.' 

busy, mainsoh-insoh, mamok 
kreja. 

but (not used). 

butt to, menangau. 

butterfly, kuliambang : kapuh. 
patatuding : different kinds 
of butterflies (unidentified). 

buy, memalih. 



cactus the, dawar, lit. ' anti- 
dote/ (against certain kinds 
of sickness.) 

calculate, mengiap, iapun. 

calf, (21) anak sapi. 

calf (of leg), ton ok : lukabab, 
the upper part of the calf, 
behind the knee. 

call, menimpag: (imper.) im- 
pagoh: mengorok, to call 
fowls : mempanad, to call 
dogs : memalangik, to call 
kijang, (with a leaf or bam- 
boo). 

•call in at, mapid. 

calumniate, mamitanah: cf. 
' magambut kau, mamitanah 
kail daki ' : you are lying, 
you are slandering me. 

camphor, kuyong. 

can, (M) pandei, mapandei, 
makadapat. 



cannon, (M) badil. 
care to, paduli. 

care (take care of), piara: 
(' take care! '), ilai ! 

carefully, terandah : onggoiok 
terandah, (hold it carefully). 

carve, senihkakalaing. 

carry, magibah : (on the head) 
patadungon: (on the shoul- 
der) sahnin : (in the arms) 
bebilun. 

cash, dusin. 

castrate, intalinin. 

cat, kungau, ungau : ampu, a 
species of tree tiger, often 
found in Iveningau district: 
munin, the civet, ' musang.' 

catch to, memerakob, narakob : 
menigot, to catch a buffalo &c. 
with a noose, (sarigut) ; to 
lasso: (kena) makonoh, ma- 
intupan. 

caterpillar, ulod. 

cattle, (21) sapi. 

caught to get, (menyanghut) 
mesalong. 

cease, tumuloh, tomangus. 

centipede, dipal: anak dipal, 
the luminous millipede. 

centre, (21) tengah. 

certain, topud, kepioh. 

certainly, (21) tentu, topud. 

chaff (of grain), apol. 

chain, (21) rantei. 

chair, (21) krosih. 

•change to, magalid, pagalid: 
one's clothes dumalin. 

channel (a passage), otusan. 

charm a, dawar. 

charred (of wood), udus. 

cheap, memurah. 

cheat to, menipu, memusing. 

cheek the, bingal, ilan. 

chest the, kubab. 

chew (betel-nut), magintat. 

chief a, maiioh, ulun maiioh. 

child, dalaing: clarangang, an 
infant. 

chin, saludah. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



A MUEUT VOCABULAEY. 



351 



chilly, mesimoh: mesimuan. 

to shiver with cold. 
clipped (of a Made, &c), 

mapirang. 
choke to, kadanan. 
choked up (as a blowpipe), 

matitan: (as a ditch or 

stream) masnkong. 
choose to, (!/") pileh. 
chop, potul. 
cicada, bintakar, sasing, ganga- 

rak. 
cinnamon, keningau. 
circumcise, pinapod. 
clap the hands to, manapap. 
clean {adj.), napapuan, nisa- 

san : to clean pinupuan, isasih. 
clear, tarang, matarang : (of 

water), menining. 
clever, (M) pandei, mapandei : 

(sensible), makagoang. 
climb, mengkeuah. 
close (to shut), magangab : 

(imper.) angabih. 
close to (near), memad. 
close together (crowded), ma- 

kodat. 
cloth, lampei. 
clothes, (M) pakaian: v. 

' Dress/ 
cloud, dutoh, gaun. 
cloudy (of the sky), jinomud. 
cluck to (of a lien), menim- 

pukak. 
clump of trees, pnru, sempu- 

ruan. 
cluster of fruit, sampnngoh. 

pimgoh : of coconuts, sampa- 

pah. 
coal, (M) arang. 
coarse, (M) makasar: (of 

texture, &c), makabulu. 
coat, kawal: sampot, a coat 

made of deerskin, timbadau 

hide, &c. 
coax to, kojur, dumojur. 
cobra, mentakag : bantu, the 

hamadryad. 
cock, tendah. 
cock-fight, menturapih. 



cockroach, lipus. 
coconut, piasau. 
coconut-shell, ranggut. 

coin, dusin. 

cold (of weather), mesimoh: 
mesimnan, to shiver with cold : 
(of substances, ivater, &c.) 
masaroi. 

cold in the head to have, 
magosud. 

collect to, semimpong. 

collide to, makapantapak. 

comb, sudai: (0/ a cock). 
tanggir. 

come, domatong, datong: 
(imper.) kueh : ( kueh dog- 
itu/ come here. 

commence, menimpun. 

companion, dangan. 

compete, lumawan. 

complete, kaiiun, menukod: 
to complete, mokod. 

conceal, semambunih. 

conceited, makomoh, snman- 
tuh. 

conduit, tabarusoh. 

confess, (M) menaknn. 

connect, natungul: (imper.) 
tungulok. 

connection (liave connection 
with), makinduh, magint: 
mengkamatah, to make an as- 
signment with a person. 

conquer to, (M ) menang. 

constipated, tiabal: natiaba- 
lan, constipation. 

contented, masenang goang. 

contents, suang : kandok 
suang, empty. 

coo (of doves), meningkurok. 

cook to, mangsak, mengangsak : 
dapuan, a kitchen, the centre 
of a Murut house where the 
fire is made. 

cooking-pot, (M) periok. 

corn Indian, budit. 

corner a, pantikuan. 

corpse, (M) bangkei. 

correct, topud, kepioh. 



R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



352 



A MUEUT VOCABULAKY. 



cotton, gapas: sariban, the 
cotton tree. 

cough to, mengkukol. 

count to, maiiak, mengiapun. 

country, pamagunan. 

cousin, pabukat : pabukat ig- 
undoh, a first cousin : pabii- 
kat paginduoh, 2nd cousin: 
pabukat pangintaloh, 3rd 
cousin. 

cover to, tetubin. 

coward, cowardly, mataloh. 

crab, karas, gagawoh. 

cracked, lumatak. 

crocodile, tambuaia. 

crooked, talingkong. 

cross to, memeripag, padipag. 
dumipag. 

crow a, bengkak. 

crow to (of a cock), mening- 
kurok. 

crowded, masarah, meramei. 

cry (to weep), mentangih. 

cry out to, lumakuih. 

cucumber, sangup. 

curlew, tagilok. 

curly (of hair), kulanggot. 
menuriongkok. 

current of a stream, lintagup. 

curse to, maguras. 

custom, (21) adat. 

cut to, mengorot, (imper.) ko- 
rotoh: (to drop, with a pa- 
rang) napidis, (imper.) padi- 
soh. 

cut in 2 pieces (to split). 
napotul, (imper.) potoloh. 

cut down (jungle, &c), men- 
tagad : dumilik, to clear un- 



dergrowth. 



D. 



dam to, mengalad. 
dam a, aladan. 
damage to, narunsai. 
damar, salong. 

dance to, mensaiau : lulung- 
unan ; a spring platform used 
for dancing : koilulunggun. 
one of the steps of this dance : 



magititikas, to dance alone., 
holding and beating a gong:, 
magodud, to dance alone, in 
the Dusun fashion, with arms 
outstretched. 

dangerous, mabisa. 

daring, banih. 

dark, merundom. 

daughter, anak doandok, dala- 
ing doandok. 

day, odoh: modoh, morning,, 
when the sun is high, 9 or 10 
o'clock : tumampak odoh, mid- 
day, ' the sun overhead ' : 
mapulid, manuil, early after- 
noon, 3 p.m. : topongsisid 
odoh, late afternoon, 5 or 6 
p.m. 

day after tomorrow, sangodoh 
sasuab. 

day before yesterday, sanda 
daih, sangodoh daih : ' in 3 
days' time ' kataloh : every- 
day sangodoh odoh. 

daybreak (dawn), matawang- 

dazzling, magasil. 

dead, mopatoi. 

deaf, mabungal. 

dear (expensive), matang. 

debt, (M) utang. 

deceive, menipu, memusing. 

decide, nokat. 

deep, mendalum. 

deer, (the sambur) pay oh, tarn- 
bang : (barking deer) tugau : 
(mouse-deer) kaduan. 

delirium, to talk in, magam- 
puang. 

demand to, mikianih. 

dented (as a blade), mapirang. 

deny to, magalih. 

descend to, tumun, indiwah. 

detest, mararamuh. 

dew, taridoh, balabau. 

diarrhoea to have, menta- 
burus. 

die, mopatoi. 

different, bokun : (of different 
hinds) nakapinansusuai. 

difficult, masusah. 

Jour. Straits Branch. 



A MUEUT VOCABULAEY. 



353 



dirt (refuse), sakut. 

dirty, bejamut, sait, makasait: 
(of water) malutut. 

disease, (M) penyakit: balik, 
the skin disease, known as 
(M) 'balang/ 

dislike, mararamuh. 

distant, malucl. 

distrust, ka mintopud. 

disturb, (J/) mengachau. 

dive to, mentolup, tumolub. 

divide to, taiad. 

divorce, mabintas : mikiintas, 
to ask for divorce. 

do, anuan, pakuan. 

do not, don't, kai. 

dog, assuh : ukoh, a pnppy. 

door, urupun. 

dove, kokorok. 

down to go, tumun, indiwah. 

downstream, dabugus : to go 
downstream, mempiugus. 

dowry, purut : pibah, the mar- 
riage gift from a father to his 
daughter, formerly equal to 
half the amount of the dowry, 
now equal to the excess of the 
dowry over $60. 

drag to, dalatun. 

dragon, tembaka. 

drain a, (M) parity susungoi. 

draw (to pull), logutun, dala- 
tun: (to engrave, &c.) me- 
batik. 

dream, inopih : to dream, ma- 
ginopih. 

dress, (M ) pakaian : kawal, a 
coat : tapih, a short skirt : 
abag, a ' chawat ' : jiruk, lu- 
luku, large wicker headdresses. 

drift to, mabas. 

drink, menginum, inumok. 

drive away, pagiduun: me- 
muoh, to drive away birds 
from a padi-field. 

drop to, matoh, meratoh. 

drop a, tumoh. 

drought mongodoh. 

R A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



drown to, losud, nalosud: cf. 
1 nopatai ioh losud timpok ioh 
nadusoh susungoi ' : (he was 
drowned while swimming the 
river). 

drunk, magaup. 

dry (adj.), mapuah, natog: 
to dry in the sun manog, 
tugoh : to dry over a lire 
salagun. 

duck, utik. 

dumb, bungangang. 

dun to, sika, mensika. 

dung, tetai. 

during, timpok: cf. ' mamok 
nopatoi nuh timpok penabuli 
ih ' : (many people died dur- 
ing the small-pox epidemic). 

dusk, mundom. 

dust, agis. 

dwarf a, kinumotog. 

dysentry to have, mentaburus 
du dah. 

E. 

ear, telingah. 

earring, sanggal. 

early, mensarap : matawang, 
early morning, dawn. 

earth, (M) tanah. 

eat to, menakan. 

echo, tumiwau. 

eclipse (of sun), tinolum nia- 
ru, (lit. " a spirit" is swal- 
lowing) . 

eddy, diruh : also used for the 
circular markings on a buf- 
falo's hair: (cf. Malay ' pu- 
sar')- 

edge, popud: on edge, (of the 
teeth) masiog. 

effort to make an, iri. 

egg, taloli : to lay, tumaloh : 
memabak, to hatch eggs: 
memamut, to sit on eggs : 
bunsut, the nesting place, of 
a hen. 

elastic (adj.), lumanat. 

elbow, (M) siku. 

elephant, gadingan. 



354 



A MURUT VOCABULARY. 



else, what else? bagoh, atok 

bagoli ? 
emaciated, metukal. 
embers, bah. 
embrace, magorok. 
emigrate to, mapindah, ma- 

dangkat. 
empty, kandok suang. 
end the, upod, munjok. 
enemy, sumangod. 
energetic, merajin. 
enough, samah, sukup. 
enquire to, mengimuat, moipo- 

marah. 
entangled, nagaguliokud. 
enter, mumpas, makasubul. 
entreat, mikianih. 
envy to, mesolun. 
equal, nagagundoh. 
escape to, magidoh. 
evening, mtmdom, merundom. 
every, ngai ngai. 
evil, meraht. 
exceedingly, kepioh, ka nara- 

ruoi. 
exchange, magalid. 
expensive, matang. 
explode to, lumapot. 
extinguish, lasaih, memalasah. 
eye, matau matok : makudat, 'to 

make eyes.' 
eyebrow, bulangkong, kudat. 
eyelash, kuriap. 

F, 

fable, tunud, susuih. 

face, burns. 

faint to, memukad. 

faint (not clear), as a footprint, 

&c, napali, nalulu. 
fall to, matoh, meratoh : (of 

a tree) naruad. 
fallow, melanah. 
famine, bitilih. 
far, malnd: as far as, disum, 

domisum, makasaboi : cf . 

' mengkeuah tetaun domisum 

iimbns nanoh ' (to climb a 

tree to its very top.) 



fast, keribok, mahjag. 

fasten to, mengkaput. 

fat, melabong: (noun) lomok. 

fate, salnad. 

father, amak, bapa. 

father-in-law, mangiwan. 

fathom, (I/") depa. 

fear, mala, matalau. 

feast, silad: to give a feast 7 
mensilad. 

feather, bulu. 

feeble, f ka ka aru.' 

feed, menakan : (at the breast) 
tomitih. 

feel, perasahan. 

fell to (jungle, &c), dumilik r 
mentagad. 

female, doandok. 

fence, ampua, pagar. 

fern, arnsap : arusap maganak. 
a kind of fern, boiled and 
eaten by women when preg- 
nant. 

fetch, ibitah. 

feud, sangud : to have a feud, 
mengsangud. 

fever, sumarnm. 

few, makoreh. 

fibre, bebuton. 

field, alab: ranau, a wet padi- 
field. 

fierce, mesangit. 

fight, mengkeragan: magaga- 
buh, to wrestle : of cocks 
mentnrapih. 

file, (M) kikir: to file the 
teeth, magasah dipun: to 
walk in single file maususu- 
noh, mansunoh. 

fill to, masuang, mepanoh. 

fin (of fish), kiwas. 

find, mekalap, merampatan : 
cf. e inm noli ioh makasaboi 
du merampatan ; : (look for 
it till you find it.) 

fine (adj.), mainseu : (0/ tex- 
ture, <&c.) mahlus. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



A MURUT VOCABULAKY. 



355 



iinger, karindoli : tatingkis, the 
little finger : ' kandok n'ga- 
ran/ the third finger : lung- 
kuih ; the second finger : 
tuturoh, the first finger: 
tutumpoh, the thumb. 

finger-nail, salindoh. 

finish, nokud: cf. kapoioh no- 
kud aku menakan (I have not 
yet finished eating) : makaih. 
' it is finished ? : (M. ' sudah 
habis '). 

fire, apui : to set on fire, me- 
nu us ul. 

fire-fly, anninipud. 

firewood, siduan. 

firm, matagap. 

first first of all, pun noli gar- 
ingj impun. 

fish a, pait : to fish (with net) 
jala, meningjala : to fish 



(with line) mengapun 



to 



fish (with tuba) moipenoh. 
fish -trap (of bamboo), saluid: 

sibur, a kind of * kelong/ 

banked round with earth. 
fish-hook, apon. 
fist, angomun : tempokun, to 

strike with the fist. 
flag, (M) bandera. 
flap the wings, meninkabur. 
flat, merantei. 
flatter to, mangumpod : 

(imper.) impodoh. 
flea, tuntulunioh : to search for 

flea;; in the head, mensisik: 

(meiiingkutu, to perform this 

office for another person.) 
flee to, magidoh. 
flesh, daging. 
float, lumantob, lumapog. 
flood, mempaliud: (Bokan, 

mantuh.) 
floor, snlig : lulungunan, a 

spring dancing-floor. 
flour, (M) tepong. 
flower, busak. 
fly a, bungkulut : pikud, the 

horse-fly. 
fly to, mensiab. 



flying-fox, bangkaut. 

foam, putah. 

fold to, lapotun: fold the 
arms, to stand with arms fold- 
ed masongkipul. 

follow, sumugut, maiah: cf. 
niaiah du susungoi makasaboi 
du snlap ngitu, follow the 
river up to the hut: maiah 
daguh, to obey. 

food, akanan, lutuh. 

fool, palui. 

foot, keraiam. 

footmark, baiak. 

forbid, mensawaL 

forehead, dudoh. 

forget, limuan, malimuan. 

forgive, makia-ih. 

formerly, garing. 

fort, (M) kota/ 

fortune, saluad. 

foul, bajamut, sait, makasait. 

founder (of a boat), dumojob. 

fowl, manok, piak : magorok, 
to call fowls. 

fox, flying, bangkaut. 

freckle, freckled, tetaih bun- 
gulut. 

free, lumapas: to set free 
malabus : (imper.) labusih. 

fresh, baguh: (0/ water) ma- 
paloh. 

friend, dangan, amod. 

frightened, maiah, mataloh : 
pasatuntor, to shake with 
fright. 

frog, bunong, beringkatak. 

from, intod: atok intod moh? 
= where have you come from? 

front in, gintuong, gintuongan. 

fruit, (M) buah: punti, the 
banana : lampun, the durian : 
suah, kulapis, the lemon: 
mano'o-a, the mano'O : mano;- 
gis, mangusteen : luun, the 
tembadak: kalambuku, the 
* rambutan ' : tempasak, the 
i kapaias ' : kian, the i tarap ' : 
nangko, the jack-fruit, nang- 
ka. 



R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



356 



A MUEUT VOCABULAEY. 



full, panoh, mapanoh: (con- 
taining something) maka- 
suang: (M. kenyang) nasob. 

full-moon, mansarawang. 

G. 

gad about, to mengambei : 
pagambei, a lover: (of a 
woman) mikiambei. 

gain (to win), menang: (pro- 
fit) untong. 

gall, (M) ampadu. 

gambier, (M) gambir. 

gamble, mempapakau. 

game a, magaiam. 

garden, tetanun, kabun. 

gath e r ( trans. ) , menganam : 
(imper.) anamoh: (intrans.) 
timong, tumimong. 

gaze (stare at), magiloi. 

genuine, topud, kepioli. 

get, makalap : (imper.) alapoh. 

get into, makasubul : " lasaih 
apui inuh, makasubul lisun 
inuh matoh ku : (put out that 
fire, the smoke gets into my 
eyes). 

ghost, kraganan, tentolong, 
ambiruoh, berioh, keragioh : 
kraganan, ghosts of the dead 
(invisible) : tentolong, ghosts 
supposed to have the power 
of carrying people up trees : 
ambiruoh, supposed to follow 
people in the jungle and an- 
noy them, not to cause death : 
berioh, ghosts that always 
cause death : keragioh, ghosts 
that haunt the jungle : (sup- 
posed to eat people). 

giddy, magiruh iruh, manam- 
pebroh : magananipad, " to 
see stars.' 7 

girdle, abut. 

girl, doandok. 

give, anih. 

go, go away, mogad : (imper.) 
magidoh. 

go down, tomakad. 



go in, mumpas, makasubul. 
go home, mulih, makolih. 
go out, semerurak. 
goad to (e.g. a buffalo), meno- 

bok. 
goat, (M) kambing. 
goitre the, anggok. 
gold, (M) mas. 
gong, (M) agong: taubun, a 

large gong: tawak tawak. 

chenang (M) chenang. 
good, mainseu. 
good-bye (to a person going), 

ugad kanah: (to a person 

remaining)' tioh kanah. 
gourd, mantisun. 
gradually, ipipiioh. 
grandfather, akih, penakih. 
grandmother, pengadu. 
grandson or -daughter, ka- 

maman. 
grass, sakot: alap, the lalang 

grass. 
grasshopper, kapoh. 
grave a, lobong : sulap lobong.. 
great, maiioh. 
greedy, mad'oht. 
green, melinsih. 
ground, tanah. 
grow, tumoh. 
growl, menongur. 
grunt, (of a pig) menangkus.. 
gums the, sinsilun. 
gun, (M) senapang. 
guide to, mempaguloh. 
gutter, (M) parit, susungoi. 

H. 
hack to, mengkolog. 
hair, abok : naobas, a lock of 

hair. 
hair-pin (of bone, or ivory). 

timbuk. 
half, (M) s'tengah. 
halo (0/ the moon), memangka. 
halt to, tomangus. 
hammer, (of a gun) kinuda- 

kuda : hammer to, papaki. 
hand, longun. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



A MUEUT VOCABULAEY. 



357 



handful a, sagongon : ' two 
handsful ' sangakop. 

handle, (of a parang or knife) 
uluan: (of a spear or blow 
pipe) tanguran: utin, the 
part of the blade that goes in- 
to the handle. 

hang to, tehriknn. 

hard (of substances) m'akutub : 
(difficult) masusah. 

harvest to, menantab. 

hat, (M) topi: salukup, a 
large wicker hat. 

hatch to, memabak. 

hatchet, (beliong) panah. 

hate to, mararamuh. 

haul to, sintakun, lognt. 

have, has,* makondoh. 

hawk, kanoih. 

he, disoh, ioh. 

head, ulu: ingguluin, nakalap 
uluj to take a head. 

headman, nlim maiioh. 

headland, pulong. 

heap a, pumpun. 

hear, megining, mongining : 
" kapoh nokening aku du ban- 
sur": (I have not yet had 
news). 

heart, (' jantong') pusuh : 
(' hati ') goang. 

heavy, magat. 

heel the, tunob. 

heel to (of a boat), luming- 
gang. 

■heir, (M) waris. 

help to, indangan. 

hen, punan, papunan. 

her, (v. him, his). 

herd, of cattle panun : sam- 
pannn. 

here, dogitu. 

hiccough to, mensikok, men- 
sadu. 

hide to, semambuni : (of ani- 
mals) kungkung, kulit. 

high, mesawat. 

highwater, mempaliud, liud. 



hill, tidong. 

him, ioh. 

hip the, awak. 

his, ioh tampoh : nanoh, after 

the noun = Malay -nya. 
hiss to, (as a snake) meman- 

gong. 
hit to, memalambah: (with 

the open hand) tepapun, lapi- 

sun : (with the fist) tem- 

bukon. 
hold, onggoiok. 
hold (contain), masuang. 
hole, berongoh. 
hollow, ka masuang. 
home to go, mulih, makolih. 
honey, lating meningot. 
hook, apun : mengapun, to fish 

with a line. 
hook onto to, nakait: (im- 

per.) kaitoh. 
hope to, mengarap. 
horn, sangau: menangau, to 

attack with the horns, to butt. 
hornbill, the tuntudun. 
hornet, surun. 
horse, (M) kuda : igioh, a 

mare : to ride a horse, masak 

kuda. 
horse-fly, pikud. 
horse-leech, limbata. 
hot, melassu, (pungent) ma- 

podos. 
house, balui. 
how? atok kosun na : 
how many times? kain kurra. 
how much? kurra. 
how long? kurra boi. 
howl to (as a dog), mogaum. 
huge, maiioh. 
humpbacked, mabunkor. 
hungry, maitilan. 
hunt to (with dogs), mem- 

bugah: pamajaling, maja- 

ling, to hunt with dogs, using 

nooses of rot an (jaling) : 

(stalk) mengkakab. 



*Mokoncloh, used in sense of Malay ' ' ada ' ' either is, are or have, has, 
or used with a verb to express past tense, as Mokondoh bilin noh daki, — 
he sent me a message: mokondoh domatong, — he is coming. 
31. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



358 



A MUKUT VOCABULAEY. 



hurry, keribok, maiinsoh, di- 
baki. 

hurt, kinaclual: (imper.) ka- 
dualoh : cf . 'kai kadualoh ulun 
inuh ' : (don't hurt that man.) 

husband, dalaki. 

hush! tuloh ! 

husk (of grain), apol. 

hut, (21) sulap. 

I. 

I, aku, kuih: (daki = me). 

idiot, paloi. 

idle, matiad. 

it (not used), cf. "nambat noli 
poioh berai domatong dogitu" 
(if you meet him tell him to 
come) : (t makapandei aku 
poh tentu du ka indangan ku" 
(if I had known I would not 
have helped him). 

ignorant, paloi, ka maindaram. 

iguana, taraioh: kambok, the 
tree iguana. 

ill, somakit, mesakit, medul: 
masanadan, very ill, the last 
stages. 

ill-tempered, marigogut, ma- 
sarok mangit. 

illegitimate, anak pungoh. 

imitate to, baiak baiak. 

immediately, daiitu, tarus. 

impede to, mensawai. 

impropriety to behave with, 
mengkamatah. 

impudent (M) korang ajar. 

in, inside, dilalam. 

increase to, tumpok. 

incur to, makonoh, maintupan. 

India-rubber, pulut malamih. 

Indian corn, budit. 

indolent, matiad. 

industrious, merajin. 

inexperienced, kapoioh main- 
daram. 

infant, daragang. 

infectious, (M) jangkit. 

inform to, berai. 

information, bansur. 



inhabit, memagun: pagun, a 
dwelling place, a village. 

injure, mabinasa. 

inlaid, peropok, fastened in,, 
like a nail in a wall. 

inland, (M) clarat. 

inquire, mengimuat, imuaton. 

insane, makolus. 

insect, (M) binatang. 

insipid, mapaloh. 

inspect, (M) memereksa. 

insult to, uiuh, monguiuh. 

intend, me^-agaln 

intercourse to have-with, 
magiut, makinduh. 

inter to, lobong. 

interest (on money), anak. 

interpreter, (M) jurubhasa. 

interrupt, sumob daguh. 

intoxicated, megauk. 

invite to, menimpag. 

iron, (M) besi. 

is, makondoh. 

island, puru. 

itch itchy, matol: kagal, the 
itch, (' kadis ') : kurap, ring- 
worm. 

ivory, gading. 



jacket, kawal. 

jagged (as a knife edge), ma- 

pirang. 
jail, telungkoh, (lit. stocks). 
jar a, paiungan : kakanan, a 

' tajau ' : kibut, berina, a 

' kabok.' 
jaw, ajai. 
jealous, maiingot. 
jeer to, makakuclit. 
join, sumpat. 

joint of bamboo, (21) buku. 
jolt, tegogun. 
journey, mogad, mugad. 
juice, makaduh. 
jump to, timingkurok, temin- 

dak. 
jungle, kasarawan: gimbahaii,. 

virgin jungle : nohmok, 

secondary growth, ' blukar." 

Jour. Straits Branch 



A MUEUT VOCABULAEY. 



359 



just, topud, kepioh. 

just now, daitoh bagoh : ba- 

goh ioh domatong, lie is just 

coming. 

K. 
keen (sharp), malais. 
keep, memponan: (imper.) 

pemponoh. 
kick to, tunub, menunub. 
kidneys the, angkawa. 
kill, nomatoi: (imper.) potoi- 

oh. 
kind (sort), (M) bangsa. 
kind-hearted, mainseu, main- 

seu goang. 
kindle, (e.g. a fire), pamiag. 

memiad. 
kingfisher, tawakir : mantis. 

a small species. 
kiss to, magarok. 
kitchen, dapuan. 
knee, atud. 
kneel, magaratud. 
knife, pais : burong, a ' pa- 
rang.' 
knot, timpagas : to tie a knot 

menimpagas. 
know, mapandei, pandei : en- 

daiih, "I don't know": (be 

acquainted with) makolig. 

moligan. 
knuckle, (M) buku. 

L, 

labour, (M) kreja. 
laden heavily laden, mapanoh. 
laden to, pasuangun. 
lalang-grass, alap. 

ladder, tukad. 

lame, mangkuda. 

lament to, matangih. 

land (as opposed to sea), (M) 

darat : katanan. 
land to, (from a boat), mang- 

ingtanan. 
language, daguh. 
lap to, (as a dog drinking). 

dumilai. 



large, maiioh, makuluh. 
lasso, a sarigut : to lasso, 

menigot: (imper.) sigotoh. 
last (to endure), metahan. 
last (0/ time, &c), taurih. 
last night, dundom daih. 
late, lambei, melambei. 
lately, daitoh. 
laugh to, makakudit. 
lay (to place), bulai, polioh. 
lay eggs, tamaloh. 
lead (-to guide), mempaguluh: 

(as a buffalo, &c, with a 

rope) dalatun. 
leaf, (21/) daun. 
leak leaky, lauasan. 
lean (thin), matukal. 
lean to, mempiras, pasandigun. 
leap, timingkurok, temindak. 
learn, maganad. 
leave ( trans. ) , pauantan : (in- 

trans. ) mngad. 
leech, limpudii, limbutang: 

limbata, a horse-leech. 
left, kait. 
left-handed (of a person), 

natongkait. 
leg, (foot) keraiam: (whole 

leg) sempanan, sakukur. 
legend, tinmd, susuih. 
lemon, snali, kulapis. 
lend to, midah. 
leprosy, gamuh, losok. 
let (to allow), gamah. 
let go, malabusan. 
level, merantei, nagagundoh. 
lick, tilah. 

lie (to tell a lie), magambut. 
He down, mikikolong : (on 

the bach) lumangkid: (on 

the face) lumog : (on the 

side) tumehging. 
life, peniaw. 
lift, matarih: cf. magat kepi- 

pioh ka matarih ku, it is ex- 
ceedingly, heavy, I cannot lift 

it. 
light to (e.g. a fire), pamiag, 

memiad, madoki. 



R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



•360 



A MTJBUT VOCABULAEY. 



lightning, ganit, tungkilap, ki- 
lap: meninisih, to be struck 
by lightning. 

like to, mesagah. 

like, (similar) naguncloh. 

lime a, kulapis. 

lime, (eaten with sirih) apog. 

limpid, menining. 

line, kumiting: (of the palm 
of the hand) bamburut ka- 
rindoh: cf. mogilai du bam- 
burut karindoh memad ioh 
matawang: it is early morn- 
ing, one can distinguish the 
lines of one's hand. 

lip, munong. 

listen to, mengining, megining. 

iittle (of size), mosat, mebo- 
dok: (of quantity) kosat. 

Jive to, biag: (to inhabit) 
memagun : pagun, a village : 
sampagun, to live in the same 
village as another. 

liver, angkaiau. 

living (alive), tinambiag. 

lizard, house- ambiruoh baloi: 
grass-lizard garang. 

load a, magibah : to load pasu- 
angun. 

lock of hair, (unbound) 
naobas : tininbuku, a lock of 
hair bound and kept together 
with a hairpin : (" timbuk.") 

locust, kapoh, kakaiak. 

log, tetaun. 

loin-cloth, abag. 

lonely, masiruk. 

long, mawacl: (0/ time) ma- 
boi : kurra maboi, kurra boi ? 
= how long? 

long ago, nakalaiid noioh. 

long for to, mesagah. 

look at to, mogiloi. 

look for, ium, megium, ma- 
kium. 

* look out '! ilai. 

loose (adj.) maluag : loose to. 
malabusan. 

lose, metatag: (get the worst 
of) mala. 



lose one's way, makaraiau. 

loss, (M) rugi. 

louse, kutu, kuad. 

love to make, dumojur. 

lovely, mainseu: (of persons) 

mapasau, mainseu. 
lover a, pagambei. 
low, mecliwah. 

low tide, mosat, timog mosat. 
luck, saluad. 
lucky, saluad mainseu. 
lunatic, makolus. 

M, 

mad, makolus. 

maiden a, darah. 

maize, budit. 

male, kusoi. 

make, anuan, pakuan. 

man, ulun, kusoi. 

mane (of a horse), tetabir. 

manggo the, (M) mangga. 

mangrove, (M) bakau. 

many, mamok : (numerous) 
ma was : domassam mawas. 
heavy rain : how many ? kain 
korah. 

mare, igioh, kuda igioh. 

mark, (M) tanda: baiak, a 
footmark: pinututan, mark 
of an animal by cutting its 
tail: to mark (e.g. a tree, by 
blazing) mebatin. 

marry (0/ a man), magagalus: 
(of a woman) magaguat, 
mempapurut : (purut, a 

dowry) : moipanudong, to 
ask in marriage. 

marsh a, losok. 

mat, iam. 

match, penclidip. 

matter (pus), (M) nanah. 

matter, what's the? atok na- 
koran ? 

mattress, (M) tilam. 

me, daki. 

mean, (stingy) makalit 

measure to, tukoh. 

meat, (.1/) daging. 

Jour. Straits Brancli 



A MURUT VOCABULARY 



361 



medicine, (M) ubat: tetapis. 

native medicine. 
meet, nambat, matuka, makam- 

but. 
melt, tumanoh, mapusoh. 
mercy, makiasih. 
message to send a, mamilin, 

balinin. 
mew (of a cat), daguh. 
middle, (M) tengah. 
midwife, mangungoi. 
milk, gatas: to milk mema- 

gah : tomitih, to feed at the 

breast. 
mimic to, baiak baiak. 
mina (the bird), tioh. 
mind, ('never mind') gamah 

noioh. 
mine, aku tampoh : akn (ki) 

kuih, used after noun they 

govern, as in Malay: 
mingle to, pagamonguh. 
mist, dandaman, gaun. 
mistake to make a malimuan. 
mistrust, ka mintopud. 
mix, pagamonguh. 
moist, masah. 
moment, sangkinurad: cf. 

'' sangkinurad da nioiun, ka 

maboi aku " : (wait a mo- 
ment, I won't be long.) 
money, dusin. 
monkey, jibulau. the ' kerah ' : 

gabok, the berok : kalawat. 

the ' wah wah ' : dungoih, the 

long nosed monkey : kagoioh. 

the ' ma was ' (orang utan). 
month, (M) bulan. 
moon, (M) bulan: mansara- 

wang, full moon : kasisilah. 

new moon. 
more, makalabih bagoh. 
mortar, (for pounding rice) 

tutuan. 
mosquito, namok. 
mosquito-net, kabunan. 
mother, inah, panginah : ef . 

' atar inah moh ' : = (M) f puki 

mak ' : (a term of abuse). 
mother-in-law, mangiwan. 



mountain, tidong. 
moustache, jarub. 

mouse, (M) tikus. 

mouth the, kabang: mouth of 
a river nagalongan, alongan. 

move (intrans.), madangkat : 
(trans.) baluih. 

much, mamok. 

mud muddy, losok : (muddy, 
of water) malutut. 

mule, (21) kladi. 

murder to, mematoi : (imper.) 
potoioh. 

muscle, uat. 

music, daguh: kulintang, a 
kind of violin, made of bam- 
boo, with rotan strings : sem- 
potun, a kind of bamboo flute. 

my, aku tampoh, kuih tampoh. 

N. 

nail, (21) paku: finger-nail 

salindoh. 
naked, lumabas. 
name, ngaran : ' atok ngaran 

susuugoi clogitu?' (what is 

the name of this river?) 
nape of neck, impus. 
narrate to, nomarah, pauaran. 
narrow, mapisok. 
nasty, meraht, ka mainseu. 
nationality, (21) bangsa. 
navel, pusut. 
near, memad: nakodat, to go 

near, to approach. 
nearly, memad: memad ioh 

mopatoi, he nearly died. 
neck, liog. 
need to, mesagah. 
need, (noun) pasagan : cf. 

" atok pasagan moh " : what 

do you want. 
needle, sabul. 
nephew, akun. 
nest, tambunan. 
net (for fishing), jala, penakat. 
nettle a, (with large stinging 

leaves) arupui. 
never, kai gunduh. 



R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



3(5: 



A MUEUT VOCABULAEY. 



new, bagnh: baguh is used al- 
so in the sense of ' then only ' 
(as Malay ' bharu ') : cf. 
" nasih busak inuh, baguh ioh 
tumuh," (water those flowers 
and then they will grow) : 
mainseu molong": (set the 
" pamiag du apui, baguh om 
fire going 1 and then we can 
sleep in comfort). 

news, bansur. 

nice, mainseu. 

niece, akun. 

night, dundom, mundom. clun- 
dom daih, last night. 

nightjar the, labok. 

nimble, mepinit. 

nip to, kadut. 

nipple (of breast), titih. 

no, not, ka, salah. 

noise, mohtah, magutah, min- 
daguh. 

nonsense, paloi. 

noose, sarignt: sigotun, to 
catch with a noose, to lasso. 

nose, adong : maginsingor, to 
blow the nose. 

not any, none, kandok : kaiioh. 

not at all, ka gundoh. 

not enough, ka sukup, ka 
samah. 

notch a tree to, mebatin. 

notched (of a blade), mapi- 
rang. 

now, daiitu. 

numb, orodun. 

numerous, mawas : domassam 
mawas, heavy rain. 

nurse to, bebilun : tomitih, to 
feed at the breast. 

O, 
oath, mopatod: take an oath 

mopatod, magibut. 
obey, maiah du daguh. 
oblong, taigagawad. 
obstinate, kumaras. 



obstruct to, lumawan. 
obtain, mekalap. 
ocean, dat. 

odd, (M) heran. 

odour, mowoh. 

of (possessive) , tampoh. 

offence, (21) salah. 

offended, medul goang. 

often, masarok. 

oil, piad : Piad tanah, kerosine 

oil: Piad tetaun, the s»ap of 

a tree. 
old, matiia. 
omen, angai. 
on, disawat. 
once, igundoh. 
one, dundoh. 
onion, babawang: (Dalit i.e. 

Peluan dialect bintudu). 
only, iak. 
open, sukab : to open, suka- 

bun: (imper.) sukabih. 
opium, (M) piun. 
oppose, mengkeragan. 
opposite, magintuang. 
orange, suah. 
*or, kia : ' talah-kia ginu-kia ?/ 

this or that? 
orchid an, sarongih. 
order to, menusub, moipo- 

marah : (imper.) sukubuh. 
order to put in, nakiting: 

(imper.) tingoh. 
ornament to, mematik. 
ornamentation (e.g. on a 

shield) batik. 
other, bokmi: cf. ' atok aien 

(atoien) ulun du bokun-ih?' 

(where are the other men?) 
ought, (M) patut, mapatut. 
our, akai tampoh, monoh, (used 

after the noun it governs, as 

Malay -nya.) 
out outside, liwad. 
oval, taigagawad. 
over, disawat, tumampak. 



*Also used in interrogation in the sense of the Malay "kah": naka- 
ralong ioh kia ka-kia. Cf. Makaratong ioh kia ka-kia? — has he arrived 
or not? 

Jour. Straits Branch 



A MUKUT VOCABULAKY, 



303 



•overcast (of the shy), jinomud, 

jinroht. 
overgrown, masakut. 
overladen, mapamoh. 
overturn to, mesasad. 
owe, magutang. 
•owl, puak. 
•ox, (M ) kerbau. 

P. 

pack up to, mengkaput : (im- 
per.) kaputi. 

package a, magibah. 

paddle a, kabir: to paddle, 
mengkabir. 

padi, bilod. 

padi-field (hill), tindal: men- 
inclal, domilik, to prepare 
hill padi-field : (wet) ranau: 
menaras, to prepare a wet 
padi-field : linawang, the lines 
between (wet) padi when 
planted out : bokok, the ridges 
dividing wet padi-fields : ram- 
pud, large receptacle of hark, 
for storing padi. 

pain painful, somakit, medul. 

pale, mapasih: (of colours) 
mebuloh. 

palm of hand, palad : bam- 
burut karindoh, the lines of 
the palm. 

pant to, magingus : ingus ingus, 
out of breath. 

paper, (M) kertas. 

parang, burong : kinamulan. 
a long sword-shaped parang: 
paiirang, a ' parang hilang/ 

pass, mensail, pantaliban. 

path, baian, baian lalas, dfllan. 

pay for, membalai gatang. 
menganih gatang. 

pebble, (M) batu. 

peck, menindok. 

peel, (M) kulit: to peel meng- 
kulit: (imper.) mengkulitih. 

pelt to, memohas, bosoh. 

penalty, sagit. 

pendulous, (of breasts) lum- 
oiud. 

R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



people, ulun. 

pepper, ladoh. 

perch to (of birds), modup. 

perhaps, (M) barangkali. 

permit, gamah. 

person, ulun. 

perspire to, umasan. 

persuade, pajaloh. 

phlegm, usod. 

pick up, alap, menganam. 

pick out, (as a thorn from the 
foot) surah, memurah : (to 
choose) (M) pileh. 

picture, (M) gambar : batik, 
engraving, ornamentation. 

piece a, taiadan. 

pierce to, tebokun. 

pig ( wild), basing : (domestic) 
bawih. 

pigeon (the punai'), tawan : 
(the ' punai tanah') limbu- 
kun: (the ( per gam') balud. 

pile a, pumpun. 

pillow, lulunan. 

pimp, (M) beruah. 

pinang, kusob : magintat, to 
chew betel-nut. 

pinch to, kadut. 

pineapple, aarabak. 

pipe (large, of bamboo), silt: 
tabaga, a small wooden pipe 
with thin bamboo stem: (a 
conduit) tagurusoh. 

pitch (resin), salong. 

pitcher-plant the, tutuyod. 

pitted, (with small-pox) pilat, 
bums pilat. 

pity, makasih, marobat : it is a 
pity marobat : cf . " marobat 
patidin moh piad ih " : (it 
is a pity to waste the oil). 

place a, aianan, pemulian: to 
place bulihin, nakoluih : (im- 
per.) polioh. 

plain, matarang, matawang. 

plain a, alap. 

plait to, manolampit. 

plan to, (M) pakat, mempakat. 

plant to, tinanom, menanam: 
a plant, busak. 



364 



A MUEUT VOCABULAEY. 



plantation, tetanun. 

plate, klaian. 

play to, magaganja. 

pleasant, maiuseu. 

plenty plentiful, mamok. 

plot to, (M) pakat, mem] 

plough to, meradu. 

pluck to (e.g. a flower), moi- 
irpuh: (a fowl) memubol. 
mabulnn. 

plunder to, maclamas, domasun. 

pock-marked, pilat. 

point to, turuok. 

point (the tip), munjok: (a 
h eadland ) pulong. 

poison, umpadan: tuoh, the 
tuba poison : palig, poisonous 
sap (used for blowpipe darts) : 
binah a poisonous root, mixed 
with " palig " : limuan, or 
limbuanan, poisonous leaves: 
(name probably derived from 
limuan, " oblivion " ) : tam- 
b&n, a poisonous root. 

poisonous, mabisa. 

pole a, luguh: (for punting) 
tukol. 

poke to, susok, sinusok. 

pool a, luluiun. 

poor, (31) miskin. 

populous, masarah, meramei. 

porcupine, tautong, lisis. 

post a, luguh. 

pound to, manutu : tutu, a 
pounding-stick : tutuan, a 
mortar, for pounding padi. 

pour to, lingingun, dalinun. 

powerful, maikang. 

praise, umpod. 

praise to, impodoh : maki- 
umpod, to boast. 

pregnant, menantian, mapang. 

prepare, samadia, makasedia. 

present to, anih. 

present at, daiitu. 

press to, sendotun. 

pretend, magakal. 

pretty, maiuseu : of persons, 
mapasau, maiuseu. 

prevent, sawaiun. 



price, gatang. 

prick to, matobok, tebokun. 

prisoner, binduam (M) orang 

salah. 

probably, (M) barangkali. 

prop a, tetokud, tetansok: to- 
prop, natokud, natansak. 

property, dapu : mamok dapu.. 
rich. 

prostitute, (M) sundal. 

proud, makomoh, sumantuh. 

prow of boat, julong, diulong.. 

pull, logotun, dalatun: (logo- 
tun, to pull gently, dalatun, to 
pull hard). 

pull out (as a parang from its* 
sheath) -, butus: (as a root 
from the ground) menubuL 

pulse the, peniaw uat : kibut 
kibut, to beat (of the pulse).. 

pumpkin, mantisun. 

pungent, mapodos. 

punt to, mentukol. 

punting-pole, tukol. 

puppy, ukoh. 

purpose on, inintopud. 

pursue, maiindakup. 

push, sungkangun. 

put, balihin, nakoluih: (im~ 
per.) polioh. 

put out (to extinguish) , lasaih.. 

putrid, mootong. 

python the, mendolun. 

Q, 

quail the, pipitau. 

quarrel to, mengkeragan. 

quarter, (31) sasuku. 

queer, matambungoh, (M ) he- 
ran. 

question to, mengimuat, imua- 
ton. 

quick, meribok, keribok, mah- 
jag: (agile) mepinit. 

quiet, be quiet! tuloh ! kai 
pagnsoh. 

quill (of porcupine), garit, ka- 
damok. 

Jour. Straits Branch. 



A MURUT VOCABULARY. 



36o 



-quiver to, menuntor : with fear 
pasatimtor. 

quiver of darts (made of bam- 
boo), kobun. 

R. 

race a, (M) bangsa: to race, 

semimbul. 
raft a, gakit. 
rafter (main), pakang: small. 

M. ' kasau ') timpuclokong, 

dolus. 
raid to, mengaiau. 
rail hand-, kakapitun. 
rain, domasaam : domassam 

ma was, heavy rain: (cf. M. 

* hujan lebat '). 
■rainbow, bunsirak. 
raise to, kakaton. 
ramrod, hilugup. 
rape, ginabuh. 

rapid, madaras a rapid, rikus. 
rare -ly, melambat. 
raspberry, surinid. 
rat, (21) tikus. 
rations, lutuh. 
ravish to, ginabuh. 
raw, matah, bebata. 
reach (arrive at), somaboi. 

makasaboi. 
read, (M) memacha. 
ready, makasedia. 
real, topud, kepioh. 
reap, mengatab, mengomud. 
rear (to bring up), piara. 
rear (as a horse), menterodong. 
receive, makiupah, tarima. 
recline, lumangkod : (v. to 

lie). 
recognize, makolig. 
red, meriah. 

refuse to, ka mesagah, matiad. 
refuse (dirt), sakut. 
regret to, mengkada. 
regular (in order), ketingun. 
relate to, pawaran, nomaran. 
relation, pabukat: magamud. 

to swear relationship. 
rely on, mintopud, malansan. 
remain, bantar, minenta. 

R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



remainder the, noantai. 

remember, maganib, jimagah. 
(M) meningat, tomorandah. 

repair to, patarandaiin. 

repeatedly, masarok. 

replace, magalid. 

replete, nasob. 

reply, magagual, majawab. 

request to, mikianih: a re- 
quest, pakiaman. 

reside, memagun. 

resist, lnmawan. 

retire, dumulih, lumogut. 

return (go bach), mulih : 
(give bad') paluliun. 

revenge, sulian : to take re- 
venge, sumnlih. 

revile, maguras. 

revolve, domiruh, madiruh. 

rhinoceros, tembaiungan. 

rice (uncooked), h&g&s: (cook- 
ed) nasi : mumok, unripe 
rice, cooked, (iM. i emping ') : 
(fermented) tapei. 

rice-bird, (the 'pipit') pirit. 

rich, langkaia, mnmok dapu. 

ride to, masak, masak kerbau. 
kuda, &c. 

ridge (of a hill), no^ug, bolud: 
(between padi fields) bokok. 

right (correct), topud, kepioh: 
(opposed to left) pemidis. 

rigid, matan. 

ring, (M) chin-chin: (through 
a buffalo's nose) anting. 

ringworm, (21) kurap. 

rinse (in water), polangdongan. 

ripe, mangsak. 

rise (get up), somukal: (0/ 
the sun) sumilah, makasoroh. 

river, timog, susungoi: darai- 
ioh, upriver : sumulok, to go 
upriver : dabugus, downriver : 
mempiugus, to go downriver: 
memeripag, padipag, to cross 
a river. 

road, sinangkul, dalan. 

rob, madamas, domasun. 

rock a, (21) batu. 



366 



A MUEUT VOCABULAEY. 



roll up (e.g. a mat), padunun. 
balmran. 

roof, tap. 

room, pisok : dapuaii, the cen- 
tre of a Mn rut house, where 
the fire is made : bantul, the 
raised flooring round this 
c dapuan.' 

root, bakat. 

rotten (decayed), mapasah: 
(putrid) motong. 

rotan, owoi : owoi sogoh, the 
e rotan sega ' : owoi rimut. 
the small, thin rotan: sem- 
ambu (Malacca cane) lasun: 
tomatas owoi, to collect rotan. 
to collect rotan. 

round, (adj.) mohrud, (M) 
bulat. 

round around, (pre p.) domi- 
pucl. 

rouse (to waken), mengadat. 
kadatoh. 

route a, dalan. 

row (a line), kumiting. 

row (a noise), mohtah, magu- 
tah, pagusoh. 

rub to, puiaiun. 

rubber india-, pulut malamih: 
(hard) ligaian. 

rubbish, sakut : (nonsense) 
paloi. 

rude, (M) korang ajar. 

rumour a, bansur. 

rump the, tabing. 

run to, mtagidoh, semimbul. 

run against (collide), maka- 
pantapak. 

rust -ty, togur. 

S. 

sad, merobatan : (= M. sayang). 

saddle, (M) sela. 

sago, inatok. 

sago-palm, rembia. 

saliva, idis, usod = engus, 

(phlegm.) 
sallow, mapasih. 
salt, nsih. 



salt water, timog mapadih. 
salt-lick a, mesupon. 

sand, agis. 

sandfly, rangit. 

sap (of tree), pulut, 
tetaun. 

satisfied, masenang goang ; 
mainseu goang : (sated) na- 
sob. 

say to, berai, claguh. 

scabbard (of parang), angkap. 

scald to, mauassan. 

scales (of a fish) sisik. 

scar a, pilat. 

scare to, ilalanoh. 

scared to be, malah. 

scarecrow, senihkakalaing : 
(derived from dalaing, a 
child; "child's work"): te- 
tandok, dead leaves hung on 
a line to scare birds : lelakap, 
pieces of bamboo, used for 
this purpose : lungkating, the 
rotan on which these are hung.. 

scatter, e.g. pacli, in feeding 
fowls : mapatias, patiasoh 
(imper.) 

scorpion, lingangait. 

scratch to, kikutok. 

scream to, lumakuih, guma- 
gang. 

scum, putah. 

sea, dat. 

sea-shore, king dat. 

search to, ium, megium. 

see, mokitoh, mogiloi. 

seed, umih. 

seek, ium, megium. 

seize, onggoiok, memerakap. 

seldom, melambat. 

self, (M) sencliri: cf. ' doma- 
tang ioh sendiri, balinin ioh 
ak? ? (did he come himself 
or did he send a message?) 

sell, mentaran, taranan. 

send, natadan, (imper.) atadih.. 

send for, menimpag. 

sense, goang. 

senseless (stupid), paloi : (un- 
conscious) ka makaliman. 

Jour. Straits Branch. 



A MUBUT VOCABULARY. 



367 



sensible, makagoang. 
sensual of a man, mad'oht 

mengambei. 
sensual of a woman, mad'oht 

mikiambei. 
separate to, taiad: (adj.) 

nataiad. 
serve, i serve you right ' : ma- 

jarah kan doginuh. 
set (to place), nakolnih, balin- 

in : (of the sun) melasah. 

lumasah. 
settle (to decide), nokat. 
settle (to inhabit), mempagun. 
severe, makotog. 
sew to, memikit: menarut, to 

sew ataps. 
shabby, gansing, mapasah. 
shadow, baiang baiang. 
shaft (of spear, &c), tanguran. 
shake to, mosoh: pasatuntor 

to shake with fright. 
shake hands, menganggai ka- 

rindoh. 
shallow, matingkah. 
sham to, magakal. 
shame, muiuh. 
shape, bansa. 
share a, taiadan: to share. 

taiad. 
sharp (of a point), malais: 

(of an edge) maladum. 
sharpen to, magasah. 
she, ioh, gisah. 
sheath, of parang, angkap. 
shed, the skin, as a snake, me- 

malus : tambulalas, a hard 

wood that sheds its bark. 
shell coconut-, ranggut. 
shew, turuih. 
shield a, kalid. 
shift to, (trans.) baluih : (in- 

trans.) madangkat, mapindah. 
shiver (with cold), mesimuan. 
shoal a, kumukot : of fish, 

sampanun : menauh, the 

swarming of fish at the breed- 
ing season. 

R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



shoot, memadil: imper. badi- 
loh (with blowpipe) men- 
yapok. 

shooting star, timbunus. 

shop, (M) kedei. 

short, majunok: (wanting} 
ka samah. 

short cut a, magatas. 

shoulder, limbahu : sahnin, to 
carry a load on the shoulder. 

shut to, angabib. 

shut up!, tuloh!, kai pagusoh.. 

shy, muiuh. 

sick, medul, somakit, mesakit : 
to be, (to vomit) mempaluah. 

sick of, (M. ' puas ') masintob. 

sickle a, tatantab : menantab, 
to reap. 

side, tehgingan, tabibikan. 

sieve to pass through a, men- 
iri. 

sight a (of a gun or blowpipe), 
tentaran. 

sign a, tetandok, pulanau: 
mengapoih, to make signs, as 
a dumb person. 

silly, palui. 

silver, (M) perak. 

similar, nagundoh. 

since long since, nakalaid 
noioh. 

sing to, medimbai, melimbai. 

single, duncloh : (unmarried 
of a man), buiaiyoi : (un- 
married of a woman), darah. 

sink to, lumunut, dumojob. 

sister, pabukat: kakak, elder 
sister : harih, younger sister. 

sister-in-law, along. 

sit to, mentudong : magin- 
suroh, to squat, on the haun- 
ches : magalaliad, to sit on 
the ground with the feet to 
the right and bent back, the 
left hand resting on the 
ground, (Malay 'timpoh'): 
magibaboiad, to sit on the 
ground with feet outstretched, 
side by side, in front of one: 
pagulabidan, to sit crossleg- 



36: 



A MUEUT VOCABULAEY. 



ged, ' tailor fashion ' : men- 

tu'kang, to sit on the ground, 

with hands folded across the 

knees, fingers interlocked. 
sit, (of a hen) mimamut. 
skilful, (M) pandei, mapandei. 
skin the, kulit: to skin, neh- 

duan: (imper.) •iduohu 
skirt (short), tapih. 
skull, ranggut, ranggut nlu. 
skunk the, tndnh. 
sky, koanan. 
slack (not taut), lumangkong: 

(lazy) matiad. 
slander to, mamitanah: (pro- 

bably derived from Malay 

'fitenah'). 
slap to, tepapun, lapisun. 
slave a, ulun ulun : cf . ' pun 

noli garing ih ulun dogitu 

ulun ulun, to begin with, 

formerly this man was a slave. 
sleep to, molong: to talk in 

one's, magampuang : (Malay 

igau). 
sleepy, kolong olong, tikiko- 

long. 
slip to, nakatuntuias : mala- 

busan, = Malay ' lepas ' : cf. 

u malabusan burong makonoh 

keraiam nanoli " : the parang 

slipped and cut his foot). 
slippery, lamog, melamog. 
slow slowly, ipipiioh, kapia- 

nih : liwar 2 . 
small, mosat, mebodok. 
small-pox, penabuh. 
smash, mabak, meroput. 
smell to, mengarok, magarok: 

a smell, mowoh : mohtong, a 

foul smell. 
smoke, lisun: to smoke, men- 

sigup, menigup. 
snake, dipu : dipu mainsisiab, 

the flying snake. 
snap to, mapitoh, mapandak. 
snare a, sarigut, antob, jaling: 

(a 'trap'): to snare, sigo- 

tun, pama jaling. 



sneeze, tadisu. 

sniff, mainsingut. 

snipe, taduid. 

snore to, gun: 

snout (of a pig), sesungal: 

menungal, to grub about (as 

a pig). 
so, koiuh doginuh. 
so-and-so, ianu. 
soak in water to, polandongan. 
soft, malamih. 
some, paraphrased: cf. mok- 

ondoh domatong ka donia- 

tong, some came, some did 

not : mokondoh du dipu ma- 

l)isa, mokondoh kandok, some 

snakes' are poisonous, some 

not. 
son, anak kusoi : son-in-law : 

son step- kamanakun. 
song, dinibai. 
sorry to be, mengkada. 
sort, (M) bangsa. 
sound a, mohtah, mindaguh. 
sour, masum. 
source (of a river), udan. 
sow to, tinanom, menanam. 
span a, sandangau : sandangau 

mawad, a span in length. 
spark a, memurarau. 
speak to, daguh, mindaguh 

berai. 
spear a, dongkot: Andus, a 

barbed spear: to spear, men- 

udah. 
speckled, taporintek intek. 
spider, lawa, angkalawa. 
spider-web, tambunan lawa. 
spill to, pasasadoh. 
spin (to weave), tinalnd. 
spirit a, berioh, ambiruoh, kra- 

ganan (v. ghost) : (made 

from rice fermented) tapai. 
spit, magiwog. 
split to, lapakun, melapak. 
spoil, narunsai. 
spoon, (M) sendok, sudu. 
sprain, nakakandur uat, mesa- 

lah uat. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



A MUEUT VOCABULARY. 



369- 



spring to, timingkurok, temin- 

clak. 
spring a (of water), taud. 
sprinkle, uasih. 
sprout to, puput. 
spur (of a cock), atacl. 
squander to, patidih. 
square, pinasagi. 
squat to, maginsuroh. 
squeeze, memagah. 
squirm, as a snake: mengkilus 

kilus. 
squirrel, khaitan: apuiut, the 

flying squirrel. 
squint-eyed, sulimpat. 
stab to, menudah. 
stagger, ugacl magoag goag, 

mensiling siring. 
stake of pointed bamboo 

(caltrop), udang. 
stalk to, mengkakap. 
stalk (of a flower), taunan. 
stammer, kudalit. 
stand to, menterudong : (wi- 
pe-?'.) patuclong: (to endure) 

tomahan. 
stand up, somukal, kumakal. 
star, butiting: butiting men- 

tatakoh, the evening star: 

timbunus, a shooting star. 
start (to set out for), tumuad, 

tumuad mogad. 
startled, mokoporog. 
stay, bantar, minenta. 
steady, maikang, matan. 
steal, takoh, mentakoh. 
steel, (M) besi. 
steep, mapusok. 
stem (of a flower), taunan. 
step to, kamidau, kidawi. 
steps (of a house), tokad. 
stern, makotog. 
stern the, tabing : (of a boat) 

ulin. 
stick a, sasukud: to stick, 

dumokut. 
sting a (of a wasp, &c), tuli: 

to sting, meningot, manokot. 
stingy, makalit. 
stink, mohtono-. 



stir, sasau. 

stocks, telungkoh. 

stomach, tinaih. 

stone, (M) batu. 

stoop to, kamooh. 

stop, (intrans.) tomangus: 
(trans.) menikog : (imper.) 
sikagih. 

storm, magangin, angin ma- 
pod. 

story a, tunucl. 

stout, melabong. 

straight, matulid, makiting. 

stranded {of a boat), maka- 
sangut. 

strangle to, memontol, me- 
montol du liog, bantoloh. 

stream, susungoi, timog: up- 
stream, dara}'Oh; to go up- 
stream, sumulok, makasulok: 
downstream, dabugus; to go. 
downstream, mempiugus. 

stretch to, lumanat, membirud. 

strike, lambah, memalambah, 
linambah. 

stripped, lumabas. 

strong, maikang: (of wind) 
mapod: (of taste, &c, 'pun- 
gent) mapodos. 

struggle (to wrestle), magaga- 
buh. 

stubble, nanantaban. 

studded (inlaid), peropok. 

stumble, makasadoh. 

stump (of tree), tuod. 

stunned, ka makaliman. 

stupid, palui, kandok goang. 

subsequently, taurih. 

substitute, magalid. 

succeed (be successful) mopud, 
makajadi: (take the place 
of) magalid, ginumanti: cf. 
" asai ginumanti disoh du 
maiioh " (who took his place 
as headman?) 

suckle to, tomitih. 

sufficient, samah, sukup. 

sugar, (M) gula. 

sugar-cane, tabu. 

suicide to commit, nantuoh. 



E. A. Soc, No. 



1922. 



370 



A MUEUT VOCABULAEY. 



summit (0/ a hill), bolud, no- 
lug. 

sun, odoh, matanodoh (v. 
day.") 

sunrise, sumilah. 

sunset, melasah, lumasah. 

support (to prop up), tetokud, 
tetansok. 

sure surely, (M ) tentu, topud. 

suffeited, nasob. 

surplus the, noantai. 

surprised, metambungoh. 

swallow to, tinolun, melanun, 
talun. 

swallow (the bird), pandai- 
angan. 

swamp a, ranau. 

swarm a, sampanun. 

swear to (take an oath), mopa- 
tod. 

sweat, umos : to sweat, uma- 
san, magumos. 

sweep to, isasih. 

swell to, menimbalud, menim- 
batal. 

swelling in the neck, (goitre) 
anggok. 

swift, menibok, (of water) 
mapuun. 

swim to, domusok, nadusuh. 

swollen, menimbalud. 

swoon to, memukad : ka maka- 
liman, to be in a swoon, un- 
conscious. 



table, (M) meja: babaloi, a 
bench. 

tadpole, tebulu. 

tail, iku. 

take, nakalap : (imper ) ala- 
poh : (accept) makiupah. 

take away, ibitoh: ibitoh. mo- 
gad ulun nginuh : ' take that 
man away/ 



take care, ilai. 



take care of, (M) piara. 

tale, tunud, susuih. 

talk to, daguh, mindaguh : (in 

one's sleep) magampuang. 
talkative, mawad gilah. 
tall, mesawat, of persons, ma- 

lampas, melangoh. 
tame, makaup. 
tapioca, mundok. 
taste to, iri, mengiri: a taste, 

iri. 
tasteless, (insipid) mapaloh. 
tatoo to, papak, mempakak. 
teach, memumau. 
tear, mauriak, mohriak: cf. 

i ilai duih inuh, tentu mohriak 

kawal monoh': (mind the 

thorns, our clothes will be 

torn.) 
tease, anjahan. 
teat, titih. 
tell (inform), berai, nomarah: 

(order) menusup. 
temper, goang. 
temple the, piping. 
*than, ku. 

that, talah, ginuh, nuh. 
their, iroh tampoh, nanoh. 

(nanoh used after the noun, 

as M. -nya.) 
them, iroh. 
then, timpok inuh. 
there, tio, tio nalah. 
these, gitu, talah. 
they, iroh. 
thick, makapal. 
thick-headed, palui, ka maka- 

goang : kandok goang. 
thief, mentatakoh. 
thieve to, takoh, mentakoh. 
thigh, paha. 
thin, mejiipis: (of persons) 

metukal. 
things, ('perkakas') kuliamas: 

(barang) M. barang. 



* The comparative is formed as in Malay, either with or without the 
word ' makalabih ' (more) qualifying the adjective, cf. *' Talah maiioh 
ku nallah. "; or "Makalabih maiioh talah ku nallah." — Thisi is larger 
than that. 



Jour. Straits Branch 



A MUEUT VOCABULAEY. 



371 



think, mempikir : generally 

paraphrased, as " atok goang 

da moiun." 
thirsty, kandok : goang ku 

nam pas. 
this, gitu, talah. 
thorn, duih. 
thousand, saliong. 
thread, gapas. 
threaten to, ilalaimn. 
throat, membalangan. 
throb to, kibut kibut. 
through, sumunsor. 
throw to, niemuas : mapatias, 

to scatter. 
throw away, patidih: noati- 

dan. 
thunder, tumparak. 
thus, koioh, koioh doginu'h. 
tick a, sudib. 
tickle to, taligogonan. 
ticklish, taligogonan. 
tide (current) lintagup : high 

tide, lumuab : low tide, me- 

rasak, timog merasak, t. 

mosat. 
tidy to make, nakiting : (im- 

per.) itingoh. 
tie to, mengkaput, (imper.) 

kaputi. 
tie up to (eg. a horse), da- 

kugi : (to bind e.g. a wound) 

bawoclim. 
tiger, mondoh. 
tight, lanating, maikang: 

(drunk) magaup. 
till, makasaboi, saboi : saboi 

inn, till now. 
timbadau, membaras. 
timber, tetaun : mentagad, to 

fell timber. 
time, timpok : how many times ? 

kain kora? at that time. 

timpoh doginuh. 
timid, malah. 
tinsel (beads), manuclirau, (lit. 

' bright '). 
tip the, munjok. 
tipsy, magaup. 
tiptoe to walk on, kamuda. 

R. A. Soc, No. 8.6 1922. 



tired, numpai, gumpai. 

to towards, du : (as far as) 

disum, domisum, makasaboi. 
toad, pantong. 
tobacco, (M) sigup. 
today, odoh n'gitu. 
toe, karindoh keraiam. 
together, nagagundoh, maba- 

baia. 
tomorrow, sasuab. 
tongue, gilah : mawad gilah, 

talkative. 
too, tupoh. 
tooth, dipun : mengasah, to 

file the teeth: bunganaliu, 

the canine teeth : bagang, the- 

molars. 
toothless, narangaban. 
top (e.g of a tree), umbus :. 

(of a hill) bolud, nolug. 
torch, titiu. 
tortoise, buh. 
totter to (as a drunken man),. 

mensiling siling. 
touch, anggai, menanggai : me- 

nanggai karindoh, to shake 

hands. 
tough, maikang. 
tow to, dalatun. 
towards, du. 
track to, mengkakab. 
track (a narrow path), atang.. 
track (a footmark) , baiak. 
trade to, (M) berdagang. 
trample to, mongujok. 
transparent (as water), men- 

gining. 
trap, sarigut, sesigut, jaling,. 

nooses of rotan, used in deer 

drives : antob, traps for small 

animals, pelanclok, etc. 
travel to, mogad. 
tread to, kedawih. 
tree, tetann. 
tribe, (M) bangsa. 
trigger of a gun, dalatun. 
trip to, makasadoh. 
troublesome, masusah. 
true, topud, kepioh. 
trunk, of a tree, tetaun. 



372 



A MURUT VOCABULARY. 



trust to, mintopud, malansan. 

try to, iri, mengiri. 

tuba, tuoh : moipenoh, to fish 

with tuba. 
turbid (of water), malutut. 
turn to, (intrans.) lumikuad. 
turn into, (to become) mawal. 

cf . " butiting timbunus mawal 

du pait" (a shooting star 

becomes a fish.) 
turn round to, lumikuad. 
turn over to, (trans.) timpu- 

dokoh. 
tusk (of a boar), lalangiu. 
twilight, mundom. 
twins, mongkobun, magabid. 
twist to, mepilus, napuak: 

natoh ioh, mepilus keraiam 

noh (he fell and twisted his 

foot). 

U. 

udder, titih. 

ugly, meraht, ka mapasau. 

ulcer an, tupas : palakak, an 

ulcer on the foot, the ' puru/ 
unable, ka makadapat. 
uncertain, kapo napandaian. 
uncommon, melambat. 
uncooked, memata, bebata. 
under, dariwah. 
undergrowth, nomok : dumi- 

lik, to clear undergrowth, (as 

opposed to ' memtagad/ to 

clear big jungle.) 
understand, makarerti. 
unequal, ka nagagunduh. 
unfasten to, sukabun. 
unfrequented (lonely), masi- 

ruk. 
uninhabited, nalasun. 
unmarried (of a man), buai- 

yoi: (of a woman) darah. 
unripe, memata, bebata. 
unsteady, menuntor. 



until, saboi, makasaboi. 

unwilling, matiad, ka mesagah. 

up, to go, tomakad. 

up, to climb, mengkeuah. 

up, to pull (as a weed, &c), 
menubul: (imper.) bebuloh. 

up, to stand, somukal, kumakal. 

up, to wake, (trans.) menga- 
dat, (imper.) kadatoh: (in- 
trans. ) kumalat. 

up and down, tumun om toma- 
kad. 

upon, disawat. 

upset to, mesasad. 

upside down, nalikuat. 

upstream, daraiioh : to go up- 
stream, sumulok, makasulok. 

use to, (M) pakai, memakai. 

use, (noun), (M) guna. 

used to (accustomed), main- 
daram: (in sense of ' form- 
erly J ) garing, pun noh gar- 
ing. cf . " pun noh garing ih 
mamok keningau du Keningau 
gitu, claiitu poioh kandok 
bagoh w : (there used to be a 
quantit} r of cinnamon at Ken- 
ingau, now there is none.) 

uselessly, palaloh. 

V. 

vain, makomoh, sumantuh. 

vain in, palaloh. 

valuable, matang, maiioh ga- 
tang. 

value, gatang. 

various, nakapinansusuai : cf . 
nakapinansusuai, makondoh 
ioh meriah makondoh mapu- 
rak : " of different sorts, some 
red some white." 

vast, maiioh. 

vegetable, inapah: punuh, the 
'umbut,' (the palm-cabbage.) 

vein a, uat, uat mosat. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



A MUKUT VOCABULAKY. 



373 



venomous, mabisa. 

venture, venture-some, banih. 

very, kepioh : ka korah, not so 
very, (M. ' tidak brapa/) 

vex to, anjahan. 

vexatious, masusah. 

vicious, meraht. 

victuals, lutuh. 

vigorous, maikang. 

village, pagun: memagun, to 
inhabit : sampagun, to live in 
the same village as another. 

violate, ginabuh. 

virgin, darah. 

visit to, mapicl. 

voice, claguh. 

vomit to, mempaluah. 

W. 
wad, (of gnn barrel) unal. 
wade to, (breast deep) tong- 

korun. 
waddle to, mengkilus kilus. 
wag the tail, magusoh iku. 
wages, (M) gaji. 
waist, ansang. 

waist-cloth, (' cliawat ') abag. 
wait, makinah, danih : i danih 

aku poh/ wait for me. 
* wait a moment,' kapoioh. 
wall, bumbong. 
wallow a, luluiun: to wallow, 

magalnluoi. 
walk to, mogad, makogad: to 

go for a walk, mabinsaloi. 
wake to, (trans.) mengadat: 

( imper. ) kadatoh: (intrans.) 

komalat. 
want, mesagah. 
warm, melassu. 
*was, noioh. 



wash to, pupuiun : madioh, to 
bathe. 

wasp, meningot. 

waste to, patidih. 

water, timog: sagoh, to take 
water from a stream in a piece 
of bamboo : semuk, menuk, 
to take water by means of a 
tin or bamboo tied at the end 
of a stick, or rope : cf . the 
Suk river, so called because 
water had to be taken in this 
way on account of crocodiles. 

water to (flowers, &c), uasih: 
to pass water, sumabuh: 
fresh water, timog mapaloh: 
salt water, timog mapadih. 

waterfall, bosoioh. 

wave a, lakun. 

way a, baian, dalan : ' atok 
dalan moi du. . . . ? ' (which 
is the way to . . . . ? ) 

way get out of the, lumisang. 

waylay to, magawang. 

we, akai: takau. 

wealth, dapn. 

weapon, aniban. 

wear to, (M) pakai, memakai. 

weary, numpai. 

weave to, tinalnd. 

web of spider, tambunan. 

well a, tagarusoh. 

well, (adv.) mainseu. 

wet, masah. 

what? atok? 

what's his name, ianu. 

when? sangira? 

where? atok aien, atoien? 

where to? atolian? 

where from, whence? atok 
intod ? 



* Noioh is used to express the past t^nse, as Malay " sudah ; ' e.g. 
Mopatoi noioh daih, he died yesterday. Noadil noioh ioh timpok ioh sagoh, 
she was shot while taking water. Nomatoi noioh taloh ulun. he killed 
three men. 
R A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



374 



A MUEUT VOCABULAEY. 



wherever, atok atok. 

whet to, magasah. 

whetstone, pagagasah. 

which, (interrog.) atok? ' atok 
kuih tampoh, gitu Ida talah 
Ma?' (which is mine, this 
or that?) : (relative) (not 
used). 

while, timpok: cf. 'he was 
drowned while crossing the 
river ; : nopatai ioh losnd 
timpok ioh memeripag su- 
sungoi. 

whine to (of a dog), mogaum. 

whirlpool, diruh. 

whisper to, mogokonus. 

whistle to, magisisiup. 

white, mapurak : -haired nan. 

who? asai? 

whore, mamalapan. 

whorl (of finger print), diruh 
du karindoh. 

whose? asai tampoh? 

why? akiah? atok kosun? atok 
kosoi ? 

wicked, meraht. 

wide, mapilah, dumopoh. 

widow, mapod. 

widower, magalang. 

wife, andn. 

wild, mesioh: (of fruit, &c.) 
kasarawan : used in sense of 
Malay ' utan/ as huah kasa- 
rawan, a jungle fruit. 

-' : will {future tense), daka 
(seldom used). 

win to, (ill) menang. 

wind, (21) angin: angin ma- 
pod, a strong wind. 



wind to, padunun, balunun, 

ginolong. 
winding (0/ a river), taling- 

kong. 
wing, kawoh. 
wink to, mangaritub. 
winnow to, meuiri. 
wipe to, arus, magarus, meng- 

kaiah. 
wire, (21) dawai. 
wise, makagoang. 
wish to, mesagah. 
with, du : " ioh memalambah 

daki du burong '' : (he struck 

me with a parang). 
withdraw to, lumisang, lisang. 
witness a, (21) saksi : (to see) 

mokitoh. 
woman, doandok. 
wonder to, metambungoh. 
wood, tetaun : tagas, bilian : 

panopok, ' selangan batu ' : 

opil, ipil, mirabau: banati, 

temasu: jahalan, camphor 

wood: tambulalas, a hard 

wood that sheds its bark. 
woodpecker, pempalit. 
work, (M.) kreja. 
worm, ulod : lingguong, the 

tape-worm. 
worn out, gansing, mapasah. 
§would that, dan. 
wound a, ramat. 
wounded to be, maramatan, 

mepidis, matimpasok. 
wound one's foot, (with a 

thorn, suda, &c.) makasum- 

pak. 



* e.g. " Makajadi poioh, daka aku domatong sangodoh sasuab." or 
Makajadi poioh, aku domatong... ' (If possible I will come tomorrow). 

$ Used at the end of the sentence, e.g. 'Domatong ioh dan, baguh om 
mainseu goang ku.' (Would that he would come, then I shall be content 
' Domassam iak dan... ' (Would that it would rain...) 

Jour. Straits Branch 



A MURUT VOCABULARY. 



Avrap up to, mengkaput, lapo- 
tun: (iniper.) kapntih. 

'wrestle to, magagabuh. 

wriggle (as a snake), mengki- 
lns kilns. 

wrist, tantod. 

wrong, (M) salah, ka mapatnt. 



.yawn to, magnap. 

year, bilod, sambiladan : reck- 
oned by the padi harvest, 
("' bilod,' padi) from the time 
the jungle is cleared, to the 
end of the i panawongnn \ 2 
roughly 13 months. 

.yearly, every year, bilod bilod : 
cf . " membalai takau bilod 2 
wang kepala " : we pay poll- 
tax yearly. 



the day be- 
sanda daih, 



yell to, lnmaknih, gnmagang. 
yelp (of a dog), mantangak. 
yes, iau. 

yesterday, daih 
fore yesterday 
sangodoh daih. 

yet not, kapoioh. 

you, okkoh, koh, diun : (plur.) 
da moinn, kanah. 

young (of persons), dalaing: 
(of things) melabong. 

your, (sing.) okkoh tampon, 
moh: (plur.) da moiun tam- 
poh, moh. 3 



zealous, merajin. 

zigzag, malikoh, madiruh diruh. 



WW 



WW 



2 ' Panawengun ', the two months after harvest before the new crop 
is planted. 

3 Moh is used after the noun, as ' Korra dangan moh ? ' How many 
companions have you? 

-R. A. Soc, Xo. 86 1922. 



Additions to a Vocabulary of 
Brunei-Malay. 



By G. T. MacBryan. 
Having seen the above vocabulary in the April number of the- 
Journal I venture to forward a few words which I think are pecu- 
liar to Brunei-Malay and are not included in Mr. Marshall's list. 

I also have the temerity to enclose a list (B) of words of which 
I have always found a different meaning to that given by Mr. 
Marshall or a different pronunciation. 



Anai. 


White-ants. 


Antah. 


"I Don't know" {Entail, Sarawak 




Malay). 


Bagong. 


Boat, a boat of same make as " Koleli " 




(S'pore). 


Bari. 


To give = bri. Also membari and bra- 




kan, (bri-kan) . 


Benasa. 


Broken, smashed. 


Bergalap. 


To play. 


Berjarang. 


To cook. 


Berkasi. 


To sneeze. 


Berlurih. 


To obtain, catch (ber-idih). 


Bersual. 


To answer back. 


Biang. 


Friend. 


Bini. 


Bini-bini = Female of human beings. 


Dami. 


Like, manner. As dami ani = like this ; 




dami-atu = like that. 


Gulaian. 


Vegetables cf. Dayak gulai = mix. 


Jangkau. 


To reach out (of the hand) conf. Win- 




stedt menyangkau (Selangor). 


J i lama. 


A man, human being. 


Kada. 


Kapada = to (Brakan kada dia = give 




to him). 


Kepang. 


Shingle (of roof). 


Lalai. 


Slow. 


Lundong. 


Lazy. 


Malai. 


(1) Compassion, good feeling. (High-class 




Brunei) conf. Milanau " lai." 




(2) Accustomed, used to = biasa. 


Manas. 


Beads. 


Pachah. 


Blind (picliali). 


Pampang. 


(2) Stocks. 


Paya. 


Swamp. 


Payah. 


Troublesome. 


Ruang. 


A numeral co-efficient used of boats,. 




etc. Gobang saruang - one boat. 



Jour. Straits Branch,. 



ADDITIONS TO A VOCABULAEY OF BRUNEI-MALAY. 377 



Sambat. 
Tadak. 
Tambus. 
Tamu. 

Tebassan. 

Tempuan. 

Tuhus. 
Uchap. 
Undang. 



Early. 

Tattooing v. = bertadalc (Sar. Tedak). 

To come out = cf . ' tebus.' 

Meeting place (lit) for trading pur- 
poses, market, conf. bertemu. 

A farm lit; 'a clearing/ 

A short cut (a path cutting across a 
tanjong). 

To recede (of water, of flood in river). 

Speech verb = beruchap. 

Prawn. 

Undang siar = the sea prawn. 

Undang galah = large fresh water 
prawn. 



List B. Variation from usage given by Mr. Marshall. 



^o. 6. Alai. 

„ 23. Antai. 
„ 60. Bebun. 

„ 74&. Beribun or 

Bibun. 
.„ 116. Indong. a. 

b. 

c. 

.„ 127. Ekong. 
.,, 128. Endah. 
„ 1306. Eris. 



.,, im. Gelaga. 

„ 174. Jangku. 

.„ 196. Kalabat. 

„ 266. Luargan. 

„ 409. Siabun. 



450. Tajok. 



To dance (specially a war dance) not 

" to play music/' 
Entai. 
To collect, gather together. 

To talk nonsense, trifle. 

Female (of an animals) cf. bini. 

Mother or aunt (of human beings). 

The principal, most important viz. 
tiang indong tang an. 

Ill on g (long ee). 

Enda. 

Iris sa-iris = a slice cf. mengiris = to 
slice cf. Winstedt hiris = slice 
onions. 

Gelagali. 

Jang-ku = said I. (Maxwell's transla- 
tion correct). 

Gibbon monkey. (Wa-wah). 

Luagan or logan meaning a lake or 
pool. 

Sabun. 

The meaning given by Mr. Marshall is 
the usual Malay meaning, but I 
have always heard Brunei's use 
this word with reference to the 
frame-work supporting the roof 
of a boat. The same as the " Kan- 
dang " of Sarawak Malay conf. 
Dayak tajok. 



>.R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



The Akuan or Spirit-Friends 



By Zaixul-Abidix bix Ahmad. 

There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, 
Than are dreamt of in our philosophy, 

Shakespeare's Hamlet. 

Akuan is the term generally in use among Negri Sembilan 
Malays to designate the Spirit-friends which certain individuals 
among them are believed to have from among the inhabitants of' 
the spirit-world. Other terms are used in other parts of the 
Peninsula, and the belief varies with different states in matter of 
details. In this paper I am speaking of it as it obtains in the- 
" Nine States," particularly those portions of it inhabited by the 
descendants of the old Menangkabau tribes. The persons credited' 
with the possession of the spirit-friends are usually those having 
some pretension to the knowledge of a pawang, a diviner, or a 
medicine-man. They may be men or women, "wizards" or 
"witches," but in either case they are almost always past middle' 
age. The word akuan is derived from aku, to own or to claim as 
one's own ; while the thing owned is supposed to be a spirit which 
may either remain in its natural airy state— a sort of Ariel to the- 
Malay Prosper o — or may take the shape of the body of some animal, 
ordinarily a tiger, for its permanent residence. The "owner" may 
possess one or both of these two types. But if he is master of the 
first type, he is as a rule master also of the second. As for the 
first type, their "owners" are mostly anen, and the number of 
akuan belonging to each owner is always more than one, ranging 
from three or four to a dozen or more. They may be male or 
female, but more often the latter if the owners are men. Their 
relationship to the owner is, without exception, that of old acquain- 
tances rather than of intimate friends or of servants and master. 
Hence, they are less under control and never so devoted to the owner- 
as the animal type. Some far-off locality is assigned to each of 
them as dwelling place — such and such a mountain, rapid, kcmpas 
tree (Gumpassia malaccensis) , ravine, plain or forest. The 
names by which they are mentioned are not proper names, but 
merely epithets descriptive of their sex and dwelling. They do 
not come unless ceremonially conjured in a solemn seance-like' 
fashion. This is only done when their aid is imperatively needed 
on the occasion of very urgent sickness which has taxed all the 
wit and skill of the medicine-men to cure. Otherwise it is consi- 
dered improper or even sacrilegious to mention them. 

Jour. Straits Branch., 



THE AKTJAN OE SPIEIT-FEIENDS. 379 

The method of conjuring them, which is more or less the same 
in main details for every "owner/' may probably be of some special 
interest to students of modern Spiritualism. A general description 
of it like the following which has been gathered from a number 
of villagers who have themselves seen the proceeding independently 
of each other at different places and times, may be obtained almost 
anywhere among the rustic population of Ulu Jempul, Kuala 
Jenipul, Batu Kikir, Juasseh, Sungai Dua, Seri Menanti, Rembau, 
Jelebu, Lengging, Beranang and other places. The ceremony is 
called Bei'ejin (from Jinn, genii or demon) or Berliantu, literally to 
call up spirits or to have spirit-meetings. It is always performed 
during the first part of the night at the patient's house, and 
occupies some three hours, say from 8 to 11 p.m. The function 
being one not often met with, the people within one mile and a half 
around regard it with great interest and come to attend in crowds. 
The "owner" of the akuan plays the part of a medium, and some 
one, usually his wife or one of his closest lady-friends or pupils, 
takes up the role of an interpreter, as the medium will talk in 
some language unknown to the uninitiated audience. Before the 
meeting begins the preparations for it have to-be got ready. This 
consists of berteh (toasted wet rice-in-the-husk), three or five or 
seven pots (pereni or buyong) of water, betel-leaves and all their 
accompaniments arranged in the most ceremonial manner in a 
richly ornamented bujam, or perminangan. To all these are added 
new, rich little mats, spread specially for the expected spirit-guests, 
so that the scene presented "is just like one when there is going to 
be a marriage ceremony" (maclict-m orang na nikali). All the 
relatives and friends of the patient are informed and asked to be 
present, as the occasion will finally settle whether the sickness is 
curable or fatal. As the expected hour comes, the actor of the 
evening arrives. All is now solemn and silent. He takes his seat 
on the rich mat reserved for him near the other articles of prepara- 
tion. He veils his face, and then recites some strange songs of 
invocation in a weird appealing tune, and in a language partly un- 
intelligible. He begins to be unconscious as the trance state of 
mind gradually overmasters and takes possession of him. He 
shivers terribly while the smell and smoke of the burning incense 
(Iccmenyan) becomes suffocatingly diffused in the air. He may 
dash his hands and feet against the floor and his body against the 
wall. He may even rise, walk about the room, throw off his veil, 
disclose his flashing blood-shot eyes > sit upon the earthenware pots, 
snatch some of the red-hot cinders from the incense-urn (perasapan. 
pebaran or tempat bara) and chew them in his mouth — all these 
without causing himself the least injury. The house shakes and 
the spectators are full of awe. As the medium grows more and 
more frantic in his movements and recitations, the spirits invoked 
come one by one. Sometimes only one of them turns up, the others 
excusing inability. If they are Moslems their greeting on arrival 
would be " Assalamu 'alai-kiim " communicated through the me- 

K. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



380 THE AKUAN OB SPIEIT-FEIENDS. 

dium by the interpreter. Those of them who are not Moslems 
employ some other polite formula. At each arrival the interpreter 
introduces the guest to the audience — as Dato' of this mountain 
or that mountain, etc. They are, of course, not visible but to the 
unconscious medium who, through the interpreter, most politely 
motions them each to their reserved seat. When all have arrived 
and seated themselves, one of them asks : " What is it that you 
all want, friends, that you call us? We shall always be pleased to 
do you any little service that we can.'-' These words are spoken by 
the medium to the interpreter in a strange language. On their 
being interpreted, the relative sitting closest to the patient speaks 
out, describing the patient's sickness, the length of the time he or 
she has suffered, the powerlessness of the medicine-men to cope 
with it, and asking for an explanation of the cause, the possibility 
of cure, and the treatment for such a cure. The interpreter com- 
municates this to the medium who, as the embodiment of all the 
spirit-guests for the time being, replies after a few minutes' real 
or pretended meditation. The reply will be that the sickness was 
caused by such and such evil influence (hMeguran or badi); 
malicious persons (di-buatkan orang) or whatever it may be, at 
such and such place and on such and such occasion : that such and 
such is the treatment for its cure. Or he might say : " This so- 
and-so's sickness is incurable. There is no hope. Be resigned." 
If many of the spirits are present, they all agree in the decision 
given. This done, they all leave; and after some half-an-hour's 
more exertion, the medium comes back to his senses, extremely 
exhausted. He will immediately quit the house without a word, 
and go home accompanied, it is alleged, by " his " mysterious 
tiger. 

On the other hand, if the akuan is one that permanently as- 
sumes the form of an animal, it is to all appearance sexless. Even 
if it belongs to any particular sex, the distinction is regarded in- 
differently. As for number, never or very seldom more than one 
of such ammal-akuan belong to any one master. But that one acts 
towards him more like a faithful attendant than a far-off friend. 
The animal is not known by any special name. Its dwelling place 
depends upon the nature of the animal whose form is adapted by 
the spirit. Mostly the form adopted is that of a tiger, and so it 
lives in the forest over which it is supposed to wander like all or- 
dinary tigers. Its assistance is not invoked, as it is always ready 
to help when the need arises, provided such emergency occurs, so 
to speak, within its " sphere of influence," that is to say, where it 
can make its appearance consistently with its natural form. A 
tiger, for instance, cannot live in the water, but in the jungle or 
in the dark it can render services to the " owner " in many ways. 
When he loses his way in the forest, the tiger would come and lead 
him out by distinct marks and scratches on the ground. He has 
no cause to fear anything, as the spirit-beast is always close by, 
assuring him of assistance and protection by making familiar 

Jour. Straits Brauch 



THE AKUAN OE SPIRIT-FRIENDS. 381 

noises. Those in the company of the " owner " at such times may 
feel justly frightened. The more courageous of them may be in- 
clined to use their weapons. But the master of the akuan will 
keep on urging: "Be reverent and silent. It is nothing. It is 
our protector. It need not cause any alarm, nor should any harm 
be done. There is no danger." And so on and so forth. What he 
says always turns out true, and never a mishap has been heard of, 
though the imonfeter really does keep pace with them not many yards 
away. Besides these the tiger would do the master other services 
also. Such little courtesies as scaring away thieves and mischief- 
makers from his house are common-place examples. Popular be- 
lief goes even so far ,as to say that, in extraordinary cases, the 
" owner " even rides on the tiger when he goes out at night. 

T knew an old woman at Bukit Kerdas (Jempul) who died 
three years ago and who, besides having a reputation as a fairly 
successful medicine-woman, was believed to have akuan of both 
descriptions. The spirit type were seven in number, scattered all 
over the country, and the animal type was in the form of a tiger. 
ITer husband from whom, it is said, she inherited these akuan as 
well as her art of medicine, had died many years previously. Many 
people believed that the husband turned into a tiger after his death 
(see "The Tiger-Breed Families" Journal 85, VV- 36-39) and 
that the tiger-akuan was no other than himself. The spirit-aJcuan 
were conjured many times. Once the old woman herself was seri- 
ously ill. In her illness she herself invoked their assistance, and 
she got better. But during her last illness nothing came, and she 
died. The tiger -akuan, on the other hand, .used to accompany her 
when she went into the forest, or was going out at- night. Besides, 
the animal always came to the rescue whenever she or any member 
of her family happened to fall into circumstances which made them 
wish for companionship and protection. Many curious incidents 
occured as evidence of the animal's attention. One, quite romantic, 
was as follows : The old woman had a pretty daughter (who is 
still alive). As is usual with love-sick Malay swains, those who 
entertain a fancy for a girl, delight to go stealthily to the house 
of their lady-love at night to be able to steal fuller glimpses 
(mengintai) of her face and doings than they could ever do any- 
where during the day. Now, in the present case, two lads were 
specially enamoured of the young lady. One night the two ar- 
ranged to go to mengintai to the house. Many friends had warned 
them that the house was always guarded by the old woman's tiger. 
But partly impelled by the desire to test the report and more 
especially by mad love, they decided to act against the warning. 
When they reached the house and each had taken up a position to 
command the view through the chinks in the bamboo walls and 
floor, they succeeded in enjoying the coveted sight only for a few 
moments. On one of them turning round to relieve his strained 
neck and eyes, he found himself, to his unspeakable horror, face to 
face with a tiger, sitting about two yards from him and watching 

R. A. Sop., No. 8G 1922. 



382 THE AKUAN OE SPIBIT-FEIENDS. 

apparently with great interest what he and his companion were do- 
ing. He pulled back his companion and the two had to beat a 
retreat as stealthily as they had come, and make the best of their 
way home, resolved never to try the experiment again in future. 

Another one : 1O11 one occasion the old woman was spending 
a night at a friend's house about half-a-mile away, leaving only 
her daughters and grand-daughters at home. As they were sitting 
with their mat-plaiting and basket-work and chatting light-heart- 
edly they heard the silent panting of an animal like a cow under 
the house. On turning their torches upon it to see what it was, 
they found it to be a tiger. So terrified were they that they put 
up wild screams for help till people came, and the tiger sneaked 
away into the darkness. (I can vouch for so much of the story as 
a fact, for I was one of those neighbours who heard the screams 
and went to help). The old lady came home and told them that 
the beast was only keeping them company and protecting the house. 
If they had harmed him, she told them, some terrible catastrophe 
would certainly befall the family. On another occasion, the old 
lady with three of her granddaughters went out menimba (i.e. 
fishing by baling dry the water of a shrinking pool and then catch- 
ing the fish — a favourite pastime in the village during the hottest 
part of the year) at a certain pool close by the road-side. When 
they had baled the pool dry and were beginning to secure the fish, 
one of the party saw two tigers crossing the road in their direction 
from the thick jungle on the other side. The grand-mother's at- 
tention was instantly called, and she, realising the danger, had no 
other alternative but to tell them to be quiet and calm. Suddenly 
from beneath the scrub, a few yards away between them and the 
two tigers, rose, a third and bigger tiger. Without seeming to 
notice the panic-stricken youngsters, the beast walked right to- 
wards the advancing pair, and after persuading them, as it seemed, 
to turn to another direction, he marched away from the scene. The 
two followed suit. But the young girls could not regain control 
of their nerves, and their grand-mother had to hurry them home, 
taking only whatever fish they had caught and leaving the re- 
mainder without further search. 

It may be added as a digression that the grave of the old 
lady's husband used to be regarded by many as an object of pious 
reverence. The chempaka trees (Miclielia champaca) planted over 
it were overhung with strips of white cloth (panji-panji) as em- 
blems of sanctity, and indications of the number of " vows " (niat) 
that had been paid there. I daresay they still continue to be so 
Dverhung at the present time. Credulous people have for long 
been attracted to " make their vow " by the grave. Incidentally, 
this practice may be described here in a few words : A person, for 
the fulfilment of some great prayer, " makes a vow " saying : " If 
I recover from this illness " or " If a male baby be born to me " 
(or whatever that desire is) "I will cut two goats at so-and-so's 
grave and call people to eat there." If the prayer is granted he 

Jour. Straits Branch 



THE AKUAN OE SPIKTT-FBIENDS. 383 

goes there to execute his promise. He cuts (semueleh) the pro- 
mised goats or whatever it may be ; cooks some saffroned-rice (nasi 
Tcunyit), invites people to eat, has prayers of thanksgiving {do' a 
selamat) read for him by some Ubai, (cf. Skeat, Malay Magic, 
p. 4$), and fires some big crackers as expression of peace and joy. 
Thus he "pays his vow," discharging himself of the binding pro- 
mise he made to the spirit of the grave. If he fails to do so the 
spirit will -appear to him in a dream demanding fulfilment, and in 
case of further default some untoward event is certain to follow. 

One more story about the tiger -akiiari will finish the matter. 
A man living in Mempanas, an outlying corner of Kuala Pilah, 
on the right bank of the Muar River, told me that he once had a 
long illness. No effort of the medicine-men was spared to restore 
him to health, and yet he did not recover. But he had a tiger- 
akuan which, by the way, he is believed to have even now. During 
his delirium the animal appeared to him and told him that his 
affection had become chronic and that his only chance of life would 
be in having his body licked by it. On coming to himself, he told 
this to his people and asked to be exposed the following night in 
the open verandah without any light. This was done. The door 
was bolted and the people kept themselves inside breathlessly 
watching what was to happen. The tiger came, stripped him naked 
and began to lick all over his body, so that the " lip-lap " sound 
of its tongue was clearly heard. Then it went away leaving him 
drenched with its salivary fluid. Two days after, he was com- 
pletely cured. 

The alcuan in the shape of any other animals than tiger is 
probably very rare. I have heard only of one single case, occur- 
ing in Juasseh, where a certain man is reported to have a crocodile- 
alcuan, living in the river opposite his house. He feeds it, treats 
it kindly and at his call the animal comes up to the surface. He 
is even said to ride upon the animal's back when necessary. No- 
body but he dares to bathe in that part of the river. The crocodile 
is always* there. According to his own story, the spirit came to 
him in a dream asking to be "owned" and protected (bela) in 
return for which it would look after the water-supply of his paddy- 
fields, bring him luck and protect him and his family from evil 
spirits. He accepted the offer and was told that he could always 
find the new friend in the shape of a crocodile in the river opposite 
his house. The next day he found this to be true, and thencefor- 
ward he has been the " owner " of the crocodile. The terms of 
agreement seem to have been faithfully adhered to by both. The 
man gathers in a good harvest every year, — quite above the aver- 
age, — is always at ease and contented, and never gets ill, neither 
any member of his household. One striking fact about this case 
is that the " owner " is no medicine-man. The animal is not to 
be harmed, or all the benefits accruing from its friendship will 
be withdrawn, and some disaster threatened to the unfaithful 
" owner." Before t 

B A. Soc, No. 86 1922, 



384 THE AKUAN OR SPIRIT -FRIENDS. 

self to a woman-neighbour of his. But on. its commencing to stay 
in the river in front of her house, the woman's people disturbed it 
with sticks and fish-spears (tirok) so that the animal could not 
rest in peace. When it was leaving the place, the woman had a 
dream in which the spirit said to her, " I (awak) desired to act to 
your profit, but it seems you do not care to have my service. You 
disturbed me. Now I don't want to have anything more to do 
with you. If you want my friendship again you must sacrifice 
one of your children to me." I do not know if any similar case 
occurs anywhere in the Peninsula. 

To sum up; such are among the alleged phenomena purport- 
ed to lend support to the numerous spirit-beliefs of the Malay 
peasantry. An upholder of the doctrine of Transmigration of 
Souls may possibly be tempted to suspect some connection between 
this akuan- belief and the doctrine. But apart from mere suspi- 
cion, there is nothing in the popular conception of it to show 
that its believers have even the barest idea of that theory. The 
" owners " themselves never have any such idea. But that the 
akuan may pass down as a legacy from parents to children or from 
a dead husband to a surviving wife appears to be a generally ac- 
cepted possibility. With the introduction of modern ideas and 
surroundings the belief in akuan is gradually dying out among the 
younger generation of Malays. But among their old-fashioned 
elders of the purely conservative type, whose contact with this new 
influence has not gone to any extent beneath the surface, the grip 
of the belief and other kindred superstitions is still very strongly 
in evidence. However, it is remarkable that in matters of this 
kind, investigators can hardly have much data to go upon owing 
to the scarcity of "actual cases." One must also allow for the 
Malay habit of exaggeration and their fondness for the marvellous 
and mysterious. The same applies to the wide-spread belief in 
polong, pontianak, penanggalan, pelesit, etc., etc., which is now 
confined only to the most superstitious. The difference between 
the polong, pontianak, etc., and the akuan is that the former are 
malignant spirits, kept for inhuman purposes, (cf. Skeat, Malay 
Magic, pp. 3i2>7-331) while the latter are good and serviceable auxi- 
liaries. 

The Muhamjmadan religion, it is true, discountenances all such 
belief in the powers of the devils. Any recognition of a power, 
other than Gocl, as a being superior to man is repugnant to it. 
But ignorance is as much a power as knowledge: where it exists 
the impossible becomes possible. The most opposite beliefs and 
doctrines can subsist side by side in two water-tight compartments 
in any raw and uncultivated mind. And so it is with the majority 
of the Malays. With all these they " are among the most orthodox 
of Muhammadans." 



Jour. Straits Branch 



Points of the Compass in Kedah. 



By A. W. Hamilton. 

Amongst the inland Malays of Kedah more especially in those 
districts where the Siamese language is still prevalent the usual 
Malay terms for expressing the points of the compass (utara, sela- 
tan, timor, barat), are not in use except as designations for the 
direction of the wind and the 'seasons dependant on them (i.e. 
angin harat a west wind or musim timor the N. E. monsoon). 

The current terms in use in daily life to express the relative 
positions of ohjects or the direction of a road, etc. are as under : — 

North. Kaki ticlor. 
South. Kepala tidor. 
East. Mata hari naik. 
West. Mata hari jatoh. 

A man will thus describe his house as being sabelah kepala 
tidor or South of somebody else's abode ; and if asked where be 
was sitting with reference to another person might reply " dia 
dudok di sini, dan saya dudok di sabelah kaki tidor nya " i.e. be 
was sitting here and I was sitting on the north side of him. 

The expressions mata hari naik and mata hari jatoh are of 
course common to the whole peninsula and the sentence dia sudah 
pergi sebelah mata hari naik. He has gone East would be under- 
stood anywhere. 

The curious local expressions kepala tidor and kaki tidor ap- 
pear to have arisen from the invariable orientation of Siamese 
houses which are built with their axis East and West, the entrance 
facing the rising sun. 

The occupants when lying down for the night in their rather 
narrow dwellings are thus constrained to lie across the house with 
heads to the wall and feet to the centre so that all the heads in a 
village will be pointing one way, kepala tidor or South, and all the 
feet another, kaki tidor or North. 



K, A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



The Grave-Stone of Sultan Mansur 
Shah of Malacca. 



By Zainul-Abidin bin Ahmad. 

The following suggestions with reference to Mr. J. P. Mo- 
quette's scholary paper on the above subject translated by Dr. Win- 
stedt in J. P. A. S., S. B. No. 85 may not be out of place here: — 

(a) That the word rj>-J^ which comes after oU/ak* in Mr. 
Moquette's reading of Plate I be placed immediately before ol^aia* . 
firstly because that is the usual order (i. e. al-marlulm first and 
the name of the deceased following) when the expression is used, 
especially by the Malays ; and secondly, seeing that the word j\JaLJ\ 
which lies directly above the word jy^x*, (see third line in Plate 
I) is read before j^ax* , it follows that the word rj=~J^ which lies 
also directly above the name oli^k* can also be read lirst. As far 

as I can judge from the plate, nothing seems to be there that 
makes it particularly necessary to violate usage and read rj>*JA 
last. 

(b) That the reading of J li^j (dari-'l-ma'al) be sub- 
stituted in place of JU^J (dari amal). For this I have several 
reasons: — 

JU\ j\j is not compatible, as far as rhythmic flow is 
concerned, with jUAjta with which it ought to correspond; be- 
cause the latter (^ i.e. JVi\^ j) has the article J\ and the former 
has not. From a grammatical stand-point there does not appear to 
be reason enough that ^]\Mj\ J should have the article and JU^\ J 

Jour. Straits Branch 



THE GEAVE-STONE OF SULTAN MANSUE SHAH. 387 

should not. But if, to avoid all this, we use J\ and say JU^\j\j 
the clear-cut shape of the word in the inscription does not justify 
our doing so. 

(2) JU\ is the plural of J.*\ , and the word "hope" which 
is given for the translation can only be suitable if the Arabic is in 
the singular form. Besides, JU\ is pronounced with a long vowel 
on the first syllable, and thus spoil again any rhythmic agreement 
with JV*£ of which the first syllable is short. 

(3 ) If the form ^ \U is substituted, the agreement in rhythm 
with JU*\ is readily established, for the two would then be of the 
same form (noun of place) derived from roots of the same measure. 
The combination makes a perfect little rhymed-prose, with appar- 
ently punning sound — a feature so commonly prominent in short 
iVrabic maxims and pithy sayings — such as would become any 
epitaph. 

(4) The meaning of j lUj\ J which is "the abode of return" 

or "The Final Abode" would just suit JV^\j which is the 
"abode of change" or "The Transient x^bode ". 

(o) In an inscription where, as in any monogram, the letters 
and different parts of the words are highly interwoven, it is not 
uncommon to find that one and the same stroke serves the double 
purpose of representing two letters of like appearance, or that two 
or more letters of more or less the same form become blended into 
one, or even die away in the meshes of loops and .flourishes. In 
this light I think we are quite justified to assume that in the in- 
scription the first " 1 " of the word J VU is partially blended in 
the final "1" of the same word. (See the first line of Plate II). 

No doubt the changes suggested here are not of much conse- 
quence. Still I hope they make for some improvement on the 
reading so far deciphered, 

R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



388 THE GEAVE-STONE OF SULTAN MANSUE SHAH. 

It might be well also to call attention to the little misprints 
in spelling, which might be overlooked and might later lead to real 
mistakes: — 

(a) The first j\kLi\ (as-sultan) in the reading of Plate I 
shonld be written ^VWU (lis-suUan) as we find it correctly writ- 
ten in the Romanised reading ; and the word ( j)y&y-* shonld read 



(b) The words V*i J^^~> on page 3 should, I think, read 



\*$\& 



(c) The words \ja\\ ^j (lais ad-dunia.) in the reading of 
Plate III should read VJjli ^i (laisa li'd-dunia). 

That the "n" of ^V\aLi\ and the "r" of Mansur cannot be 
traced may indeed be due to the mistakes of the mason. So also 
may the absence of any dots or diacritical points (titelc) from the 
inscription be accounted for. But it is quite possible also that 
both have their explanation in (b) 5 above, or may have been 
worn out because of their smallness. 

On any other matter regarding this subject, I am not able to 
form any independent idea; nor have any strong view to express 
beyond that, in my opinion, the reconstructions are really very 
ingenious, and the reading certainly much more acceptable than 
the one which used to be accepted before it. 



The old Kedah-Patani Trade-route. 



By A. W. Hamilton. 

A glance at the map will shew that the whole length of the 
boundary between Kedah and Siam from the Perak border to the 
Perlis frontier consists of irregular masses and chains of hills, 
rising in places to a height of more than 3,000 feet. 

The actual boundary is an imaginary line between certain 
fixed points on the crests of these hills following the watersheds 
so that all streams flowing westwards are within Kedah territory 
and these flowing to the east within the dominions of Siam. 

The whole of this frontier region is covered with a thick forest 
growth which renders it almost impassable except in certain natur- 
ally favoured regions to the passage of human beings. 

In the course of time man in his journey ings has discovered 
the easiest passages through this chain of hills and has gradually 
confined himself to certain definite tracks which usually follow the 
beds of streams until some suitable vantage point is reached for 
crossing the divide. 

From very early times it must have been known that the 
easiest and most direct trade route between the thriving Malay 
States of Patani and Kedah was through the defile known as (rent- 
ing Pahat. The chiselled-out pass (Boundary Stone ^To. 34), and 
until the completion of the railway from Patani to Senggora and 
its continuation thence to Kedah this route was still in vogue for 
the droving of cattle and the passage of Patani field labourers to 
Kedah territory for the rice harvest. 

As this route in its latter stages has seldom been traversed by 
Europeans and as the rapid development of road communication 
in Kedah may at any time bring it into prominence again a short 
description of the route as it was in June of this year may not be 
without interest. 

Leaving Alor Star in a motor car a short hour's run along a 
new and good road brings the traveller to Kuala Nerang twenty 
miles distant where the road ends on a bluff a hundred feet above 
the river and some two hundred yards below T the confluence of the 
Padang Terap and P£du streams;. Kuala !N~erang is a growing 
village and the headquarters of the whole district of Padang Terap 
which stretches as far as the Siamese frontier. 

Jour. Straits Branch R. A. Soc, No. 86 1922. 



390 THE OLD KEDAH-PATANI TRADE EOUTE. 

Crossing the river at this p